Cantonese is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou and its surrounding area in Southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety and standard form of Yue Chinese, one of the major subgroups of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi, it is the official language of Hong Kong and Macau. Cantonese is widely spoken amongst Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia and throughout the Western world. While the term Cantonese refers to the prestige variety, it is used in a broader sense for the entire Yue subgroup of Chinese, including related but mutually unintelligible languages and dialects such as Taishanese; when Cantonese and the related Yuehai dialects are classified together, there are about 80 million total speakers. Cantonese is viewed as a vital and inseparable part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swaths of Southeastern China, Hong Kong and Macau, as well as in overseas communities.
Although Cantonese shares a lot of vocabulary with Mandarin, the two varieties are mutually unintelligible because of differences in pronunciation and lexicon. Sentence structure, in particular the placement of verbs, sometimes differs between the two varieties. A notable difference between Cantonese and Mandarin is; this results in the situation in which a Cantonese and a Mandarin text may look similar but are pronounced differently. In English, the term "Cantonese" can be ambiguous. Cantonese proper is the variety native to the city of Canton, the traditional English name of Guangzhou; this narrow sense may be specified as "Canton language" or "Guangzhou language". However, "Cantonese" may refer to the primary branch of Chinese that contains Cantonese proper as well as Taishanese and Gaoyang. In this article, "Cantonese" is used for Cantonese proper. Speakers called this variety "Canton speech" or "Guangzhou speech", although this term is now used outside Guangzhou. In Guangdong and Guangxi, people call it "provincial capital speech" or "plain speech".
Academically called "Canton prefecture speech". In Hong Kong and Macau, as well as among overseas Chinese communities, the language is referred to as "Guangdong speech" or "Canton Province speech", or as "Chinese". In mainland China, the term "Guangdong speech" is increasingly being used amongst both native and non-native speakers. Given the history of the development of the Yue languages and dialects during the Tang dynasty migrations to the region, in overseas Chinese communities, it is referred to as "Tang speech", given that the Cantonese people refer to themselves as "people of Tang". Due to its status as a prestige dialect among all the dialects of the Yue branch of Chinese varieties, it is called "Standard Cantonese"; the official languages of Hong Kong are English, as defined in the Hong Kong Basic Law. The Chinese language has many different varieties. Given the traditional predominance of Cantonese within Hong Kong, it is the de facto official spoken form of the Chinese language used in the Hong Kong Government and all courts and tribunals.
It is used as the medium of instruction in schools, alongside English. A similar situation exists in neighboring Macau, where Chinese is an official language alongside Portuguese; as in Hong Kong, Cantonese is the predominant spoken variety of Chinese used in everyday life and is thus the official form of Chinese used in the government. The Cantonese spoken in Hong Kong and Macau is mutually intelligible with the Cantonese spoken in the mainland city of Guangzhou, although there exist some minor differences in accent and vocabulary. Cantonese first developed around the port city of Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China. Due to the city's long standing as an important cultural center, Cantonese emerged as the prestige dialect of the Yue varieties of Chinese in the Southern Song dynasty and its usage spread around most of what is now the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. Despite the cession of Macau to Portugal in 1557 and Hong Kong to Britain in 1842, the ethnic Chinese population of the two territories originated from the 19th and 20th century immigration from Guangzhou and surrounding areas, making Cantonese the predominant Chinese language in the territories.
On the mainland, Cantonese continued to serve as the lingua franca of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces after Mandarin was made the official language of the government by the Qing dynasty in the early 1900s. Cantonese remained a dominant and influential language in southeastern China until the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and its promotion of Standard Chinese as the sole official language of the nation throughout the last half of the 20th century, although its influence still remains strong within the region. While the Chinese government vehemently discourages the official use of all forms of Chinese except Standard Chinese, Cantonese enjoys a higher standing than other Chinese langua
A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel. The stream encompasses surface and groundwater fluxes that respond to geological, geomorphological and biotic controls. Depending on its location or certain characteristics, a stream may be referred to by a variety of local or regional names. Long large streams are called rivers. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, corridors for fish and wildlife migration; the biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity; the study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology and is a core element of environmental geography. Brook A stream smaller than a creek one, fed by a spring or seep, it is small and forded. A brook is characterised by its shallowness.
