The moon-eyed people are a race of people from Cherokee tradition who are said to have lived in Appalachia until the Cherokee expelled them. They are mentioned in a 1797 book by Benjamin Smith Barton, who explains they are called "moon-eyed" because they saw poorly during the day. Variants add additional details, claiming the people had white skin, that they created the area's pre-Columbian ruins, that they went west after their defeat. Barton cited as his source a conversation with an early settler of Georgia. Marbury, a Revolutionary War officer and a Congressman in the Second Provincial Congress of Georgia, acted as intermediary between Native American Indians in the state of Georgia and the United States government. In his 1902 Myths of the Cherokee, ethnographer James Mooney described a "dim but persistent tradition" of an ancient people who preceded the Cherokee in lower Appalachia and were driven out by them. Accounts describe them as having white skin and credit them with building the ancient structures in the area.
The earliest recorded mention of them appears to be in Benjamin Smith Barton's 1797 book New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America. Citing the authority of Colonel Leonard Marbury, Barton wrote that "the Cheerake tell us, that when they first arrived in the country which they inhabit, they found it possessed by certain'moon-eyed-people,' who could not see in the day-time; these wretches they expelled." Barton suggested these "moon-eyed people" were the ancestors of the albinos Lionel Wafer encountered among the Kuna people of Panama, who were called "moon-eyed" because they could see better at night than day. Mooney links Barton's "moon-eyed people" story to several similar accounts. One was by historian John Haywood who wrote in his 1823 The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee of "white people, who were extirpated in part, in part were driven from Kentucky, also from West Tennessee", attributing this to Indian tradition, although Haywood mentions that in the 17th century the Cherokee encountered "white people" on the Little Tennessee River, describes fortifications left by the French that were surrounded by "hoes, axes and other metallic utensils", adding that the Cherokee found no aboriginals when they arrived.
Mooney cites two further independent accounts from Cherokee individuals of his time, of a people who lived north of the Hiwassee River when the Cherokee arrived there, went west. Two early histories published after Barton's work mention the term "moon-eyed people." Both Ezekial Sanford's History of the United States Before the Revolution and B. R. Carroll's Historical Collections of South Carolina cite James Adair, in attributing the term "moon-eyed people" to Cherokee tradition; the Moon-eyed people are noted in a 1968 historical marker in Fort Mountain State Park, Georgia. The Cherokee tradition may have been influenced by contemporary European-American legends of the "Welsh Indians"; these legends attributed ancient ruins to a Welsh pre-Columbian voyage. In an 1810 letter, former Tennessee governor John Sevier wrote that the Cherokee leader Oconostota told him in 1783 that local mounds had been built by white people who were pushed from the area by the ascendant Cherokee. According to Sevier, Oconostota confirmed.
Historian Gwyn A. Williams notes this is "a beautiful example of the way minds were working in the late eighteenth century – and of the power of suggestion which white minds could exercise over red". Author Barbara Alice Mann, who identifies herself as Ohio Bear Clan Seneca, suggests that "moon-eyed people" were Adena culture people from Ohio who merged with the Cherokees around 200 BCE. Abramson, Rudy. Encyclopedia of Appalachia. University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 978-1-57233-456-4. Retrieved 23 April 2013. Mooney, James. Myths of the Cherokee. Extract from the Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office. Pp. 22–3. At Internet Archive Tibbs, David. "Legends of Fort Mountain: The Moon-Eyed People / Prince Madoc of Wales". Historical Marker Database. Retrieved April 30, 2013. Williams, Gwyn A.. Madoc: The Making of a Myth. Eyre Methuen. ISBN 978-0-413-39450-7. Retrieved 2 April 2013
Harrah's Cherokee Casino Resort is a casino and hotel on the Qualla Boundary in Cherokee, North Carolina. It is operated by Caesars Entertainment, it is located on the site of the former Frontier Land theme park. It is one of two casinos in North Carolina. A sister property, Harrah's Cherokee Valley River Casino in Murphy, North Carolina opened on September 28, 2015. Harrah's Cherokee opened in November 1997 with video poker as the only gaming option; this followed the opening of a tribal bingo parlor in the early 1990s, quite profitable and led to calls for a casino. The casino came after several years of discord between the State of North Carolina and the Eastern Cherokees. Governor Jim Hunt resisted the casino, but the state was forced to enter into an agreement with tribal authorities by the federal courts. Since the tribe has used its casino revenues to build a new high school, a hospital, public housing, to upgrade public safety services on the reservation, such as police, fire and EMS. Part of the casino's revenue is distributed directly to the Cherokee population, in a form of basic income.
