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In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia are defined as individual instances of subjective, conscious experience. The term qualia derives from the Latin neuter plural form of the Latin adjective quālis meaning "of what sort" or "of what kind" in a specific instance, such as "what it is like to taste a specific apple, this particular apple now". Examples of qualia include the perceived sensation of pain of a headache, the taste of wine, as well as the redness of an evening sky; as qualitative characters of sensation, qualia stand in contrast to "propositional attitudes", where the focus is on beliefs about experience rather than what it is directly like to be experiencing. Philosopher and cognitive scientist Daniel Dennett once suggested that qualia was "an unfamiliar term for something that could not be more familiar to each of us: the ways things seem to us". Much of the debate over their importance hinges on the definition of the term, various philosophers emphasize or deny the existence of certain features of qualia.

The nature and existence of various definitions of qualia remain controversial because they are not verifiable. There are many definitions of qualia. One of the simpler, broader definitions is: "The `; the way it feels to have mental states such as pain, seeing red, smelling a rose, etc."Charles Sanders Peirce introduced the term quale in philosophy in 1866. Clarence Irving Lewis, in his book Mind and the World Order, was the first to use the term "qualia" in its agreed upon modern sense. There are recognizable qualitative characters of the given, which may be repeated in different experiences, are thus a sort of universals, but although such qualia are universals, in the sense of being recognized from one to another experience, they must be distinguished from the properties of objects. Confusion of these two is characteristic of many historical conceptions, as well as of current essence-theories; the quale is directly intuited, is not the subject of any possible error because it is purely subjective.

Frank Jackson defined qualia as "...certain features of the bodily sensations but of certain perceptual experiences, which no amount of purely physical information includes". Daniel Dennett identifies four properties that are ascribed to qualia. According to these, qualia are: ineffable. Intrinsic. Private. Directly or apprehensible in consciousness. If qualia of this sort exist a sighted person who sees red would be unable to describe the experience of this perception in such a way that a listener who has never experienced color will be able to know everything there is to know about that experience. Though it is possible to make an analogy, such as "red looks hot", or to provide a description of the conditions under which the experience occurs, such as "it's the color you see when light of 700-nm wavelength is directed at you", supporters of this kind of qualia contend that such a description is incapable of providing a complete description of the experience. Another way of defining qualia is as "raw feels".

A raw feel is a perception in and of itself, considered in isolation from any effect it might have on behavior and behavioral disposition. In contrast, a cooked feel is that perception seen as existing in terms of its effects. For example, the perception of the taste of wine is an ineffable, raw feel, while the experience of warmth or bitterness caused by that taste of wine would be a cooked feel. Cooked feels are not qualia. According to an argument put forth by Saul Kripke in his paper "Identity and Necessity", one key consequence of the claim that such things as raw feels can be meaningfully discussed—that qualia exist—is that it leads to the logical possibility of two entities exhibiting identical behavior in all ways despite one of them lacking qualia. While few claim that such an entity, called a philosophical zombie exists, the mere possibility is claimed to be sufficient to refute physicalism. Arguably, the idea of hedonistic utilitarianism, where the ethical value of things is determined from the amount of subjective pleasure or pain they cause, is dependent on the existence of qualia.

Since it is by definition impossible to convey qualia verbally, it is impossible to demonstrate them directly in an argument. Arguments for qualia come in the form of thought experiments designed to lead one to the conclusion that qualia exist. Although it does not mention the word "qualia", Thomas Nagel's paper "What Is it Like to Be a Bat?" is cited in debates over qualia. Nagel argues that consciousness has an subjective character, a what-it-is-like aspect, he states that "an organism has conscious mental states if and only if there is something that it is like to be that organism—something it is like for the organism." Nagel suggests that the subjective aspect of the mind may not be sufficiently accounted for by the objective methods of reductionistic science. He claims that "if we acknowledge that a physical theory of mind must account for the subjective character of experience, we must admit that no presently available conception gives us a clue abou