Creek In North America and New Zealand, a small to medium-sized natural stream. Sometimes navigable by motor craft and may be intermittent. In parts of Maryland, New England, the UK and India, a tidal inlet in a salt marsh or mangrove swamp, or between enclosed and drained former salt marshes or swamps. In these cases, the stream is the tidal stream, the course of the seawater through the creek channel at low and high tide. River A large natural stream, which may be a waterway. Runnel the linear channel between the parallel ridges or bars on a shoreline beach or river floodplain, or between a bar and the shore. Called a swale. Tributary A contributory stream, or a stream which does not reach a static body of water such as a lake or ocean, but joins another river. Sometimes called a branch or fork. There are a number of regional names for a stream. Allt is used in Highland Scotland. Beck is used in Lincolnshire to Cumbria in areas which were once occupied by the Danes and Norwegians. Bourne or winterbourne is used in the chalk downland of southern England.
Brook. Burn is used in North East England. Gill or ghyll is seen in Surrey influenced by Old Norse; the variant "ghyll" is used in the Lake District and appears to have been an invention of William Wordsworth. Nant is used in Wales. Rivulet is a term encountered in Victorian era publications. Stream Syke is used in lowland Cumbria for a seasonal stream. Branch is used to name streams in Virginia. Creek is common throughout the United States, as well as Australia. Falls is used to name streams in Maryland, for streams/rivers which have waterfalls on them if such falls have a small vertical drop. Little Gunpowder Falls and The Jones Falls are rivers named in this manner, unique to Maryland. Kill in New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey comes from a Dutch language word meaning "riverbed" or "water channel", can be used for the UK meaning of'creek'. Run in Ohio, Michigan, New Jersey, Virginia, or West Virginia can be the name of a stream. Run in Florida is the name given to streams coming out of small natural springs.
River is used for larger springs like the Silver Rainbow River. Stream and brook are used in Midwestern states, Mid-Atlantic states, New England. Bar A shoal that develops in a stream as sediment is deposited as the current slows or is impeded by wave action at the confluence. Bifurcation A fork into two or more streams. Channel A depression created by constant erosion. Confluence The point at which the two streams merge. If the two tributaries are of equal size, the confluence may be called a fork. Drainage basin The area of land. A large drainage basin such as the Amazon River contains many smaller drainage basins. Floodplain Lands adjacent to the stream that are subject to flooding when a stream overflows its banks. Gaging station A site along the route of a stream or river, used for reference marking or water monitoring. Headwaters The part of a stream or river proximate to its source; the word is most used in the plural where there is no single point source. Knickpoint The point on a stream's profile where a sudden change in stream gradient occurs.
Mouth The point at which the stream discharges via an estuary or delta, into a static body of water such as a lake or ocean. Pool A segment where the water is deeper and slower moving. Rapids A turbulent, fast-flowing stretch of a stream or river. Riffle A segment where the flow is shallower and more turbulent. River A large natural stream, which may be a waterway. Run A somewhat smoothly flowing segment of the stream. Source The spring, or other point of origin of a stream. Spring The point at which a stream emerges from an underground course through unconsolidated sediments or through caves. A stream can with caves, flow aboveground for part of its course, underground for part of its course. Stream bed The bottom of a stream. Stream corridor Stream, its floodplains, the transitional upland fringe Streamflow The water moving through a stream channel. Thalweg The river's longitudinal section, or the line joining the deepest point in the channel at each stage from source to mouth. Waterfall or cascade The fall of water where the stream goes over a sudden drop called a knickpoint.
The stream expends kinetic energy in "trying" to eliminate the
Taikoo Shing or Tai Koo Shing, is a private residential development in Quarry Bay, in the eastern part of Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. It forms a part of the Swire Properties's residential and retail branding, along with Taikoo Place, the adjacent Cityplaza retail and office complex and EAST, a lifestyle business hotel. Taikoo is the Cantonese pronunciation of Swire's Chinese name, while Shing can be translated as City. Thus, Taikoo Shing can be loosely translated as Swire City. According to Swire, its Chinese name Taikoo was chosen by British Consul in Shanghai Thomas Taylor Meadow when Swire's Shanghai office opened in 1866; the entire Taikoo Shing estate covers 21.5 hectares, consist of 61 residential towers, with a total of 12,698 apartment flats that ranges anywhere between 585 square feet to 1,237 square feet. The Taikoo Shing estate was once the site of Taikoo Dockyard, whose foundation stone now lies beside Cityplaza; the dockyard moved to United Dockyards at the west shore of the Tsing Yi Island in the late 1970s, Taikoo Shing was constructed over the site in stages, with constructions of all main residential buildings complete by the early 1990s.
