1842 general strike
The 1842 general strike known as the Plug Plot Riots, started among the miners in Staffordshire and soon spread through Britain affecting factories, mills in Yorkshire and Lancashire, coal mines from Dundee to South Wales and Cornwall. The strike was influenced by the Chartist movement – a mass working class movement from 1838–1848. After the second Chartist Petition was presented to Parliament in May 1842, Stalybridge contributed 10,000 signatures. After the rejection of the petition the first general strike began in the coal mines of Staffordshire; the second phase of the strike originated in Stalybridge. A movement of resistance to the imposition of wage cuts in the mills known as the "Plug Riots", it spread to involve nearly half a million workers throughout Britain and represented the biggest single exercise of working class strength in nineteenth-century Britain. On 13 August 1842, there was a strike at Bayley's cotton mill in Stalybridge, roving groups of workers carried the stoppage first to the whole area of Stalybridge and Ashton to Manchester, subsequently to towns adjacent to Manchester including Preston, using as much force as was necessary to bring mills to a standstill.
The Preston Strike of 1842 resulted in a riot. The West Riding of Yorkshire saw disturbances at Bradford and Hunslet. At least six people died in a riot at Halifax. One perspective is that the movement remained, to outward appearances non-political. Although the People's Charter was praised at public meetings, the resolutions that were passed at these were in all cases for a restoration of the wages of 1820, a ten-hour working day, or reduced rents. In contrast, Mick Jenkins in his "General Strike of 1842" offers a Marxist interpretation which sees the strike as becoming insurrectionary and intrinsically linked to the Chartist movement. "What emerges... is the changing character of the strike--an understanding that the main aim of the strike was for the People's Charter". He cites resolutions in support of the Charter. Jenkins sees the political nature of the strike expressed in the repression of the strikers: "When the meeting had assembled, a party of the Rifle Brigade charged into the crowd, one man had his hand run through with a bayonet.".
The repression that followed was "unmatched in the nineteenth century... In the North-West alone over 1,500 strikers were brought to trial". John Foster, in his introduction, argues that Jenkins' account of the strike "compels historians to reassess a number of crucial aspects in the country's political development". In considering universal suffrage, he argues that "historians have tended to emphasize the inevitability of Britain's progress towards majority rule. A study of 1842 supplies a useful corrective, it spurs us to look in a quite different direction to ask why universal suffrage was withheld for so long and what combination of forces made it possible to do this" and "how the demand for universal suffrage was resisted, in what way the working class was persuaded not to make political use again of its industrial strength... poses the most interesting and fundamental problem". 1842 Pottery Riots - these took place in the backdrop of the strike
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, crocheting and braiding or plaiting; the longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. The method in which these threads are inter-woven affects the characteristics of the cloth. Cloth is woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band which meets this definition of cloth can be made using other methods, including tablet weaving, back strap loom, or other techniques without looms; the way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave. The majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves: plain weave, satin weave, or twill. Woven cloth can be woven in decorative or artistic design. In general, weaving involves using a loom to interlace two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp which runs longitudinally and the weft that crosses it.
One warp thread is called. The warp threads are held taut and in parallel to each other in a loom. There are many types of looms. Weaving can be summarized as a repetition of these three actions called the primary motion of the loom. Shedding: where the warp threads are separated by raising or lowering heald frames to form a clear space where the pick can pass Picking: where the weft or pick is propelled across the loom by hand, an air-jet, a rapier or a shuttle. Beating-up or battening: where the weft is pushed up against the fell of the cloth by the reed; the warp is divided into two overlapping groups, or lines that run in two planes, one above another, so the shuttle can be passed between them in a straight motion. The upper group is lowered by the loom mechanism, the lower group is raised, allowing to pass the shuttle in the opposite direction in a straight motion. Repeating these actions form a fabric mesh but without beating-up, the final distance between the adjacent wefts would be irregular and far too large.
The secondary motion of the loom are the: Let off Motion: where the warp is let off the warp beam at a regulated speed to make the filling and of the required design Take up Motion: Takes up the woven fabric in a regulated manner so that the density of filling is maintainedThe tertiary motions of the loom are the stop motions: to stop the loom in the event of a thread break. The two main stop motions are the warp stop motion weft stop motionThe principal parts of a loom are the frame, the warp-beam or weavers beam, the cloth-roll, the heddles, their mounting, the reed; the warp-beam is a wooden or metal cylinder on the back of the loom. The threads of the warp extend in parallel order from the warp-beam to the front of the loom where they are attached to the cloth-roll; each thread or group of threads of the warp passes through an opening in a heddle. The warp threads are separated by the heddles into two or more groups, each controlled and automatically drawn up and down by the motion of the heddles.
