The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Historians depict it as the golden age in English history; the symbol of Britannia was first used in 1572, thereafter, to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, naval triumph over Spain. The historian John Guy argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, more optimistic under the Tudors" than at any time in a thousand years; this "golden age" represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of poetry and literature. The era is most famous for theatre, as William Shakespeare and many others composed plays that broke free of England's past style of theatre, it was an age of exploration and expansion abroad, while back at home, the Protestant Reformation became more acceptable to the people, most after the Spanish Armada was repulsed. It was the end of the period when England was a separate realm before its royal union with Scotland.
The Elizabethan age contrasts with the previous and following reigns. It was a brief period of internal peace between the English Reformation and the religious battles between Protestants and Catholics and the political battles between parliament and the monarchy that engulfed the remainder of the seventeenth century; the Protestant/Catholic divide was settled, for a time, by the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, parliament was not yet strong enough to challenge royal absolutism. England was well-off compared to the other nations of Europe; the Italian Renaissance had come to an end under the weight of Spanish domination of the peninsula. France was embroiled in its own religious battles that were settled in 1598 by a policy of tolerating Protestantism with the Edict of Nantes. In part because of this, but because the English had been expelled from their last outposts on the continent by Spain's tercios, the centuries-long conflict between France and England was suspended for most of Elizabeth's reign.
The one great rival was Spain, with whom England clashed both in Europe and the Americas in skirmishes that exploded into the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604. An attempt by Philip II of Spain to invade England with the Spanish Armada in 1588 was famously defeated, but the tide of war turned against England with an unsuccessful expedition to Portugal and the Azores, the Drake-Norris Expedition of 1589. Thereafter, Spain provided some support for Irish Catholics in a debilitating rebellion against English rule, Spanish naval and land forces inflicted a series of reversals against English offensives; this drained both the English Exchequer and economy, so restored under Elizabeth's prudent guidance. English commercial and territorial expansion would be limited until the signing of the Treaty of London the year following Elizabeth's death. England during this period had a centralised, well-organised, effective government a result of the reforms of Henry VII and Henry VIII, as well as Elizabeth's harsh punishments for any dissenters.
Economically, the country began to benefit from the new era of trans-Atlantic trade and persistent theft of Spanish treasure. The Victorian era and the early 20th century idealised the Elizabethan era; the Encyclopædia Britannica maintains that "he long reign of Elizabeth I, 1558–1603, was England's Golden Age...'Merry England', in love with life, expressed itself in music and literature, in architecture and in adventurous seafaring". This idealising tendency was shared by an Anglophilic America. In popular culture, the image of those adventurous Elizabethan seafarers was embodied in the films of Errol Flynn. In response and reaction to this hyperbole, modern historians and biographers have tended to take a more dispassionate view of the Tudor period. Elizabethan England was not successful in a military sense during the period, but it avoided major defeats and built up a powerful navy. On balance, it can be said that Elizabeth provided the country with a long period of general if not total peace and increased prosperity due in large part to stealing from Spanish treasure ships, raiding settlements with low defenses, selling African slaves.
Having inherited a bankrupt state from previous reigns, her frugal policies restored fiscal responsibility. Her fiscal restraint cleared the regime of debt by 1574, ten years the Crown enjoyed a surplus of £300,000. Economically, Sir Thomas Gresham's founding of the Royal Exchange, the first stock exchange in England and one of the earliest in Europe, proved to be a development of the first importance, for the economic development of England and soon for the world as a whole. With taxes lower than other European countries of the period, the economy expanded; this general peace and prosperity allowed the attractive developments that "Golden Age" advocates have stressed. The Elizabethan Age was an age of plots and conspiracies political in nature, involving the highest levels of Elizabethan society. High officials in Madrid and Rome sought to kill Elizabeth, a Protestant, replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots, a Catholic; that would be a prelude to the religious recovery of England for Catholicism.