Ivan Doroschuk

Ivan Eugene Doroschuk is a Canadian musician. He is the lead founding member of Men Without Hats. Doroschuk was born on 9 October 1957, the oldest of three brothers born in Champaign, Illinois, to Canadian parents and Betty Doroschuk; the family's ethnic origin was Ukrainian. Doroschuk's father earned his Ph. D. at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1962, accepted a position at the Université de Montréal. The Doroschuks returned to Canada, where Ivan grew up in the Montreal suburb of Outremont, Quebec, his mother became a member of the music faculty at Montreal's McGill University, teaching classical voice. Doroschuk and his younger brothers and Colin, are all classically trained musicians. In 1976, at the age of 18, Doroschuk studied law in the south of France, returning to Montreal in 1977. At McGill University, he was a student in Communications program. Doroschuk formed the Canadian new wave/synthpop group Men Without Hats in 1977, earning worldwide success with "The Safety Dance" in 1983 and "Pop Goes the World" in 1987.

Men Without Hats started out as a new wave band, but the band's sound changed throughout the 1980s, adding more rock influence and transitioning to hard rock by the end of 1990. In 1997, recording under the name "Ivan," he released The Spell, he attempted to reform Men Without Hats in 2003, releasing what was meant to be his second solo album, Mote in God's Eye, as the band's comeback album No Hats Beyond This Point, but the group did not reform for performances. A full reformation of the group Men Without Hats occurred in 2010, with Doroschuk leading three new members. In 2012, they released the album Love in the Age of War, in which Doroschuk returned the band to its early-1980s synthpop sound by creating an intentional follow-up album to 1982's Rhythm of Youth. Doroschuk married in the late 1990s and divorced, he has one son, was a stay-at-home father prior to reforming Men Without Hats. He resides in Victoria, British Columbia. Between the end of the tour to promote The Spell in 1999 and Men Without Hats' reunion in 2010, the only public appearances he made were on VH1's True Spin in 2003 and at a SOCAN awards show in November 2008 to collect an award for "The Safety Dance."

1981 San Diego Chargers season

The 1981 San Diego Chargers season was the franchise's 12th season in the National Football League and its 22nd overall. The team failed to improve on their 11–5 record from 1980 and finished 10-6. In the playoffs, they beat the Dolphins in a game known as the Epic in Miami and lost to the Bengals in a game known as the Freezer Bowl. 1981 was the second straight season in which the Chargers reached the AFC Championship Game, as well as their second consecutive loss. Running back Chuck Muncie enjoyed his best season, running for 1,144 yards and 19 touchdowns, tying the then-NFL season record for rushing touchdowns. During this season, the Chargers lost two key players by way of trade. Before Week 3, wide receiver John Jefferson was dealt to the Green Bay Packers, while defensive end Fred Dean would be dealt to the eventual Super Bowl champion San Francisco 49ers by Week 5; the season was chronicled on September 18, 2008 for America's Game: The Missing Rings, as one of the five greatest NFL teams to never win the Super Bowl.

Dan Fouts 19/25, 330 Yds Chuck Muncie 24 Rush, 161 Yds Charlie Joiner 6 Rec, 191 Yds Dan Fouts 18/25, 316 Yds Charlie Joiner 7 Rec, 166 Yds Stats Dan Fouts 28/44, 296 Yds, 6 TD, INT Kellen Winslow 13 Rec, 144 Yds, 5 TD Stats Dan Fouts 28/42, 343 Yds, 2 TD, INT Chuck Munci 22 Rush, 113 Rush Yds, 1 Rush TD Kellen Winslow 6 Rec, 126 Yds, 1 TD Joe Ferguson 13/29, 248 Yds, 4 Rush Yds, 1 Rush TD Roosevelt Leaks 8 Rush, 28 Rush Yds, 2 Rush TDs Frank Lewis 5 Rec, 113 Yds The game came down to the wire. A late interception from Buccaneers Quarterback Doug Williams at the Chargers own 1 yard-line sealed the deal for San Diego Last regular season game of NFL season; the AFC Championship Game was played on Jan. 10, 1982, in Cincinnati, Ohio. The temperature was -9 °F with a wind chill of -59 °F, known in NFL lore as the "Freezer Bowl," and is the coldest game in the league's history. Quarterback Dan Fouts completed 15 out of 28 passes for 185 yards as the Chargers fell to the Bengals 27-7. 1981 San Diego Chargers at