The casino is credited with opening the door for gambling in North Carolina. The casino heralded a relaxation of alcohol laws in the area, with liquor-by-the-drink being legalized in nearby Bryson City and Cherokee itself. Harrah's Cherokee has three hotel towers with a total of 1,108 rooms, making Harrah's Cherokee the largest hotel in North Carolina. Since the tribe's compact with North Carolina restricts the types of gaming permitted, most of the games offered have significant differences with those found in other casinos; the compact with North Carolina requires games to have an element of skill. For most of the video slot machines, this means that after an initial spin of the reels, the player is allowed to lock selected reels in place and spin again, holding reels with valuable symbols in hopes of matching them up with winning symbols on the second spin; the casino now has converted many of their slot machines to "Cherokee Raffle Reels," which require the player to insert their Total Rewards slot card into the machine before playing.
This raffle entry is considered to be the second chance to win required by law, has allowed the casino to phase out many of the "lock-and-roll" style machines for traditional video and reel slot machines. The tribe reached an agreement with the state on November 25, 2011, to allow live cards at Harrah's Cherokee; the casino began introducing live table games in 2012. As of summer 2014, there are over 100 table games; the casino has a non-smoking poker room with 20 tables. No-limit hold'em tournaments are run daily, including larger buy-in deep stack tourneys on the weekends; the casino regularly hosts World Series of Poker circuit events in the Events Center which feature a variety of tournaments and concurrent cash games. The Harrah's Cherokee complex includes a 15,000 sq ft conference center, a 3,000-seat events center, the Essence Lounge, a workout room, a lobby cafe, a food court with four restaurants, Chef's Stage Buffet, Ruth's Chris Steak House, BRIO Tuscan Grille. Harrah's Cherokee has an indoor pool, open year round as well as an outdoor pool open during the summer months.
The outdoor pool features its own bar and food service with a unique menu. Harrah's Cherokee features the UltraStar Multi-Tainment center, a bowling complex including arcade, entertainment stage, multiple bars; this complex has 24 lanes for 16 standard and 8 VIP style. On June 5, 2009, alcohol sales at the casino were approved by the tribe. Alcohol is served from 7 a.m. until 2 a.m. Monday through Saturday and from noon until 2 a.m. on Sunday. The first alcoholic beverage was served on December 2009, at 5 p.m.. Other than the casino, there are no bars in the city of Cherokee. Gambling in North Carolina List of Caesars Entertainment properties List of casinos in North Carolina Harrah's Cherokee Casino Resort
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company known as Walt Disney or Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks and Products, Disney Media Networks, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International.
Disney owns and operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters, serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.
After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring his first original character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, distributed by Winkler Pictures through Universal Pictures. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winkler's husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company.
It was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho. Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst.
On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings. Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt
Communal work is a gathering for mutually accomplishing a task or for communal fundraising. Communal work provided manual labour to others for major projects such as barn raising, bees of various kinds, log rolling, subbotniks. Different words have been used to describe such gatherings, they are less common in today's more individualistic cultures, where there is less reliance on others than in preindustrial agricultural and hunterer-gatherer societies. Major jobs such as clearing a field of timber or raising a barn needed many workers, it was both a social and utilitarian event. Jobs like corn husking or sewing could be done as a group to allow socializing during an otherwise tedious chore; such gatherings included refreshments and entertainment. In more modern societies, the word "bee" has been used for some time for other social gatherings without communal work, for example for competitions such as a spelling bee. Harambee is an East African tradition of community self-help events, e.g. fundraising or development activities.