In 1570, the Ridolfi plot was thwarted. In 1584, the Throckmorton Plot was discovered, after Francis Throckmorton confessed his involvement in a plot to overthrow the Queen and restore the Catholic Church in England
A book cover is any protective covering used to bind together the pages of a book. Beyond the familiar distinction between hardcovers and paperbacks, there are further alternatives and additions, such as dust jackets, ring-binding, older forms such as the nineteenth-century "paper-boards" and the traditional types of hand-binding; the term "Bookcover" is used for a book cover image in library management software. This article is concerned with modern mechanically produced covers. Before the early nineteenth century, books were hand-bound, in the case of luxury medieval manuscripts using materials such as gold and jewels. For hundreds of years, book bindings had functioned as a protective device for the expensively printed or hand-made pages, as a decorative tribute to their cultural authority. In the 1820s great changes began to occur in how a book might be covered, with the gradual introduction of techniques for mechanical book-binding. Cloth, paper, became the staple materials used when books became so cheap—thanks to the introduction of steam-powered presses and mechanically produced paper—that to have them hand-bound became disproportionate to the cost of the book itself.
Not only were the new types of book-covers cheaper to produce, they were printable, using multi-colour lithography, halftone illustration processes. Techniques borrowed from the nineteenth-century poster-artists infiltrated the book industry, as did the professional practice of graphic design; the book cover became more than just a protection for the pages, taking on the function of advertising, communicating information about the text inside. The Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau movements at the turn of the twentieth century stimulated a modern renaissance in book cover design that soon began to infiltrate the growing mass book industry through the more progressive publishers in Europe and New York; some of the first radically modern cover designs were produced in the Soviet Union during the 1920s by avant-gardists such as Alexander Rodchenko and El Lissitzky. Another influential early book cover designer was Aubrey Beardsley, thanks to his striking covers for the first four volumes of The Yellow Book.
In the post-war era, book covers have become vitally important as the book industry has become commercially competitive. Covers now give detailed hints about the style and subject of the book, while many push design to its limit in the hope of attracting sales attention; this can differ from country to country because of other tastes of the markets. So translated books can have different book-accessories such as toys belonging to children's books, for example Harry Potter; the era of internet sales has arguably not diminished the importance of the book cover, as it now continues its role in a two-dimensional digital form, helping to identify and promote books online. Wraparound covers are common. Front cover contents may be: For novels, the novel title in large letters, author name and symbol of publisher Back cover contents may be: For novels, a back cover text or teaser that gives a hint of the story in an attractive way. A picture of the writer. A summary Bookbinding – the process of physically assembling a book Don't judge a book by its cover, a phrase derived from the perceived difference between the portrayal of a book on its cover or jacket, the book's contents Eighty Years of Book Cover Design, Joseph Connolly.
London: Faber and Faber, 2009. ISBN 978-0-571-24000-5 and ISBN 978-0-571-24001-2; the Book Cover Archive *"Decorated Publishers Bindings-Grand Valley State University Archives and Special Collections". Archived from the original on 2013-01-06.-contains photographs of decorated publisher bindings from the 1870s to 1930 Historical book cover design gallery Pulp fiction cover gallery The Art of Penguin Science Fiction The history and cover art of science fiction published by Penguin Books from 1935 to the present day Thomas Bonn Collection of Publishers Interviews – more than 100 audio interviews with publishers, art directors, etc. on the topic of cover art
Christopher Marlowe known as Kit Marlowe, was an English playwright and translator of the Elizabethan era. Marlowe was the foremost Elizabethan tragedian of his day, he influenced William Shakespeare, born in the same year as Marlowe and who rose to become the pre-eminent Elizabethan playwright after Marlowe's mysterious early death. Marlowe's plays are known for the use of their overreaching protagonists; some scholars believe that a warrant was issued for Marlowe's arrest on 18 May 1593. No reason was given for it, though it was thought to be connected to allegations of blasphemy—a manuscript believed to have been written by Marlowe was said to contain "vile heretical conceipts". On 20 May, he was brought to the court to attend upon the Privy Council for questioning. There is no record of their having met that day, he was commanded to attend upon them each day thereafter until "licensed to the contrary". Ten days he was stabbed to death by Ingram Frizer. Whether or not the stabbing was connected to his arrest remains unknown.