In the case of small patterns the movement of the heddles is controlled by "cams" which move up the heddles by means of a frame called a harness. Where a complex design is required, the healds are raised by harness cords attached to a Jacquard machine; every time the harness moves up or down, an opening is made between the threads of warp, through which the pick is inserted. Traditionally the weft thread is inserted by a shuttle. On a conventional loom, the weft thread is carried on a pirn, in a shuttle that passes through the shed. A handloom weaver could propel the shuttle by throwing it from side to side with the aid of a picking stick; the "picking" on a power loom is done by hitting the shuttle from each side using an overpick or underpick mechanism controlled by cams 80–250 times a minute. When a pirn is depleted, it is ejected from the shuttle and replaced with the next pirn held in a battery attached to the loom. Multiple shuttle boxes allow more than one shuttle to be used; each can carry a different colour.
The rapier-type weaving machines do not have shuttles, they propel the weft by means of small grippers or rapiers that pick up the filling thread and carry it halfway across the loom where another rapier picks it up and pulls it the rest of the way. Some carry the filling yarns across the loom at rates in excess of 2,000 metres per minute. Manufacturers such as Picanol have reduced the mechanical adjustments to a minimum, control all the functions through a computer with a graphical user interface. Other types use compressed air to insert the pick, they are all fast and quiet. The warp is sized in a starch mixture for smoother running; the loom warped by passing the sized warp threads through two or more heddles attached to harnesses. The power weavers. Most looms used for industrial purposes have a machine that ties new warps threads to the waste of used warps threads, while still on the loom an operator rolls the old and new threads back on the warp beam; the harnesses are controlled by dobbies or a Jacquard head.
The raising and lowering
Stationary steam engine
Stationary steam engines are fixed steam engines used for pumping or driving mills and factories, for power generation. They are distinct from locomotive engines used on railways, traction engines for heavy steam haulage on roads, steam cars, agricultural engines used for ploughing or threshing, marine engines, the steam turbines used as the mechanism of power generation for most nuclear power plants, they were introduced during the 18th century and made for the whole of the 19th century and most of the first half of the 20th century, only declining as electricity supply and the internal combustion engine became more widespread. There are different patterns of stationary steam engines, distinguished by the layout of the cylinders and crankshaft: Beam engines have a rocking beam providing the connection between the vertical cylinder and crankshaft. Table engines have the crosshead above the crankshaft below. Horizontal engines have a horizontal cylinder. Vertical engines have a vertical cylinder.
Inclined engines have an inclined cylinder. Stationary engines may be classified by secondary characteristics as well: High-speed engines are distinguished by fast-acting valves. Corliss engines are distinguished by special rotary valve gear. Uniflow engines exhaust ports at the midpoint; when stationary engines had multiple cylinders, they could be classified as: Simple engines, with multiple identical cylinders operating on a common crankshaft. Compound engines which use the exhaust from high-pressure cylinders to power low-pressure cylinders. An engine could be run in simple or condensing mode: Simple mode meant the exhaust gas left the cylinder and passed straight into the atmosphere In condensing mode, the steam was cooled in a separate cylinder, changed from vapour to liquid water, creating a vacuum that assisted with the motion; this could be done with a water-cooled plate that acted as a heat sink, or pumping-in a spray of water. Stationary engines may be classified by their application: Pumping engines are found in pumping stations.
Mill engines to power textile mills Winding engines power various types of hoists. Refrigeration engines are coupled to ammonia compressors. Stationary engines could be classified by the manufacturer Boulton & Watt George Saxon & Co In order of evolution: Savery atmospheric engine Newcomen engine Watt engine Trevithick Hornblower Woolf McNaught'ed compound beam engines Cornish engine Corliss engine Porter-Allen engine Uniflow engine Todd's Steam turbine Boilers Lineshaft List of steam energy topics Stationary engine Steam donkey Preserved stationary steam engines Buchanan, R. A. and Watkins, The Industrial Archaeology of the Stationary Steam Engine, London, 1976, ISBN 0-7139-0604-9 Hills, Richard Leslie. Power from Steam: A History of the Stationary Steam Engine. Cambridge University Press. P. 244. ISBN 9780521458344. Retrieved January 2009. Roberts, A S. Arthur Robert's Engine List. Arthur Roberts Black Book. One guy from Barlick-Book Transcription. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2009-01-11.