Harambee means "all pull together" in Swahili, is the official motto of Kenya and appears on its coat of arms. Ethiopia Debo To build a farm; each contributes according to one's ability. Indispensable for elderly and widows who do not have a strong man to support. Naffīr is an Arabic word used in parts of Sudan to describe particular types of communal work undertakings. Naffīr has been described as including a group recruited through family networks, in-laws and village neighbors for some particular purpose, which disbands when that purpose is fulfilled. An alternative, more recent, definition describes naffīr as "to bring someone together from the neighborhood or community to carry out a certain project, such as building a house or providing help during the harvest season."The word may be related to the standard Arabic word nafr which describes a band, group or troop mobilized for war. In standard Arabic, a naffīr āmm refers to a general call to arms. Naffīr has been used in a military context in Sudan.
For example, the term was used to refer to the an-Naffīr ash-Sha'abī or "People's Militias" that operated in the central Nuba Mountains region in the early 1990s. Gotong-royong is a conception of sociality familiar to large parts of Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia; the phrase has been translated into English in many ways, most of which hearken to the conception of reciprocity or mutual aid. For M. Nasroen, gotong royong forms one of the core tenets of Indonesian philosophy. Paul Michael Taylor and Lorraine V. Aragon state that "gotong royong cooperation among many people to attain a shared goal." In a 1983 essay Clifford Geertz points to the importance of gotong royong in Indonesian life: An enormous inventory of specific and quite intricate institutions for effecting the cooperation in work and personal relations alike, vaguely gathered under culturally charged and well indefinable value-images--rukun, gotong royong, tolong-menolong --governs social interaction with a force as sovereign as it is subdued.
Anthropologist Robert A. Hahn writes: Javanese culture is stratified by social class and by level of adherence to Islam.... Traditional Javanese culture does not emphasize material wealth.... There is respect for those, and the spirit of gotong royong, or volunteerism, is promoted as a cultural value. Gotong royong has long functioned as the scale of the village, as a moral conception of the political economy. However, as the political economy became more privatized and individualistic, gotong royong has waned. Pottier records the impact of the Green Revolution in Java: "Before the GR,'Java' had relatively'open' markets, in which many local people were rewarded in kind. With the GR, rural labour markets began to foster'exclusionary practices'... This resulted in a general loss of rights secure harvesting rights within a context of mutual cooperation, known as gotong royong." Citing Ann Laura Stoler's ethnography from the 1970s, Pottier writes that cash was replacing exchange, that old patron-client ties were breaking, that social relations were becoming characterized more by employer-employee qualities.
For Prime Minister Muhammad Natsir, gotong royong was an ethical principle of sociality, in marked contrast to both the "unchecked" feudalism of the West, the social anomie of capitalism. Ideas of reciprocity and enmeshed aspects of kampung morality, were seized upon by postcolonial politicians. John Sidel writes: "Ironically, national-level politicians drew on " village conceptions of adat and gotong royong, they drew on notions "of traditional community to justify new forms of authoritarian rule." During the presidency of Sukarno, the idea of gotong royong was elevated to a central tenet of Indonesian life. For Sukarno, the new nation was to be synonymous with gotong royong, he said. On June 1, 1945, Sukarno said of the Pancasila: The first two principles and internationalism, can be pressed to one, which I used to call'socionationalism.' With democracy'which is not the democracy of the West' together with social justice for all can be pressed down to one, called socio democracy. – belief in God.'And so what was five has become three: socio nationalism, socio democracy, belief
Bureau of Indian Affairs
The Bureau of Indian Affairs is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U. S. Department of the Interior, it is responsible for the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States, Native American Tribes and Alaska Natives. The BIA is one of two bureaus under the jurisdiction of the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs: the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Indian Education, which provides education services to 48,000 Native Americans; the BIA’s responsibilities included providing health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives. In 1954 that function was transferred to the Department of Health and Welfare, it is now known as the Indian Health Service. Located in Washington, D. C. the BIA is headed by a bureau director. The current assistant secretary is Tara Sweeney; the BIA oversees 567 federally recognized tribes through 4 offices: Office of Indian Services: operates the BIA’s general assistance, disaster relief, Indian child welfare, tribal government, Indian Self-Determination, Indian Reservation Roads Program.
