Tianjin romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the nine national central cities of the People's Republic of China, with a total population of 15,621,200 as of 2016 estimation. Its built-up area, made up of 12 central districts, was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is the world's 29th-largest agglomeration and 11th-most populous city proper, it is governed as one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of central government of the PRC and is thus under direct administration of the central government. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China. In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai and Guangzhou. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin ranks fifth in Mainland China; the walled city of Tianjin was built in 1404. As a treaty port since 1860, Tianjin has been a major gateway to Beijing.
During the Boxer Rebellion the city was the seat of the Tianjin Provisional Government. Under the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China, Tianjin became one of the largest cities in the region. At that time, numerous European-style buildings and mansions were constructed in concessions, many of which are well-preserved today. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Tianjin suffered a depression due to the policy of the central government and Tangshan earthquake, but recovered from 1990s. Nowadays Tianjin is a dual-core city, with its main urban area located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal; as of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai. Since 2010, Tianjin's Yujiapu Financial District has become known as China's Manhattan. Tianjin is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese characters 天津, which mean "Heavenly Ford" or "Ford of Heaven"; the origin of the name is obscure. One folk etymology is that it was an homage to the patriotic Chu poet Qu Yuan, whose "Li Sao" includes the verse "...departing from the Ford of Heaven at dawn...".
Another is that it honors a former name of the Girl, a Chinese constellation recorded under the name Tianjin in the Astronomical Record section of the Book of Sui. A third is; the most common are that it was bestowed by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming, who crossed Tianjin's Gu River on his way south to overthrow his nephew the Jianwen Emperor. The land where Tianjin is located today was created in ancient times by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River, which entered the open sea in this area at one point; the opening of the Grand Canal during the Sui dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center. During the Qing dynasty Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture or Zhou in 1725 with Tianjin County established under the prefecture in 1731, it was upgraded to an urban prefecture or Fu before becoming a relay station under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili. In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, of being engaged in the opium trade.
They imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, the Treaty of Tientsin were signed, which opened Tianjin to foreign trade; the treaties were ratified by the Xianfeng Emperor in 1860, Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France, thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan and Russia, by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary and Belgium, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools and hospitals; these nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas. The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful. In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church, in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children.
On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protestors burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul, merchants. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, forced to pay compensation for the incident. In 1885 Li Hongzhang founded the Tianjin Military Academy for Chinese army officers, with German advisers, as part of his military reforms; the move was supported by Anhui Army commander Zhou Shengchuan. The academy was to serve Anhui Green Standard Army officers. Various practical military and science subjects were taught at the academy; the instructors were Germa
Port Everglades is a seaport in Fort Lauderdale, located in Broward County. Port Everglades is one of South Florida's foremost economic centers, as it is the gateway for both international trade and cruise vacations. In 2018, Port Everglades was ranked the third busiest cruise home port in the world, accommodating more than 3.8 million passengers. It was the busiest container port in Florida and 10th busiest in the United States, moving more than 1 million TEUs annually; the port is South Florida's main seaport for importing petroleum products including gasoline, jet fuel, alternative fuels. The port serves as the primary distribution seaport for refined petroleum products. Port Everglades distributes fuel to 12 Florida counties. Port Everglades is recognized as a favorite United States Navy liberty port. With a depth of 43 feet, Port Everglades is the deepest port in the United States south of Norfolk, Virginia; the Port Everglades Department is a self-supporting Enterprise Fund of Broward County Government with operating revenues of $168 million in Fiscal Year 2018.
The port does not rely on local taxes for operations. The total value of economic activity at Port Everglades is $30 billion annually. 230,000 Florida jobs are impacted by the Port, including more than 13,000 people who work for companies that provide direct services to Port Everglades. Port Everglades is the #1 Seaport in Florida by Revenue, the #1 Container Port in Florida. Port Everglades was the #3 Multi-Day Cruise Port in the World with 846 ship calls and 3.8 million passengers in 2017, the #2 Petroleum Port in Florida with 594 ship calls and 122.3 million barrels. Port Everglades is composed of land within three municipalities, Fort Lauderdale and Dania Beach and unincorporated Broward County. Port Everglades is a manmade seaport; the port was dredged from Lake Mabel, a natural body of water, a wide and shallow section of the Florida East Coast Canal system. In 1911, the Florida Board of Trade passed a resolution; the port was intended to ship produce to the North and the West. In 1913, the Fort Lauderdale Harbor Company was formed and dug out the Lake Mabel Cut, which opened the New River to the sea and created access for small boats.