Marlowe was born in Canterbury to his wife Catherine. His date of birth is not known, but he was baptised on 26 February 1564, is to have been born a few days before. Thus, he was just two months older than his contemporary William Shakespeare, baptised on 26 April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. Marlowe attended The King's School in Canterbury and Corpus Christi College, where he studied on a scholarship and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1584. In 1587, the university hesitated to award him his Master of Arts degree because of a rumour that he intended to go to the English college at Rheims to prepare for ordination as a Roman Catholic priest. However, his degree was awarded on schedule when the Privy Council intervened on his behalf, commending him for his "faithful dealing" and "good service" to the Queen; the nature of Marlowe's service was not specified by the Council, but its letter to the Cambridge authorities has provoked much speculation, notably the theory that Marlowe was operating as a secret agent working for Sir Francis Walsingham's intelligence service.
No direct evidence supports this theory, although the Council's letter is evidence that Marlowe had served the government in some secret capacity. Of the dramas attributed to Marlowe, Queen of Carthage is believed to have been his first, it was performed by the Children of the Chapel, a company of boy actors, between 1587 and 1593. The play was first published in 1594. Marlowe's first play performed on the regular stage in London, in 1587, was Tamburlaine the Great, about the conqueror Timur, who rises from shepherd to warlord, it is among the first English plays in blank verse, with Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy is considered the beginning of the mature phase of the Elizabethan theatre. Tamburlaine was a success, was followed with Tamburlaine the Great, Part II; the two parts of Tamburlaine were published in 1590. The sequence of the writing of his other four plays is unknown; the Jew of Malta, about the Jew Barabas' barbarous revenge against the city authorities, has a prologue delivered by a character representing Machiavelli.
It was written in 1589 or 1590, was first performed in 1592. It was a success, remained popular for the next fifty years; the play was entered in the Stationers' Register on 17 May 1594, but the earliest surviving printed edition is from 1633. Edward the Second is an English history play about the deposition of King Edward II by his barons and the Queen, who resent the undue influence the king's favourites have in court and state affairs; the play was entered into the Stationers' Register on 6 July five weeks after Marlowe's death. The full title of the earliest extant edition, of 1594, is The troublesome reigne and lamentable death of Edward the second, King of England, with the tragicall fall of proud Mortimer; the Massacre at Paris is a short and luridly written work, the only surviving text of, a reconstruction from memory of the original performance text, portraying the events of the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572, which English Protestants invoked as the blackest example of Catholic treachery.
It features the silent "English Agent", whom subsequent tradition has identified with Marlowe himself and his connections to the secret service. The Massacre at Paris is considered his most dangerous play, as agitators in London seized on its theme to advocate the murders of refugees from the low countries and, indeed, it warns Elizabeth I of this possibility in its last scene, its full title was The Massacre at Paris: With the Death of the Duke of Guise. Doctor Faustus, based on the German Faustbuch, was the first dramatised version of the Faust legend of a scholar's dealing with the devil. While versions of "The Devil's Pact" can be traced back to the 4th century, Marlowe deviates by having his hero unable to "burn his books" or repent to a merciful God in order to have his contract annulled at the end of the play. Marlowe's protagonist is instead carried off by demons, in the 1616 quarto his mangled corpse is found by several scholars. Doctor Faustus is a textual problem for scholars as two versions of the play exist: the 1604 quarto known as the A text, the 1616 quarto or B text.