Werner Doppler

Werner Doppler (born December 15, 1941 in Oberlustadt, Germany is an Agricultural Economist. His areas of teaching and research have been Farming Systems, Rural Development and Socioeconomics in the Tropics and Subtropics, he was Dean of Faculty at the University of Hohenheim. As son of a farmer and wine producer Werner Doppler managed the family farm on his own for some years. After this he studied Agriculture and Economics at the universities of Hohenheim and Kiel in Germany, he did his PhD in Economics under the guidance of Günther Weinschenck in 1974 in the field of Application of recursive linear mathematical models to analyze and predict regional development in the agricultural sector. He joined the research team of Hans-Hartwig Ruthenberg as research scientist dealing with the development in the Tropics and Sub Tropics. In this period he spent research semesters at the University of Bradford/England and at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines; this period ended with the “Habilitation”, the German assessment for the qualification of a university professorship.

From 1979 to 1981 he joined the University of Nairobi/ Kenya as Associate Professor until he got the position of Professor at the University of Hohenheim, Germany in the field of farm management in the tropics and sub tropics. Werner Doppler married Dorothea Frank in 1970, they have two sons and Leander, a daughter Adriane. The main focus in teaching was the application of quantitative socioeconomic methods and holistic approaches in farming and rural development in developing countries. Werner Doppler gave lectures in Master’s and PhD programs at the universities of Hohenheim and Heidelberg/Germany and at the University of Nairobi/Kenya, University of Florence/Italy, Universities of Amman/Jordan, Bradford/U. K. Thai Nguyen and Hanoi/Vietnam as well as in the Lutheran University in Palmas/Brazil. At the European Union level, Werner Doppler was involved in internationalizing the postgraduate university programs in accordance with the guidelines of the Bologna Process. During his time as Dean of Faculty at the University of Hohenheim he was responsible for the decisions and introduction of the international concept of BSc./MSc curricula and the European academic transfer system in 1997 as well as for the introduction of the first formalized international PhD program for students from developing countries in 1991.

While he was director of the International PhD program in Hohenheim, funded by the German Academic Exchange Service, 104 students from 33 different overseas countries finished their PhD degree. Under his direct supervision 57 from 25 countries did their PhD research. From a descriptive-analytical farming systems approach to quantitative, spatial future modelingIn farming systems research, Werner Doppler combines the descriptive and comparative approach represented by Hans-Hartwig Ruthenberg, who explains the development process by analyzing the past, with quantitative methods in agriculture and economic research; as a result, systems models for simulating future rural development are available which allow measuring the impact of future strategies in development projects and developing countries. In a further step, space in rural areas has become another dimension through information provided by integrating remote sensing in the methodological concept. With this, Geographical Information Systems can be applied and the economic models for future development extended to comprehensive spatial rural development models, which allow a high degree of internalization of problems and decisions.

From farm management to living standards of families and decision-making in rural societiesThe application of classical farm management in developing countries is expanded by social and cultural influences in decision-making of families with similar consequences in the evaluation of development strategies. Werner Doppler considers living standard of families as central at the micro level and defines it with economic and health related and dependency-on-resource-owner and risk criteria. At the level of the society in a rural area, rural welfare is applied and defined as the sum of the living standard of all social groups in the region plus ecological and cultural aspects considered relevant from a societal point of view. Socioeconomic analyses and assessments of future strategies may show different results at the micro or societal level and indicate conflicts which can be seen in ecological misuse of resources; the relationship between family and society shows a vertical link in decision-making and dependencies and may function as “bottom-up” or “top-down” between families, ethnic groups, markets, regional administration and the national level.