In 1924, the founder and mayor of the city of Hollywood, Joseph Wesley Young, bought 1,440 acres of land adjacent to the lake. He created the Hollywood Harbor Development Company. Three years the Florida Legislature established the Broward County Port Authority. On February 22, 1928, 85 percent of Broward County's residents gathered for a ceremony in which President Calvin Coolidge was to push a button from the White House detonating explosives to remove the rock barrier separating the harbor from the Atlantic Ocean; the button malfunctioned. Bay Mabel Harbor was dedicated on February 22, 1928. Many of South Florida's local women's clubs agreed that the port needed a new name to better represent the region, they held a name changing contest, the name Port Everglades was selected. The reason for this was as follows: "The gateway to the rich agricultural area embraced in the 4 million acres at the Port's backdoor." The container handling capacity of the port was increased with a new 41-acre terminal, completed in 2010.
The expansion increased Port Everglades' freight handling area by 15%. In 2015, the US Army Corps of Engineers approved a new phase of expansion for Port Everglades that would involve deepening and widening channels; the project received federal authorization in December 2016 under the WIIN Act. The port serves ships from Europe and South America that are too large to fit through the Panama Canal, undergoing expansion, but the ships must be under a certain load to fit properly in the port; the expansion will increase main navigational channels from 42 feet to 48–50 feet and deepen and widen both the Entrance Channel and parts of the Intracoastal Waterway. It is expected that the project will be completed by 2021-2025, creating 4,789 construction jobs and 1,491 direct jobs locally with an estimated cost of $389 million for the expansion. No local property taxes will be used for the project. Seatrade Insider named Port Everglades "World's Top Cruise Port" during the 2010 Seatrade Insider Cruise Awards ceremony at the historic l'Opera in Nice, France.
From 2008-2014, Port Everglades was chosen as the Best U. S. Homeport by Porthole Cruise Magazine, an international cruise travel magazine. In 2015, the port lost to Miami. In 2016, Port Everglades won the award again. On December 21, 2003, the port had a record 15 cruise ships. No other port in the world at that time had hosted 10 or more cruise ships on a single day; the closest competitors are: Port of Barcelona with 9 ships the 26 of August 2011 Miami with 8 ships and Port of New York with 7 ships on a single day. Port Everglades broke its own world record on November 26, 2011, with more than 53,500 guests passing through the Port in a single day; the previous record was set on March 2010, with 53,365 passengers. In 2010, Port Everglades documented 55 cruise ships offering scheduled cruises. With 15 different cruise lines, Port Everglades claims to offer more cruise lines, more sailings, more itineraries than any other port in the world. On March 13, 2016, Port Everglades broke the world record again when the port served 55,885 cruise passengers in and out of the port.
Incidentally, both records served the same eight cruise ships: the Carnival Conquest, the Celebrity Silhouette, Holland America's Eurodam, Holland America's Nieuw A
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
The Meyer Werft GmbH & Co. KG is one of the major German shipyards, headquartered in Papenburg at the river Ems. Founded in 1795 and starting with small wooden vessels, today Meyer Werft is one of world's leading builders of luxury passenger ships. Altogether about 700 ships of different types have been built at the yard, its "Dockhalle 2" is the third largest shipbuilding hall and the building with the fifth-largest usable space in the world. Meyer Werft has been managed by the Meyer family for seven generations. Since 1997, it has been part of the Meyer Neptun Group together with Neptun Werft in Rostock. In 2014 the company added the Turku shipyard in Finland to the group; the shipyard is an anchor on the European Route of Industrial Heritage. Five of the ten largest cruise ships in the world have been built at the shipyard in Papenburg, three more at Meyer Turku Oy shipyard; the shipyard was founded at the beginning of 1795 by Willm Rolf Meyer as a wharf for the construction of small wooden vessels.