As part of the business strategy, Swire Properties was established in 1972 after the closing of the dockyard. Taikoo Shing became one of Hong Kong's first major private housing estates. Completing in 1986, Swire became one of the largest property companies doing the construction themselves; the area was designed to maximise middle-class residential capacity. Development of commercial areas still continues today. After the completion of Cityplaza 3 and 4 as office buildings, the original Cityplaza 1 was demolished in the mid-90s for redevelopment; as of 2007, the food market, constructed was demolished to make room for a hotel. In the 2011 census, Taikoo Shing recorded 36,796 residents; the median monthly rent among rental households was $18,000. Apartment flats in Taikoo Shing are popular amongst buyers and speculators, for a significant time in the 1980s and 1990s, Taikoo Shing's housing price is a general indicator of the Hong Kong's housing market health in general. Although in recent years, newer housing developments have eroded a bit of Taikoo Shing's once prominent status.
The estate is a sought-after place to live for the Japanese and Korean expatriate communities in Hong Kong, most of which are staffed in multinational corporations based in Hong Kong. As a result of this significant Korean and Japanese settlement, the area has many Korean and Japanese-themed service establishments; the housing in Taikoo Shing was developed in stages, with the Tsui Woo Terrace being the first ones constructed. In all, the estate's housing complexes are broken down into 6 terraces and 2 gardens, each with a special naming scheme, it is important to note that those mansions under the "garden" group are considered to be premium housing, more expensive than those that fall under the "terrace" category. Tsui Woo Terrace; the terrace consists of three mansions. Tung Ting Mansion Note: name is a reference to Dongting Lake. Po Yang Mansion Note: name is a reference to Poyang Lake. Tai Woo Mansion Note: name is a reference to Lake Tai. Ko Shan Terrace. A couple of the mansion's names corresponds to famous mountains in China.
The terrace consists of 13 mansions. Tung Shan Mansion Tien Shan Mansion Tai Shan Mansion Lo Shan Mansion Nam Shan Mansion Po Shan Mansion Heng Shan Mansion Wah Shan Mansion Loong Shan Mansion Foong Shan Mansion Yee Shan Mansion Kam Shan Mansion Fu Shan Mansion Kam Din Terrace. In addition, all of the mansions names' first character corresponds to various political dynasties in Chinese history; the terrace consists of 8 mansions. Tang Kung Mansion Note: first character of this mansion's name is a reference to Tang Dynasty. Yen Kung Mansion Note: first character of this mansion's name is a reference to a rebel dynasty in ancient China. Yuan Kung Mansion Note: first character of this mansion's name is a reference to Yuan Dynasty. Ming Kung Mansion Note: first character of this mansion's name is a reference to Ming Dynasty. Hsia Kung Mansion Note: first character of this mansion's name is a reference to Xia Dynasty. Han Kung Mansion Note: first character of this mansion's name is a reference to Han Dynasty.
Chai Kung Mansion Note: first character of this mansion's name is a reference to Qi Dynasty. Tsui Kung Mansion Note: first character of this mansion's name is a reference to Sui Dynasty. On Shing Terrace; the terrace consists of 6 mansions. Ning On Mansion Po On Mansion Shun On Mansion Hing On Mansion Kin On Mansion Ko On Mansion Harbour View Gardens; the area consists of 11 mansions. Pine Mansion Banyan Mansion Willow Mansion Oak Mansion Maple Mansion Juniper Mansion Marigold Mansion Begonia Mansion Lotus Mansion Wisteria Mansion Primrose Mansion (春櫻
The Hakka, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang and Guizhou. The Chinese characters for Hakka mean "guest families". Unlike other Han Chinese groups, the Hakkas are not named after a geographical region, e.g. a province, county or city, in China. Modern day Hakka are identified by different degrees of Hakka ancestry and speak the Hakka language; the Hakkas are thought to have originated from the lands bordering the Yellow River. In a series of migrations, the Hakkas moved and settled in their present areas in Southern China, from there, substantial numbers migrated overseas to various countries throughout the world; as the most diasporic among the Chinese community groups, the worldwide population of Hakkas is about 75 million to 120 million. The Hakkas moved from northern China into southern China at a time when the Han Chinese people who lived there had developed distinctive cultural identities and languages from their northern Han Chinese counterparts.
The Tunbao and Chuanqing people are other Han Chinese subgroups that migrated from north China to south China while maintaining their northern Han Chinese traditions which differentiated them from their southern Han neighbours. The Hakka people have had significant influence on the course of modern Chinese and overseas Chinese history; the Hakka language was the national language of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, which had, at one stage, occupied one-third of China in the 19th century. Today, it is one of the official languages of the Republic of China. Migrants were referred to as no specific people were referred to as Hakka at first. Northern China's Yellow River area was the homeland of the Hakka. Since the Qin dynasty, the ancestors of the Hakka people have migrated southwards several times because of social unrest and invasions. Subsequent migrations occurred at the end of the Tang dynasty in the 10th century and during the end of the Northern Song dynasty in the 1120s, the last of which saw a massive flood of refugees fleeing southward when the Jurchens captured the northern Song capital of Bianliang in the Jingkang Incident of the Jin–Song Wars.