This is relevant for availability and prices/costs of land, labor, social network and social security as well as skills and knowledge. With all these extensions in at various levels of the methodology Werner Doppler aims at a holistic approach in analyzing the past and the present and forecasting the future, to better meet real life conditions of people and give more practical relevance to the quantification and assessment of impacts of future strategies; the application of the concepts in developing countriesThe empirical research of Werner Doppler was related to developing countries. The research focus was on the impact of future problem-solving strategies on the living standard of families and rural welfare in the following fields: Developing and sustainable use of water resources and management of water distribution amongst user and water pricing policies St


Chūhai sold as Chu-Hi as a canned drink, is an alcoholic drink originating from Japan. The name chūhai is an abbreviation of "shōchū highball". Traditional chūhai is made with shōchū and carbonated water flavored with lemon, though some modern commercial variants use vodka in place of shōchū; the flavors available have multiplied, including lime, apple, pineapple, kyoho grape, ume, lychee, strawberry cream, cream soda. For the chūhai sold in bars and restaurants, the alcohol content can be quite low, allowing those with a low tolerance for alcohol to drink safely. Canned chūhai, can have alcohol levels as high as 12% and is sold in convenience stores and vending machines. Chūhai is served in tall glasses or mugs as drinks for individuals, making it less social than other traditional Japanese bar drinks like sake, beer, or whisky, which can be shared by pouring portions from a large bottle. Fresh chūhai nama chūhai is sometimes served, featuring fresh-squeezed juice. Due to the high sugar content, the number of calories in each bottle can be quite high compared to other alcoholic beverages.

In March 2018, Coca-Cola announced. Takara Sake produces two flavors of bottled chuhai under the JPOP label that are available in the United States. Sangaria produces two flavors of canned chuhai for the US market

Jacques a dit

"Jacques a dit" is the name of a 2007 song recorded by the French singer Christophe Willem. It was released on 5 October 2007 as Inventaire, it achieved a great success in Belgium, where it topped the chart, but its sales were less spectacular than those of the previous single, "Double Je". The title "Jacques a dit" refers to a children's game called Simon says in the English-speaking world; this song is "a moving nursery rhyme that appeals to the collective imagination and that reveals a new facet of the artist: "A hidden melancholy..."" According to Willem, "Jacques a dit" was the first song. While the musical arrangements were made by Jean-Pierre Pilot and Olivier Schultheis, the text was written by Zazie, who covered the song on her 2007 tour, she performed the song as a duet with Willem in several French TV shows. "Jacques a dit" features on Willem's album Inventaire as first track in the original version, as 15th track in a remix version. It was included on the singer's live album, tout en acoustique, as third track.

In France, the single debuted at a peak of number four, on 13 October 2007, reached this position for three non-consecutive weeks. It stayed for 13 weeks in the top ten almost did not stop to drop, totaling 19 weeks in the top 50 and 26 weeks in the top 100. In 2007, it was the 22nd best-selling single in France. "Jacques a dit" appeared for 21 weeks on the French Digital Download, peaking at number seven for two not consecutive weeks and being the 31st single the more downloaded. In Belgium, the single charted for 26 weeks on the Ultratop 40, from 13 October 2007, it entered the chart at number 32 and climbed and topped the chart for one week, on 1 December. It remained for 14 weeks in the top ten, it ranked 24th on the End of the Year Chart. CD single"Jacques a dit" – 3:49 "Élu produit de l'année" – 4:16 "Double Je" – 4:47 "Sunny" – 4:52Digital download"Jacques a dit" – 3:49 "Jacques a dit" – 3:56 "Jacques a dit" – 4:05 "Jacques a dit", lyrics + music video