Josef Lambert Meyer started the construction of iron ships in 1874. Until 1920 there were more than 20 dockyards in the Papenburg area, but today Meyer Werft is the only remaining shipyard in Papenburg. For seven generations it has been a held and family-owned company. Meyer Werft gained international recognition through the construction of Roll-on/roll-off ferries, passenger ferries, gasoline tankers, container ships, livestock ferries and most luxury cruise ships. Meyer is one of the largest and most modern shipyards in the world with about 3300 employees, home to the largest roofed dry docks in the world; the first covered dock was inaugurated in 1987 and was 370 meters long, 101,5 meters wide and 60 meters high. In 1990/91 the dock was extended by an additional 100 meters. In 2004, a second covered dock was built, announced to be extended to a full length of 504 meters, a width of 125 meters and height of 75 meters in order to compete with Asian shipyards. Meyer Werft will as a result of this be able to build three cruise ships a year.
Due to its upstream location on the river Ems, the giant ships to be delivered have to make a 36 km voyage to the Dollart bay and which each time attracts thousands of spectators. Up until the completion of the Ems river barrier in 2002, the journey was only possible at high tides. In September 2014 Meyer Werft acquired 70% ownership of STX Finland and the Turku shipyard STX Finland Oy from STX Europe with the state-owned Finnish Industry Investment owning the remaining 30%; the shipyard was renamed Meyer Turku Oy. Meyer Werft acquired the remaining 30% in 2015. A large variety of ships have been built at Meyer Werft, including car carriers, cargo ships, container ships, cruise ships, fishing vessels, gas carriers, paddlesteamers, passenger ships and Seebäderschiffs. Meyer Werft Neptun Werft Meyer Turku Hans Jürgen Witthöft, Meyer Werft- Innovative shipbuilding from Papenburg, Koehlers Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg Homepage of Meyer Werft Homepage of Neptun Werft Homepage of Meyer Turku Meyer Werft Shipyard in Google Maps
A cruise ship is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, sometimes the different destinations along the way, form part of the passengers' experience. Transportation is not the only purpose of cruising on cruises that return passengers to their originating port. On "cruises to nowhere" or "nowhere voyages", cruise ships make 2-to-3 night round trips without any ports of call. In contrast, dedicated transport-oriented ocean liners do "line voyages" and transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on round trips. Traditionally, shipping lines build liners for the transoceanic trade to a higher standard than that of a typical cruise ship, including higher freeboard and stronger plating to withstand rough seas and adverse conditions encountered in the open ocean, such as the North Atlantic. Ocean liners usually have larger capacities for fuel and other stores for consumption on long voyages, compared to dedicated cruise-ships, but few ocean liners remain in existence—note the preserved liners and Queen Mary 2, which make scheduled North Atlantic voyages.
Although luxurious, ocean liners had characteristics that made them unsuitable for cruising, such as high fuel-consumption, deep draughts that prevented their entering shallow ports, enclosed weatherproof decks inappropriate for tropical weather, cabins designed to maximize passenger numbers rather than comfort. The gradual evolution of passenger-ship design from ocean liners to cruise ships has seen passenger cabins shifted from inside the hull to the superstructure and provided with private verandas. Modern cruise ships, while sacrificing some qualities of seaworthiness, have added amenities to cater to water tourists, recent vessels have been described as "balcony-laden floating condominiums"; the distinction between ocean liners and cruise ships has blurred with respect to deployment, although differences in construction remain. Larger cruise ships have engaged in longer trips, such as transoceanic voyages which may not return to the same port for months; some former ocean liners operate as cruise ships, such as Marco Polo, although this number is diminishing.
The only dedicated transatlantic ocean liner in operation as a liner as of December 2013 is Queen Mary 2 of the Cunard Line. She has the amenities of contemporary cruise ships and sees significant service on cruisesCruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, accounting for U. S.$29.4 billion, with over 19 million passengers carried worldwide as of 2011.. The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing European clientele. Smaller markets, such as the Asia-Pacific region, are serviced by older ships; these are displaced by new ships in the high-growth areas. As of 2019 the world's largest cruise-ship was Royal Caribbean International's Symphony of the Seas along with its three sister ships Harmony of the Seas, Allure of the Seas, Oasis of the Seas which round out the top 4 largest cruise liners in the world; the birth of leisure cruising began with the formation of the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company in 1822.