Both were published after Marlowe's death. Scholars have disagreed which text is
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, inventor and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing press. His introduction of mechanical movable type printing to Europe started the Printing Revolution and is regarded as a milestone of the second millennium, ushering in the modern period of human history, it played a key role in the development of the Renaissance, the Age of Enlightenment, the scientific revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses. Gutenberg in 1439 was the first European to use movable type. Among his many contributions to printing are: the invention of a process for mass-producing movable type, his epochal invention was the combination of these elements into a practical system that allowed the mass production of printed books and was economically viable for printers and readers alike. Gutenberg's method for making type is traditionally considered to have included a type metal alloy and a hand mould for casting type.
The alloy was a mixture of lead and antimony that melted at a low temperature for faster and more economical casting, cast well, created a durable type. In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the structure of society; the unrestricted circulation of information—including revolutionary ideas—transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities. Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its people led to the rise of proto-nationalism, accelerated by the flowering of the European vernacular languages to the detriment of Latin's status as lingua franca. In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale, while Western-style printing was adopted all over the world, becoming the sole medium for modern bulk printing.
The use of movable type was a marked improvement on the handwritten manuscript, the existing method of book production in Europe, upon woodblock printing, revolutionized European book-making. Gutenberg's printing technology spread throughout Europe and the world, his major work, the Gutenberg Bible, was the first printed version of the Bible and has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality. Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, the youngest son of the patrician merchant Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, his second wife, Else Wyrich, the daughter of a shopkeeper, it is assumed. According to some accounts, Friele was a goldsmith for the bishop at Mainz, but most he was involved in the cloth trade. Gutenberg's year of birth is not known, but it was sometime between the years of 1394 and 1404. In the 1890s the city of Mainz declared his official and symbolic date of birth to be June 24, 1400. John Lienhard, technology historian, says "Most of Gutenberg's early life is a mystery.
His father worked with the ecclesiastic mint. Gutenberg grew up knowing the trade of goldsmithing." This is supported by historian Heinrich Wallau, who adds, "In the 14th and 15th centuries his claimed a hereditary position as... retainers of the household of the master of the archiepiscopal mint. In this capacity they doubtless acquired considerable knowledge and technical skill in metal working, they supplied the mint with the metal to be coined, changed the various species of coins, had a seat at the assizes in forgery cases."Wallau adds, "His surname was derived from the house inhabited by his father and his paternal ancestors'zu Laden, zu Gutenberg'. The house of Gänsfleisch was one of the patrician families of the town, tracing its lineage back to the thirteenth century." Patricians in Mainz were named after houses they owned. Around 1427, the name zu Gutenberg, after the family house in Mainz, is documented to have been used for the first time. In 1411, there was an uprising in Mainz against the patricians, more than a hundred families were forced to leave.
As a result, the Gutenbergs are thought to have moved to Eltville am Rhein, where his mother had an inherited estate. According to historian Heinrich Wallau, "All, known of his youth is that he was not in Mainz in 1430, it is presumed that he migrated for political reasons to Strasbourg, where the family had connections." He is assumed to have studied at the University of Erfurt, where there is a record of the enrolment of a student called Johannes de Altavilla in 1418—Altavilla is the Latin form of Eltville am Rhein. Nothing is now known of Gutenberg's life for the next fifteen years, but in March 1434, a letter by him indicates that he was living in Strasbourg, where he had some relatives on his mother's side, he appears to have been a goldsmith member enrolled in the Strasbourg militia. In 1437, there is evidence that he was instructing a wealthy tradesman on polishing gems, but where he had acquired this knowledge is unknown. In 1436/37 his name comes up in court in connection with a broken promise of marriage to a woman from Strasbourg, Ennelin.