Watkins, Stationary Steam Engines of Great Britain, Landmark Publishing, various ISBNsVol 1, Yorkshire Vol 2, Scotland and Northern England Vols 3:1, 3:2, Lancashire Vol 4, Cheshire,& Shropshire Vol 5, The North Midlands Vol 6, The South Midlands Vol 7, The South and South West Vol 8, Greater London and the South East Vol 9, East Anglia & adjacent counties Vol 10, Marine Engines This series reproduces some 1,500 images from the Steam Engine Record made by George Watkins between 1930 and 1980, now in the Watkins Collection at English Heritage's National Monuments Record at Swindon, Wilts. Vertical Stationary Steam Engine on YouTube Vertical Stationary Steam Engine on YouTube Old Engine House, List of Museums – examples of stationary steam engines preserved in the UK International Steam.co.uk – comprehensive coverage of stationary steam engines in their original locations and non-working, in many countries preserved stationary steam engines – includes lesser-known museums containing such engines Steamers steam engine forum – Questions and answers about old steam engines, traction engines
Boulton and Watt
Boulton & Watt was an early British engineering and manufacturing firm in the business of designing and making marine and stationary steam engines. Founded in the English West Midlands around Birmingham in 1775 as a partnership between the English manufacturer Matthew Boulton and the Scottish engineer James Watt, the firm had a major role in the Industrial Revolution and grew to be a major producer of steam engines in the 19th century; the partnership was formed in 1775 to exploit Watt's patent for a steam engine with a separate condenser. This made much more efficient use of its fuel than the older Newcomen engine; the business was based at the Soho Manufactory near Boulton's Soho House on the southern edge of the then-rural parish of Handsworth. However most of the components for their engines were made by others, for example the cylinders by John Wilkinson. In 1795, they began to make steam engines themselves at their Soho Foundry in Smethwick, near Birmingham, England; the partnership was passed to two of their sons in 1800.
William Murdoch was made a partner of the firm in 1810, where he remained until his retirement 20 years at the age of 76. The firm lasted over 120 years, albeit renamed "James Watt & Co." in 1849, was still making steam engines in 1895, when it was sold to W & T Avery Ltd.. The business was a hotbed for the nurturing of emerging engineering talent. Among the names which were employed there in the eighteenth century were James Law, Peter Ewart, William Brunton, Isaac Perrins, William Murdoch, John Southern; the firm left an detailed archive of its activities, given to the city of Birmingham in 1911 and is kept at the Library of Birmingham. The library has since obtained various other related archives. An additional archive was donated to the Boulton and Watt collection in 2015, it represents the significant research carried out by Dr John Richardson The archive includes: A copy of his completed P.h. D.thesis submitted to the University of Reading in 1989. The original thesis remains the property of the University of Reading.
The archive contains: Display folders containing text and different varieties of drawings from the detailed examination of the large number of portfolios of engineering drawings. These include drawings used in the development of new ideas, detail drawings of parts, assembly drawings, drawings used in instruction and function and'prestige' drawings produced in full colour to provide customers with realistic views of assemblies and finished engines. Folders containing detailed handwritten notes on all portfolios examined; this information includes dates of drawings and comments on techniques used. Where applicable, the records cross reference with letters and other related literature on the firm of Boulton and Watt. A selection of DVDs containing all text and the many drawings studied are included in the archive; the research is concerned with the contribution of the firm of Boulton and Watt to engineering drawing used in design and manufacture. The archive includes work carried out by other early architects, artists and designers.
The archive includes information on a project undertaken in 1984. The Australian Project An opportunity arose in 1984 to evaluate the use of Boulton & Watt drawings made two hundred years earlier when Dr Richardson was asked to help the Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences, New South Wales Australia who were planning to restore and erect a Boulton and Watt engine. In the course of restoration the engine had been dismantled and the work revealed that the cylinder, valve gear and air pump had all been modified at least once from the original design. Reports from Australia confirmed that the engine was erected in the Power House Museum, New South Wales; this engine was designed and built for Samuel Whitbread in 1784 and the job portfolio contains forty four drawings that relate to it. Copies of the different types of drawings were sent out. Smethwick Engine, Thinktank science museum, manufactured 1779. Whitbread Engine, Powerhouse Museum, manufactured 1785, 25 inch bore, 72 inch stroke. Crofton Pumping Station manufactured 42.25 inch bore, 84 inch stroke.