The company started out as a shipping line with routes between England and the Iberian Peninsula, adopting the name Peninsular Steam Navigation Company. It won its first contract to deliver mail in 1837. In 1840, it began mail delivery to Alexandria, via Gibraltar and Malta; the company was incorporated by Royal Charter the same year, becoming the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. P&O first introduced passenger cruising services in 1844, advertising sea tours to destinations such as Gibraltar and Athens, sailing from Southampton; the forerunner of modern cruise holidays, these voyages were the first of their kind, P&O Cruises has been recognised as the world's oldest cruise line. The company introduced round trips to destinations such as Alexandria and Constantinople, it underwent a period of rapid expansion in the latter half of the 19th century, commissioning larger and more luxurious ships to serve the expanding market. Notable ships of the era include the SS Ravenna built in 1880, which became the first ship to be built with a total steel superstructure, the SS Valetta built in 1889, the first ship to use electric lights.
Some sources mention Francesco I, flying the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, as the first cruise ship. She was built in 1831 and sailed from Naples in early June 1833, preceded by an advertising campaign; the cruise ship was boarded by nobles and royal princes from all over Europe. In just over three months, the ship sailed to Taormina, Syracuse, Corfu, Delphi, Athens, Constantinople, delighting passengers with excursions and guided tours, card tables on the deck and parties on board. However, it was not a commercial endeavour; the cruise of the German ship Augusta Victoria in the Mediterranean and the Near East from 22 January to 22 March 1891, with 241 passengers including Albert Ballin and wife, popularized the cruise to a wider market. Christian Wilhelm Allers published an illustrated account of it as Backschisch; the first vessel built for luxury cruising, was Prinzessin Victoria Luise of Germany, designed by Albert Ballin, general manager of Hamburg-America Line. The ship was completed in 1900.
The practice of luxury cruising made steady inroads on the more established market for transatlantic crossings. In the competition fo
Radiance-class cruise ship
The Radiance class is a class of four cruise ships operated by Royal Caribbean built between 2001 and 2004 at Meyer Werft shipyard in Papenburg, Germany. The class was succeeded by the Freedom class. Radiance-class ships have a gross tonnage of 90,090. Built for cruising in cooler climates, this class differs in design from the Voyager and Freedom classes, some aspects influenced the Quantum-class; the Radiance-class is built to Panamax form factor. The power plant on all ships consists of environmentally friendlier but less fuel efficient gas turbines; the Radiance-class ships have over 3 acres of glass, glass exterior viewing elevators, over 700 balcony staterooms, two-level glass windowed dining rooms, alternative restaurants, a retractable glass roof over a pool, an outdoor pool, as well as the first self-leveling billiard tables at sea. During their refurbishment, the ships of this class have been refitted to incorporate the "Centrum Wow" events, which transformed the multi-level atrium into vertical theater for aerialists.
Spirit class - a similar class of Panamax ships operated by Carnival Cruise Lines and Costa Cruises. MV Arcadia - a similar Panamax ship operated by P&O Cruises. MS Queen Victoria - a similar Panamax sized ship operated by Cunard Line. Vista class - a similar class of Panamax ships operated by Holland America Line Signature class cruise ship - a similar class of Panamax ships operated by Holland America Line Coral Princess and Island Princess - A similar set of Panamax ships operated by Princess Cruises Costa Luminosa and Costa Deliziosa - A set of Panamax ships operated by Costa Cruises derived from the Spirit Class and Vista Class designs
Fremantle Harbour is Western Australia's largest and busiest general cargo port and an important historical site. The inner harbour handles a large volume of sea containers, vehicle imports and livestock exports, cruise shipping and naval visits, operates 24 hours a day, it is located adjacent in the Perth Metropolitan Region. Fremantle consists of the Inner Harbour, situated on the mouth of the Swan River; the Inner Harbour includes northern and southern wharves named North Quay and Victoria Quay respectively. All of this area is managed by a government trading enterprise. Fremantle's port role began the Swan River Colony was founded in 1829, but the entrance to the Swan River estuary was blocked by a rocky bar, which made the mouth of the river impassable for seagoing vessels; the first steamship to enter the port was HMS Driver on 4 December 1845. Fremantle shipping was served by the Long Jetty that extended into the open sea, where Bathers Beach is today. Cargo was offloaded onto the jetty and taken down Cliff Street in Fremantle's West End.