Whether the marriage took place is not reco
A bookmark is a thin marker made of card, leather, or fabric, used to keep the reader's place in a book and to enable the reader to return to it with ease. Other used materials for bookmarks are paper, metals like silver and brass, wood and plastic. Many bookmarks can be clipped on a page with the aid of a page-flap. According to new results of the research done on the history of bookmarks, there are indications that bookmarks have accompanied codices since their first emergence in the 1st century AD; the earliest existing bookmark dates from the 6th century AD and it is made of ornamented leather lined with vellum on the back and was attached with a leather strap to the cover of a Coptic codex. It was found near Sakkara, under the ruins of the monastery Apa Jeremiah. Further earliest bookmarks and remnants of them have been found in Coptic codices dating from the 1st to the 11th century and in Carolingian codices from the 8th to the 12th century. Bookmarks were used throughout the medieval period, consisting of a small parchment strip attached to the edge of folio.
As the first printed books were quite rare and valuable, it was determined early on that something was needed to mark one's place in a book without causing its pages any harm. Some of the earliest bookmarks were used at the end of the sixteenth century. Modern bookmarks are available in a huge variety of materials in a multitude of styles. Many are made of cardboard or heavy paper, but they are constructed of paper, fabric, steel, tin, wood, vinyl, silver and other precious metals, some decorated with gemstones; the first detached, therefore collectible, bookmarkers began to appear in the 1850s. One of the first references to these is found in Mary Russell Mitford's Recollections of a Literary Life: "I had no marker and the richly bound volume closed as if instinctively." Note the abbreviation of'bookmarker' to'marker'. The modern abbreviation is usually'bookmark'. Historical bookmarks can be valuable, are sometimes collected along with other paper ephemera. By the 1860s, attractive machine-woven markers were being manufactured in Coventry, the centre of the silk-ribbon industry.
One of the earliest was produced by J.&J. Cash to mark the death of Albert, Prince Consort, in 1861. Thomas Stevens of Coventry soon became pre-eminent in the field and claimed to have nine hundred different designs. Woven pictorial bookmarks produced by Thomas Steven, a 19th-century English silk weaver, starting around 1862, are called Stevengraphs. Woven silk bookmarks were appreciated gifts in the Victorian Era and Stevens seemed to make one for every occasion and celebration. One Stevengraph read: All of the gifts which heaven bestows, there is one above all measure, that's a friend midst all our woes, a friend is a found treasure to thee I give that sacred name, for thou art such to me, proudly will I claim to be a friend to thee. Most 19th-century bookmarks were intended for use in Bibles and prayer books and were made of ribbon, woven silk, or leather. By the 1880s the production of woven silk markers was declining and printed markers made of stiff paper or cardboard began to appear in significant numbers.
This development paralleled the wider availability of books themselves, the range of available bookmarkers soon expanded dramatically. Bookmarks are known to be popular collectibles; as bookmarks are considered by collectors as an advertising art, the main criteria is one's favorite book for choosing which bookmarks to collect. Shapes, materials and publishers can be important factors for bookmark collectors. There are many book collector clubs worldwide. Many members of these clubs are bookmark collectors as well. Online clubs contain catalogs to provide information about bookmarks alongside a photo; these clubs include a forum to assist with discussions among collectors. Bookmark Dog ears Rotating bookmark Earliest History of Bookmarks by Asim Maner World of Bookmarks, Reference site featuring history of bookmarks History of Bookmarks by Lois R. Densky-Wolff. International Friends of Bookmarks, community website with lots of information about bookmarks
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical types or the digital equivalents. Stored letters and other symbols are retrieved and ordered according to a language's orthography for visual display. Typesetting requires one or more fonts. One significant effect of typesetting was that authorship of works could be spotted more making it difficult for copiers who have not gained permission. During much of the letterpress era, movable type was composed by hand for each page. Cast metal sorts were composed into words lines paragraphs pages of text and bound together to make up a form, with all letter faces the same "height to paper", creating an surface of type; the form was placed in a press, an impression made on paper. During typesetting, individual sorts are picked from a type case with the right hand, set into a composing stick held in the left hand from left to right, as viewed by the setter upside down; as seen in the photo of the composing stick, a lower case'q' looks like a'd', a lower case'b' looks like a'p', a lower case'p' looks like a'b' and a lower case'd' looks like a'q'.