Kew Bridge Steam Museum manufactured 64 inch bore, 96 inch stroke. Papplewick Pumping Station two engines, manufactured 1884, 46 inch bore, 90 inch stroke. Believed to be the last engines manufactured by the company. Beam Engine Samuel Clegg Steam engine Watt steam engine William Murdoch Hills, Richard L.. James Watt: His Time in Scotland. Landmark Publishing. ISBN 1-84306-045-0; the Non-Rotative Beam Engine Chapter 3: The Boulton and Watt Engine Maurice Kelly ISBN 0-9536523-3-5 Archives of Soho at Birmingham Central Library. Revolutionary Players website Cornwall Record Office Boulton & Watt letters
A power loom is a mechanized loom, was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution. The first power loom was designed in 1784 by Edmund Cartwright and first built in 1785, it was refined over the next 47 years until a design by Kenworthy and Bullough made the operation automatic. By 1850 there were 260,000 power. Fifty years came the Northrop loom which replenished the shuttle when it was empty; this replaced the Lancashire loom. The main components of the loom are the warp beam, harnesses, shuttle and takeup roll. In the loom, yarn processing includes shedding, picking and taking-up operations. Shedding. Shedding is the raising of the warp yarns to form a loop through which the filling yarn, carried by the shuttle, can be inserted; the shed is the vertical space between the raised and unraised warp yarns. On the modern loom and intricate shedding operations are performed automatically by the heddle or heald frame known as a harness; this is a rectangular frame to which a series of wires, called healds, are attached.
The yarns are passed through the eye holes of the heddles. The weave pattern determines which harness controls which warp yarns, the number of harnesses used depends on the complexity of the weave. Two common methods of controlling the heddles are a Jacquard Head. Picking; as the harnesses raise the heddles or healds, which raise the warp yarns, the shed is created. The filling yarn is inserted through the shed by a small carrier device called a shuttle; the shuttle is pointed at each end to allow passage through the shed. In a traditional shuttle loom, the filling yarn is wound onto a quill, which in turn is mounted in the shuttle; the filling yarn emerges through a hole in the shuttle. A single crossing of the shuttle from one side of the loom to the other is known as a pick; as the shuttle moves back and forth across the shed, it weaves an edge, or selvage, on each side of the fabric to prevent the fabric from raveling. Battening; as the shuttle moves across the loom laying down the fill yarn, it passes through openings in another frame called a reed.
With each picking operation, the reed presses or battens each filling yarn against the portion of the fabric, formed. The point where the fabric is formed is called the fell. Conventional shuttle looms can operate at speeds of about 150 to 200 picks per minuteWith each weaving operation, the newly constructed fabric must be wound on a cloth beam; this process is called taking up. At the same time, the warp yarns must be released from the warp beams. To become automatic, a loom needs a filling stop motion which will brake the loom, if the weft thread breaks. Operation of weaving in a textile mill is undertaken by a specially trained operator known as a weaver. Weavers are expected to uphold high industry standards and are tasked with monitoring anywhere from ten, to as many as thirty separate looms at any one time. During their operating shift, weavers will first utilize a wax pencil or crayon to sign their initials onto the cloth to mark a shift change, walk along the cloth side of the looms they tend touching the fabric as it comes from the reed.
This is done to feel for filler thread. Should broken picks be detected, the weaver will disable the machine and undertake to correct the error by replacing the bobbin of filler thread in as little time as possible, they are trained that, ideally, no machine should stop working for more than one minute, with faster turn around times being preferred. Once the weaver has made their circuit of the front of the machines, they will circle around to the back. At this point they will stroke their hand over the raised metal "tells" on the back of the machine; these tells, located over a special metal circuit, are held up by the tension of the thread coming from the warp. Should the warp thread be broken, the tells will cause the machine to stop working. However, it is possible for them to become stuck in the upward position, by doing so create problems in the weaving. By touching the tells it is possible for the weaver to find tells which have become stuck in the up position, correct the error; as with pick breaks, the weavers are trained to keep the machines running as much as possible.
In this situation, they are expected to take less than a minute, with the mean ideal being ten to thirty seconds, to correct a break. The weaver watches for warps that are about to run out, or problems in the warp itself which were not detected in the slashing process. Weavers can expect to make several dozen circuits of their machines a night, with most of their time spent ensuring the quality of the cloth and the company standards of production; the first ideas for an automatic loom were developed in 1678 by M. de Gennes in Paris and by Vaucanson in 1745, but these designs were never developed and were forgotten. In 1785 Edmund Cartwright patented a power loom which used water power to speed up the weaving process, the predecessor to the modern power loom, his ideas were licensed first by Grimshaw, of Manchester who built a small steam-powered weaving factory in Manchester in 1790, but the factory burnt down. Cartwright's was not a commercially successful machine. Over the next decades, Cartwright's ideas were modified into a reliable automatic loom.