The precise movements of the Hakka people remain unclear during the 14th century when the Ming dynasty overthrew the Yuan dynasty and subsequently fell to the Manchus who formed the Qing dynasty in the 17th century. During the 16th century, in response to an economic boom, the Hakka moved into hilly areas to mine for zinc and lead, moved into the coastal plains to cultivate cash crops. After an economic downturn, many of these ventures failed and many people had to turn to pillaging to make ends meet. During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor in the Qing dynasty, the coastal regions were evacuated by imperial edict for a decade, due to the dangers posed by the remnants of the Ming court who had fled to the island of Taiwan; when the threat was eliminated, Kangxi Emperor issued an edict to re-populate the coastal regions. To aid the move, each family was given monetary incentives to begin their new lives. Although different in some social customs and culture from the surrounding population, they belong to the Han Chinese majority.
Historical sources shown in census statistics relate only to the general population, irrespective of particular districts, provinces, or regions. These census counts were made during imperial times, they did not distinguish. Therefore, they do not directly document Hakka migrations; the study by Lo Hsiang-lin, K'o-chia Yen-chiu Tao-Liu / An Introduction to the Study of the Hakkas used genealogical sources of family clans from various southern counties. According to the 2009 studies published in the American Journal of Human Genetics, Hakka genes are tilted towards northern Han people compared with other southern Han people; the study has shown a strong common genetic relationship between all Han Chinese with only a small difference of 0.32%. Lingnan Hakka place names indicate a long history of the Hakka being culturally Han Chinese. Unlike other Han Chinese groups, the Hakkas are not named after a geographical region, e.g. a province, county or city. The Hakka people have a distinct identity from the Cantonese people.
As 60% of the Hakkas in China reside in Guangdong province, 95% of overseas Hakkas ancestral homes are in Guangdong. Hakkas from Chaozhou and Fujian are mistaken to be Chaoshanese and Hokkiens. Strangers who find out that the other party is a Hakka will affectionately acknowledge each other as "zìjiārén" meaning "all's in the same family", it is held that the Hakkas are a subgroup of the Han Chinese that originated in Northern China. To trace their origins, three accepted theories so far have been brought forth among anthropologists and historians: The Hakkas are Han Chinese originating from the Central Plain in China; the latter two theories are the most and are together supported by multiple scientific studies. Clyde Kiang stated that the Hakkas' origins may be linked with
Yale romanization of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese circulated in looseleaf form in 1952 but published in 1958. Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still used in books and dictionaries for foreign learners of Cantonese, it shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, is represented as p. Students attending The Chinese University of Hong Kong's New-Asia Yale-in-China Chinese Language Center are taught using Yale romanization. Only the finals m and ng can be used as standalone nasal syllables. Modern Cantonese has up to seven phonemic tones. Cantonese Yale represents these tones using a combination of diacritics and the letter h. Traditional Chinese linguistics treats the tones in syllables ending with a stop consonant as separate "entering tones".
Cantonese Yale follows modern linguistic conventions in treating these the same as the high-flat, mid-flat and low-flat tones, respectively. Sample transcription of one of the 300 Tang Poems by Meng Haoran: Cantonese phonology Jyutping Guangdong Romanization Cantonese Pinyin Sidney Lau romanisation S. L. Wong Barnett–Chao Romanisation Yale romanization of Mandarin Yale romanization of Korean Gwaan, Choi-wa 關彩華. English-Cantonese Dictionary - 英粤字典: Cantonese in Yale Romanization. Chinese University Press. ISBN 962-201-970-6. Matthews, Stephen & Yip, Virginia. Cantonese. A Comprehensive Grammar. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08945-X. Ng Lam, Sim-yuk & Chik, Hon-man. Chinese-English Dictionary 漢英小字典: Cantonese in Yale Romanization, Mandarin in Pinyin. Chinese University Press. ISBN 962-201-922-6. Comparison chart of Romanization for Cantonese with Yale, S. Lau, Toho and LSHK MDBG free online Chinese-English dictionary Online Chinese Character to Yale Romanization of Cantonese lookup Conversion tool
North Point is a mixed-use urban area in the Eastern District of Hong Kong. It is in the northeastern part of Hong Kong Island, between Causeway Bay and Quarry Bay, projects toward Kowloon Bay. North Point is bounded by Hing Fat Street to the west and by Mansion Street to the east, by Victoria Harbour to the north and Braemar Hill to the south; the Fortress Hill area forms the westernmost part of North Point, while the Tsat Tsz Mui area is located in its easternmost part. Parts of North Point have been inhabited since before the British arrived in the mid-19th century; the Metropole Hotel was built in 1899 and was used until 1906. In 1919, the Hongkong Electric Company started operation of the territory's second power station at North Point. In the 1920s, Ming Yuen Amusement Park became a popular entertainment venues on the Island. During the 1930s, the beaches of North Point became one of the most popular places for holding swimming gala in Hong Kong. In 1938, the North Point Refugee Camp was built to accommodate the influx of refugees from the Mainland.