This is reputed to be the origin of the expression "mind your p's and q's". It might just as have been "mind your b's and d's"; the diagram at right illustrates a cast metal sort: a face, b body or shank, c point size, 1 shoulder, 2 nick, 3 groove, 4 foot. Wooden printing sorts were in use for centuries in combination with metal type. Not shown, more the concern of the casterman, is the “set”, or width of each sort. Set width, like body size, is measured in points. In order to extend the working life of type, to account for the finite sorts in a case of type, copies of forms were cast when anticipating subsequent printings of a text, freeing the costly type for other work; this was prevalent in book and newspaper work where rotary presses required type forms to wrap an impression cylinder rather than set in the bed of a press. In this process, called stereotyping, the entire form is pressed into a fine matrix such as plaster of Paris or papier mâché called a flong to create a positive, from which the stereotype form was electrotyped, cast of type metal.
Advances such as the typewriter and computer would push the state of the art farther ahead. Still, hand composition and letterpress printing have not fallen out of use, since the introduction of digital typesetting, it has seen a revival as an artisanal pursuit. However, it is a small niche within the larger typesetting market; the time and effort required to manually compose the text led to several efforts in the 19th century to produce mechanical typesetting. While some, such as the Paige compositor, met with limited success, by the end of the 19th century, several methods had been devised whereby an operator working a keyboard or other devices could produce the desired text. Most of the successful systems involved the in-house casting of the type to be used, hence are termed "hot metal" typesetting; the Linotype machine, invented in 1884, used a keyboard to assemble the casting matrices, cast an entire line of type at a time. In the Monotype System, a keyboard was used to punch a paper tape, fed to control a casting machine.
The Ludlow Typograph otherwise used hot metal. By the early 20th century, the various systems were nearly universal in large newspapers and publishing houses. Phototypesetting or "cold type" systems first appeared in the early 1960s and displaced continuous casting machines; these devices consisted of glass or film disks or strips that spun in front of a light source to selectively expose characters onto light-sensitive paper. They were driven by pre-punched paper tapes, they were connected to computer front ends. One of the earliest electronic photocomposition systems was introduced by Fairchild Semiconductor; the typesetter typed a line of text on a Fairchild keyboard. To verify correct content of the line it was typed a second time. If the two lines were identical a bell rang and the machine produced a punched paper tape corresponding to the text. With the completion of a block of lines the typesetter fed the corresponding paper tapes into a phototypesetting device that mechanically set type outlines printed on glass sheets into place for exposure onto a negative film.
Photosensitive paper was exposed to light through the negative film, resulting in a column of black type on white paper, or a galley. The galley was cut up and used to create a mechanical drawing or paste up of a whole page. A large film negative of the page is used to make plates for offset printing; the next generation of phototypesetting machines to emerge were those that generated characters on a cathode ray tube. Typical of the type were the Alphanumeric APS2, IBM 2680, I. I. I. VideoComp, Autologic APS5, Linotron 202; these machines were the mainstay of phototypesetting for much of the 1980s. Such machines could be "driven online" by a computer front-end system or took their data from magnetic tape. Type fonts were stored digitally on conventional magnetic disk drives. Computers excel at automatically correcting documents. Character-by-character, computer-aided phototypesetting was, in turn rendered obsolete in the 1980s by digital systems employing a raster image processor to render an entire page to a single high-resolution digital image, now known as imagesetting.
The first commercially successful laser imagesetter, able to make use of a raster image p
Townsville is a city on the north-eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. Townsville is Australia's largest urban centre north of the Sunshine Coast, with a population of 173,815 as of the 2016 Australian census. Considered the unofficial capital of North Queensland by locals, Townsville hosts a significant number of governmental and major business administrative offices for the northern half of the state, it is in the dry tropics region of Queensland, adjacent to the central section of the Great Barrier Reef. The city is a major industrial centre, home to one of the world's largest zinc refineries, a nickel refinery and many other similar activities; the Port of Townsville is being expanded to allow much larger cargo ships from Asia and the world's largest passenger ships to visit. It is an important port due to its proximity to Asia and major trading partners such as China. Popular attractions include "The Strand", a long tropical beach and garden strip; such indigenous groups as the Wulgurukaba, Girrugubba and Nawagi, among others inhabited the Townsville area.