These designs preceded John Kay's invention of the flying shuttle and they passed the shuttle through the shed using
The Bridgewater Canal connects Runcorn and Leigh, in North West England. It was commissioned by Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, to transport coal from his mines in Worsley to Manchester, it was opened in 1761 from Worsley to Manchester, extended from Manchester to Runcorn, from Worsley to Leigh. The canal is connected to the Manchester Ship Canal via a lock at Cornbrook, it once connected with the River Mersey at Runcorn but has since been cut off by a slip road to the Silver Jubilee Bridge. Although mistakenly, considered to be the first true canal in England, it required the construction of an aqueduct to cross the River Irwell, one of the first of its kind, its success helped inspire a period of intense canal building in Britain, known as Canal Mania. It faced intense competition from the Liverpool and Manchester Railway and the Macclesfield Canal. Navigable throughout its history, it is one of the few canals in Britain not to have been nationalised, remains owned. Pleasure craft now use the canal.
Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, owned some of the coal mines dug to supply North West England with fuel for the steam engines instrumental in powering England's Industrial Revolution. The duke transported his coal along the Mersey and Irwell Navigation and by packhorse, but each method was inefficient and expensive; the duke's underground mines suffered from persistent flooding, caused by the geology of the Middle Coal Measures, where the coal seam lies beneath a layer of permeable sandstone. Having visited the Canal du Midi in France and watched the construction of the Sankey Canal in England, the duke's solution to these problems was to build an underground canal at Worsley, connected to a surface canal between Worsley and Salford. In addition to easing overland transport difficulties and providing drainage for his mines, an underground canal would provide a reliable source of water for the surface canal, eliminate the need to lift the coal to the surface; the canal boats would carry 30 long tons at a time, pulled by only one horse – more than ten times the amount of cargo per horse, possible with a cart.
The duke and his estate manager John Gilbert produced a plan of the canal, in 1759 obtained an Act of Parliament, enabling its construction. James Brindley was brought in for his technical expertise, after a six-day visit suggested varying the route of the proposed canal away from Salford, instead taking it across the River Irwell to Stretford and thereon into Manchester; this route would make connecting to any future canals much easier, would increase competition with the Mersey and Irwell Navigation company. Brindley moved into Worsley Old Hall and spent 46 days surveying the proposed route, which to cross the Irwell would require the construction of an aqueduct at Barton-upon-Irwell. At the duke's behest, in January 1760 Brindley travelled to London to give evidence before a parliamentary committee; the duke therefore gained a second Act of Parliament. Brindley's planned route began at Worsley and passed southeast through Eccles, before turning south to cross the River Irwell on the Barton Aqueduct.
From there it continued southeast along the edge of Trafford Park, east into Manchester. Although a connection with the Mersey and Irwell Navigation was included in the new Act, at Hulme Locks in Castlefield, this was not completed until 1838; the terminus would be at Castlefield Basin, where the nearby River Medlock was to help supply the canal with water. Boats would unload their cargoes inside the duke's purpose-built warehouse. There were no locks in Brindley's design, demonstrating his ability as a competent engineer; the Barton Aqueduct was built quickly for the time. The duke invested a large sum of money in the scheme. From Worsley to Manchester its construction cost £168,000, but its advantages over land and river transport meant that within a year of its opening in 1761, the price of coal in Manchester fell by about half; this success helped inspire a period of intense canal building, known as Canal Mania. Along with its stone aqueduct at Barton-upon-Irwell, the Bridgewater Canal was considered a major engineering achievement.
One commentator wrote that when finished, " will be the most extraordinary thing in the Kingdom, if not in Europe. The boats in some places are to go underground, in other places over a navigable river, without communicating with its waters". In addition to the duke's warehouse at Manchester, more buildings were built by Brindley and extended to Alport Street; the warehouses were of timber-frame design, with load-bearing hand-made brick walls, supported on cast iron posts. The duke's warehouse was rebuilt. In September 1761, with his assistant Hugh Oldham, Brindley surveyed an extension from Longford Bridge to Hempstones, near Halton, Cheshire, he assisted in obtaining Parliamentary approval for the Bridgewater Canal Extension Act of 1762 which allowed the construction of an extension to the canal, from Manchester, to the River Mersey at Runcorn. Despite objections f