It was loaded onto barges that sailed up the river on the westerly sea breeze and back to Fremantle on easterly winds. It was transported by rail. Sailors disliked the Long Jetty: in 1892 Captain D. B. Shaw of the American barque Saranac described it as "terrible": "... entered and fought against putting the vessel alongside jetty to discharge. It is a terrible place. No place to put a vessel. No shelter whatever. All the ships have to lay and discharge at the wharf or pay lighterage.... It is blowing a gale from the SW... and takes all our time to hold her.... She had done considerable damage to herself.... It is the worst place I or anyone else saw. No place to send a ship of this size.... Any man who would come or send a ship a second time is a damned ass." British marine engineer John Coode advised John Forrest an outer harbour near Rous Head, or one that would stretch south from Arthur's Head, could be built. Coode ruled out building a port in the river mouth as he believed it would continually silt up due to lateral sand drift.
In 1887 the Fremantle Chamber of Commerce pushed hard for the southern scheme to be chosen, but the Colony could not raise the half-million pounds which were estimated what such an initiative would cost. By 1891 Forrest was examining another proposal: an offshore facility at Owen Anchorage south of Fremantle, but by Charles Yelverton O'Connor had been appointed the Colony's Engineer-in-Chief, decided the best option was an inner harbour built in the mouth of the Swan River. The discovery of gold in Western Australia meant a working port was urgently needed, Parliament accepted O'Connor's plan after much political haggling, the capital was raised in London and preliminary work commenced late in 1892; the first stage of the harbour works began with a ceremony in which the Governor's wife, Lady Robinson, tilted the first truck load of rubble for the North Mole. Blasting and dredging the rocky bar created a channel, dredging deepened the river basin, two moles were built to protect the harbour entrance.
Land was reclaimed so warehouses could be built. The inner harbour was opened on 4 May 1897 when the steamer Sultan drawing just one foot of water with Lady Forrest at the wheel was the first ship to enter the built port. "While the harbour has been deepened, facilities extended and modernised over the years, the basic structure of the Inner Harbour remains unchanged to this day, testament to the boldness and foresight of its designer." There are two lighthouses on either side of the entrance to the harbour, the green-coloured South Mole Lighthouse, in operation since 1903, the red-painted North Mole Lighthouse, which commenced operation in 1906, located at the end of the westernmost point of the harbour. As the port neared completion, Forrest lobbied the British to have Fremantle as the port of call for the Mail Packets. Victoria and New South Wales fought for the retention of Albany as the Mail Packet port, as they were fearful they would lose business. Forrest threatened Western Australia may stay out of the proposed federation of Australian colonies unless they agreed.
On 3 August 1900, Forrest won when the Postmaster-General in London informed the Post Master-General in Perth that Fremantle would be substituted for Albany as the port of call for Mail Packets. Ten days the Orient Steam Navigation Company's RMS Ormuz, homeward bound from Sydney to London, was the first British mail carrier to enter and berth in Fremantle Harbour. In 1901 Fremantle surpassed Albany for the first time in total tonnage of ships and the following year in the number of ships when it cleared 410 ships to Albany's 248 ships; the railway from the harbour was constructed in the 1880s, continued to be developed with railway workshops, railway sheds, railway marshalling yards, locomotive depots, in 1907 Fremantle railway station was opened. During World War II, the harbour accommodated scores of Allied naval vessels on active service. Battleships, troop transports, hospital ships and support vessels, including many passenger ships, were seconded into the war effort. Visitors to Fremantle during the conflict included passenger liners and converted troop carriers RMS Queen Elizabeth and RMS Queen Mary.
Because of their size neither was able to take up an inner harbour berth, instead anchored i