Office of Justice Services: directly operates or funds law enforcement, tribal courts, detention facilities on federal Indian lands. OJS funded 208 law enforcement agencies, consisting of 43 BIA-operated police agencies, 165 tribally operated agencies under contract, or compact with the OJS; the office has seven areas of activity: Criminal Investigations and Police Services, Detention/Corrections, Inspection/Internal Affairs, Tribal Law Enforcement and Special Initiatives, the Indian Police Academy, Tribal Justice Support, Program Management. The OJS provides oversight and technical assistance to tribal law enforcement programs when and where requested, it operates four divisions: Corrections, Drug Enforcement, the Indian Police Academy, Law Enforcement. Office of Trust Services: works with tribes and individual American Indians and Alaska Natives in the management of their trust lands and resources; the Office of Field Operations: oversees 12 regional offices. Agencies to relate to Native Americans had existed in the U.
S. government since 1775, when the Second Continental Congress created a trio of Indian-related agencies. Benjamin Franklin and Patrick Henry were appointed among the early commissioners to negotiate treaties with Native Americans to obtain their neutrality during the American Revolutionary War. In 1789, the U. S. Congress placed Native American relations within the newly formed War Department. By 1806 the Congress had created a Superintendent of Indian Trade, or "Office of Indian Trade" within the War Department, charged with maintaining the factory trading network of the fur trade; the post was held by Thomas L. McKenney from 1816 until the abolition of the factory system in 1822; the government licensed traders to have some control in Indian territories and gain a share of the lucrative trade. The abolition of the factory system left a vacuum within the U. S. government regarding Native American relations. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was formed on March 11, 1824, by Secretary of War John C.
Calhoun, who created the agency as a division within his department, without authorization from the United States Congress. He appointed McKenney as the first head of the office. McKenney preferred to call it the "Indian Office", whereas the current name was preferred by Calhoun. In 1832 Congress established the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. In 1849 Indian Affairs was transferred to the U. S. Department of the Interior. In 1869, Ely Samuel Parker was the first Native American to be appointed as commissioner of Indian affairs. One of the most controversial policies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was the late 19th to early 20th century decision to educate native children in separate boarding schools, with an emphasis on assimilation that prohibited them from using their indigenous languages and cultures, it emphasized being educated to European-American culture. The bureau was renamed from Office of Indian Affairs to Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1947. With the rise of American Indian activism in the 1960s and 1970s and increasing demands for enforcement of treaty rights and sovereignty, the 1970s were a turbulent period of BIA history.
The rise of activist groups such as the American Indian Movement worried the U. S. government. As a branch of the U. S. government with personnel on Indian reservations, BIA police were involved in political actions such as: The occupation of BIA headquarters in Washington, D. C. in 1972: On November 3, 1972, a group of around 500 American Indians with the AIM took over the BIA building, the culmination of their Trail of Broken Treaties walk. They intended to bring attention to American Indian issues, including their demands for renewed negotiation of treaties, enforcement of treaty rights and improvement in living standards, they occupied the Department of Interior headquarters from November 3 to November 9, 1972. Feeling the government was ignoring them, the protesters vandalized the building. After a week, the protesters left. Many records were lost, destroyed or stolen, including irreplaceable treati
This article concerns itself with the Spiritual beliefs of the Cherokee, Native Americans indigenous to the Appalachias, today are enrolled in the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, Cherokee Nation, United Keetowah Band of Cherokee Indians. Some of these myths go by different names in different branches of the tribe, the actual myth remains the same; the Cherokee creation belief describes the earth as a great floating island surrounded by seawater. It hangs from the sky by cords attached at the four cardinal points; the story tells that the first earth came to be when Dâyuni'sï, the little Water beetle came from Gälûñ'lätï, the sky realm, to see what was below the water. He found no solid place to rest, he brought up some soft mud. This mud expanded in every direction and became the earth, according to the account recorded in 1900 by the Bureau of American Ethnology; the other animals in Gälûñ'lätï were eager to come down to the new earth, first birds were sent to see if the mud was dry. Buzzard was sent ahead to make preparations for the others.