The camp comprised 26 huts. Access to the camp was via Kam Hong Marble Road. During World War II, the camp was renamed the North Point Camp, used as a prisoner of war camp for captured Canadian soldiers during the Japanese occupation. During the Chinese Civil War, a large number of the rich and middle class from Shanghai fled to Hong Kong to escape the turmoil of war, many of them settled in North Point. In 1950, North Point became known as "Little Shanghai", since in the minds of many, it has become the replacement for the surrendered Shanghai in China; the first wave of emigrants introduced beauty parlours and barbershops. They learned Cantonese and intermarried with people of other dialect groups. During the 1950s, North Point was the premiere place of residence for these emigrants, leading to a massive population boom; the first school in Hong Kong to use Mandarin as the main medium of instruction and Chekiang Primary School, was founded in 1953 in North Point by these early Shanghainese immigrants.
Shanghai at the time was associated with leftist movements. The second group that moved to North Point were the Fujianese, who were displaced by political events in Southeast Asia. Small Indonesian specialist grocery shops selling coffee and bumbu are some of the remaining traces of their identity; the area became known as "Little Fujian". And Chun Yeung Street, one iconic place that you can find variety of traditional Fujianese food from the grocery shops, such as "misua", "tokwa", "tikoy", "lumpia" & "green bean cake". After Cantonese, Min Nan is the most spoken language here. Many Min Nan associations are based in North Point to bring people from the same towns or villages together. Several Min Nan-speaking churches are located in North Point to serve the Min Nan Christians. Today North Point comprises a mix of older Chinese buildings. Two public housing estates are located in North Point: Model Housing Estate, the oldest existing public housing estate in Hong Kong, with several blocks completed in 1954, Healthy Village.
City Garden, built from 1983 to 1986, is a private housing estate consisting of 14 blocks, each 28 storeys tall. Part of the site was occupied North Point Power Station before 1983. North Point Estate, beside the North Point Ferry Pier, was demolished in 2003. There are three government primary schools in North Point. Located at 888 King's Road, the North Point Government Primary School opened in 1954; the North Point Island Place Primary and Kindergarten School is located on Tanner Road and is in the Island Place Estate. The North Point Government Primary School abbreviated as NPCVR opened in 1954, is located at 22 Cloud View Road. All three schools are whole-day, co-ed and have nominated secondary school status with Shau Kei Wan GSS, Shau Kei Wan East GSS and Clementi Secondary School. Located near Tin Hau Station is Island Children's Montessori School & Kindergarten, an international school providing playgroup, nursery and summer camp programs. Established in 2008, it was chosen as one of the top kindergartens in Hong Kong by Asia Tatler in 2011.
The Hong Kong Japanese School's Secondary Section is on Braemar Hill in North Point. The Chinese International School is located on Hau Yuen Path in Braemar Hill and is a private, co-educational school providing education to students from Reception to Year 13. Established in 1983, the school has a diverse student body with over 30 nationalities represented. Secondary school students pursue the IB Primary Years Programme before moving on to the IB Diploma. North Point is served by the Island Line and the Tseung Kwan O Line of the MTR rapid transit railway system. North Point Station is the terminus of the Tseung Kwan O Line. There is Island Eastern Corridor, serving North Point. North Point is served by Hong Kong Tramways, of which it is one of the seven terminal points. Kowloon Motor Bus, New World First Bus and Citybus have routes through North Point. Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry services connect North Point Ferry Pier to various places in Hong Kong, including Hung Hom, Kowloon City, Kwun Tong. During the annual Tin Hau Festival, special ferries operate from North Point Ferry Pier to Joss House Bay.
North Point is served by public light buses. Streets in North Point include: List of a