The Wulgurukaba claim to be the traditional owner of the Townsville city area. James Cook visited the Townsville region on his first voyage to Australia in 1770, but did not land there. Cook named Cleveland Bay and Magnetic Island. In 1819, Captain Phillip Parker King and botanist Alan Cunningham were the first Europeans to record a local landing. In 1846, James Morrill was shipwrecked from the Peruvian, living in the Townsville area among the Bindal people for 17 years before being found by white men and returned to Brisbane; the Burdekin River's seasonal flooding made the establishment of a seaport north of the river essential to the nascent inland cattle industry. John Melton Black of Woodstock Station, an employee of Sydney entrepreneur and businessman Robert Towns, dispatched Andrew Ball, Mark Watt Reid and a detachment of 8 troopers of the Native Police under the command of John Marlow to search for a suitable site. Ball's party reached the Ross Creek in April 1864 and established a camp below the rocky spur of Melton Hill, near the present Customs House on The Strand.
Edward Kennedy, a member of the surveying party, recalls the Native Police chasing local tribesmen into the ocean and'pumping lead' at them. On the return journey to Port Denison, the group'dispersed' another aboriginal clan, rounding up fifteen women'who remained at the scene of combat' and abducted them back to the barracks. No mention is made of the fate of any children; the first party of settlers, led by W. A. Ross, arrived at Cleveland Bay from Woodstock Station on 5 November of that year. In 1866 Robert Towns visited for his first and only visit, he agreed to provide ongoing financial assistance to the new settlement and Townsville was named in his honour. Townsville was declared a municipality in February 1866, with John Melton Black elected as its first Mayor. Townsville developed as the major port and service centre for the Cape River, Ravenswood and Charters Towers goldfields. Regional pastoral and sugar industries expanded and flourished. Townsville's population was 4,000 people in 1882 and grew to 13,000 by 1891.
In 1901 Lord Hopetoun made a goodwill tour of northern Australia and accepted an invitation to open Townsville's town hall, occasioning the first vice-regal ceremonial unfurling of the Australian national flag. With Brisbane, in 1902 Townsville was proclaimed a City under the Local Authorities Act; the foundation stone of the Townsville Cenotaph was laid in Strand Park on 19 July 1923. It was unveiled on 25 April 1924 by Sir Matthew Nathan; the rural land surrounding the city was managed by the Thuringowa Road Board, which became the Shire of Thuringowa. The shire ceded land several times to support Townsville's expansion. In 1986 the Shire became incorporated as a city, governed by the Thuringowa City Council; the cities of Townsville and Thuringowa were amalgamated into the "new" Townsville City Council in March 2008, as part of the Queensland state government's reform program. In 1896, Japan established its first Australian consulate in Townsville to serve some 4,000 Japanese workers who migrated to work in the sugar cane, trochus, beche de mer, pearling industries.
With the introduction of the White Australia policy, the demand for Japanese workers decreased, causing the consulate to close in 1908. During the Second World War, the city was host to more than 50,000 American and Australian troops and air crew, it became a major staging point for battles in the South West Pacific. A large United States Armed Forces contingent supported the war effort from seven airfields and other bases around the city and in the region; the first bombing raid on Rabaul, in Papua New Guinea, on 23 February 1942 was carried out by six B-17s based near Townsville. Some of the units based in Townsville were: No. 3 Fighter Sector RAAF, Wulguru & North Ward 1 Wireless Unit, Pimlico & Stuart & Roseneath North Eastern Area Command HQ, Sturt Street Castle H