When he grew tired, his wings dipped low and brushed the soft mud, gouging mountains and valleys in the smooth surface, the animals were forced to wait again. When it was dry they all came down, it was dark, so they took the sun and set it in a track to run east to west, at first setting it too low and the red crawfish was scorched. They elevated the sun several times; the story tells how plants and animals acquired certain characteristics, is related to one of their medicine rituals. They all were told to stay awake for seven nights, but only a few animals, such as owl and panther and they were given the power to see and prey upon the others at night. Only a few trees succeeded as well, namely cedar, pine and laurel, so the rest were forced to shed their leaves in the winter; the first people were a sister. Once, the brother told her to multiply. Following this, she gave birth to a child every seven days and soon there were too many people, so women were forced to have just one child every year.
The Story of Corn and Medicine begins with the creation of animals. Earth was created out of mud. Animals began exploring the earth, it was the Buzzard that created valleys and mountains in the Cherokee land by the flapping of his wings. After some time, the earth became habitable for the animals, once the mud of the earth had dried and the sun had been raised up for light. According to the Cherokee medicine ceremony, the animals and plants had to stay awake for seven nights. Only the owl and unnamed others were able to fulfill the requirements of the ceremony, so these animals were given the gift of night vision, which allowed them to hunt at night; the only trees able to remain awake for the seven days were the cedar, spruce, holly and oak. These trees were given the gift of staying green year-round; the first woman left their home. The first man, helped by the sun, tried tempting her to return with blueberries and blackberries but was not successful, he persuaded her to return with strawberries.
Humans began to hunt animals and grew in numbers. The population grew so that a rule was established that women can only have one child per year. Two early humans were Selu, their names meant "The Lucky Hunter" and "Corn," respectively. Kanáti would bring an animal home for Selu to prepare. Kanáti and Selu had a child, their child befriended another boy, created out of the blood of the slaughtered animals; the family treated this boy like one of their own, except they called him "The Wild Boy". Kanáti brought animals home when he went hunting, one day, the boys decided to secretly follow him, they discovered that Kanáti would move a rock concealing a cave, an animal would come out of the cave only to be killed by Kanáti. The boys secretly opened the entrance to the cave. However, the boys didn't realize. Kanáti realized what must have happened, he journeyed to the cave and sent the boys home so he could try to catch some of the escaped animals for eating. This explains; the boys returned to Selu. She instructed the boys to wait behind while she was gone.
They discovered Selu's secret, that she would rub her stomach to fill baskets with corn, she would rub her sides to fill baskets with beans. Selu knew her secret made the boys one last meal, she and Kanáti explained to the boys that the two of them would die because their secrets had been discovered. Along with Kanáti and Selu dying, the easy life the boys had become accustomed to would die. However, if the boys dragged Selu's body seven times in a circle, seven times over the soil in the circle, a crop of corn would appear in the morning if the boys stayed up all night to watch; the boys did not fulfill the instructions, why corn can only grow in certain places around earth. Today, corn is still grown. During the early times, the plants and people all lived together as friends, but the dramatic population growth of humans crowded the earth, leaving the animals with no room to roam. Humans would kill the animals for meat or trample them for being in the way; as a punishment for these horrendous acts the
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high