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Quassia is a plant genus in the family Simaroubaceae. Its size is disputed; the genus was named after a former slave from Graman Quassi in the eighteenth century. He discovered the medicinal properties of the bark of Quassia amara. Broader treatments of the genus include the following and other species: Quassia africana Quassia amara Quassia arnhemensis – Australia Quassia bidwillii Quassia indica Quassia sp.'Moonee Creek' – Australia Quassia sp.'Mount Nardi' – Australia Quassia sanguinea Quassia silvestris Quassia undulataIt is the source of the quassinoids quassin and neo-quassin. Media related to Quassia at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Quassia at Wikispecies

Christian M'Pumbu

Christian M'Pumbu is a French-Congolese professional mixed martial artist. He was the inaugural Bellator Light Heavyweight Champion. M'Pumbu was born in Zaire, he resides in France. M'Pumbu made his professional mixed martial arts debut in 2004, he has fought in Europe for various promotions including KSW and M-1 Global. He is a member of Team France in M-1 Mixfight. Before his debut in the United States, M'Pumbu amassed a record of 3 losses and 1 draw. A notable win from this period is over Ultimate Fighting Championship heavyweight contender Stefan Struve. M'Pumbu made his U. S. MMA debut on March 26, 2011 at Bellator 38, he faced Chris Davis in the opening round of the Light Heavyweight tournament and won the fight via TKO in the third round. In the semi-finals he defeated Tim Carpenter via TKO in the first round. M'Pumbu would go on to defeat Rich Hale via TKO in the third round at the finals of the season 4 tournament, becoming the inaugural Bellator Light Heavyweight champion, he was unofficially dubbed the first African born mixed martial artist to hold a title in a major MMA organization.

On October 22, 2011 at Bellator 55, M'Pumbu lost a non-title fight against Travis Wiuff via unanimous decision. On February 28, 2013, at Bellator 91 M'Pumbu faced Bellator 2012 Summer Series Light Heavyweight tournament winner Attila Vegh in his first title defense and lost via unanimous decision. On September 13, 2013, at Bellator 99, M'Pumbu was expected to face UFC veteran Vladimir Matyushenko. M'Pumbu was replaced with Houston Alexander. M'Pumbu faced Quinton Jackson in the opening round of Bellator's Season 10 Light Heavyweight tournament in the main event at Bellator 110 on February 28, 2014, he lost the fight via knockout in the first knockout loss of his career. M'Pumbu made his Middleweight debut against Kendall Grove on October 3, 2014 at Bellator 127, he lost the fight via submission in the second round. Bellator Fighting Championships Bellator Light Heavyweight World Championship Bellator Season 4 Light Heavyweight Tournament Winner Union of Peresvit Star of Peresvit Openweight Tournament Winner Fire of Persevit Openweight Tournament Winner Professional MMA record for Christian M'Pumbu from Sherdog

John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry

John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, was a Scottish nobleman, remembered for his atheism, his outspoken views, his brutish manner, for lending his name to the "Queensberry Rules" that form the basis of modern boxing, for his role in the downfall of the Irish author and playwright Oscar Wilde. John Douglas was born in Florence, the eldest son of Conservative politician Archibald, Viscount Drumlanrig, Caroline Margaret Clayton, he had three brothers, Francis and James, two sisters and Florence. He was styled Viscount Drumlanrig following his father's succession in 1856, on the latter's death in 1858 he inherited the Marquessate of Queensberry; the 9th Marquess was educated in the training ships Illustrious and Britannia at Portsmouth, served in the Royal Navy until resigning in 1864. He was Lieutenant-Colonel commanding the 1st Dumfriesshire Rifle Volunteers from 1869 to 1871. In 1864, Lord Queensberry entered Magdalene College, which he left two years without taking a degree, he was more distinguished in sport, playing college cricket as well as running and steeplechasing.

He married Sibyl Montgomery in 1866. They had a daughter, she survived him to the age of 90, dying in 1935. Queensberry married Ethel Weeden in 1893 but this marriage was annulled the following year. Queensberry sold the family seat of Kinmount in Dumfriesshire, Scotland, an action which further alienated him from his family, he died, two months after a stroke, after a period of mental decline believed to be caused by syphilis, in his club room in Welbeck Street, west London, aged 55, nearly a year before Oscar Wilde's death. He wrote a poem starting with the words "When I am dead cremate me." After cremation at Woking Crematorium, his ashes were buried at Kinmount in the Douglas Mausoleum outside Cummertrees Parish Church. His eldest son and heir apparent was Francis, Viscount Drumlanrig, rumoured to have been engaged in a homosexual relationship with the Liberal Prime Minister, The 5th Earl of Rosebery. Lord Drumlanrig died from a gunshot wound and without children. Douglas's second son, Lord Percy Douglas, succeeded to the peerage instead.

Lord Alfred "Bosie" Douglas, the third son, was the close friend and lover of the famous author and poet Oscar Wilde. Queensberry's efforts to end that relationship led to his famous dispute with Wilde. Though he disbelieved in the existences of a God or gods, Queensberry considered homosexuality immoral. Queensberry was a patron of a noted boxing enthusiast. In 1866 he was one of the founders of the Amateur Athletic Club, now the Amateur Athletic Association of England, one of the first groups that did not require amateur athletes to belong to the upper-classes to compete; the following year the Club published a set of twelve rules for conducting boxing matches. The rules had been drawn up by John Graham Chambers but appeared under Queensberry's sponsorship and are universally known as the "Queensberry Rules"; these rules were to govern the sport worldwide. A keen rider, Queensberry was active in fox hunting and owned several successful race horses; as a rider his first winner was in the Dumfriesshire Hunt Club chase in 1865, his last was at Sandown Park in 1883.

He was Master of the Worcester Fox Hounds in 1870. He was on the committee of the National Hunt but never won a Grand National as a rider, a last-minute substitution on the victorious "Old Joe" keeping him out of the 1886 National. During his riding career he recovered from a series of serious injuries. In 1872, Queensberry was chosen by the Peers of Scotland to sit in the House of Lords as a representative peer, he served as such until 1880, when he was again nominated but refused to take the religious oath of allegiance to the Sovereign. Viewed by some as an outspoken atheist, he declared that he would not participate in any "Christian tomfoolery" and that his word should suffice; as a consequence neither he nor Charles Bradlaugh, who had refused to take the oath after being elected to the House of Commons, were allowed to take their seats in parliament. This prompted an apology from William Gladstone. Bradlaugh was re-elected four times by the constituents of Northampton until he was allowed to take his seat in 1886.

Queensberry, was never again sent to parliament by the Scottish nobles. In 1881, Queensberry accepted the presidency of the British Secular Union, a group that had broken away in 1877 from Bradlaugh's National Secular Society; that year he published a long philosophical poem, The Spirit of the Matterhorn, which he had written in Zermatt in 1873 in an attempt to articulate his secularist views. In 1882, he was ejected from the theatre after loudly interrupting a performance of the play The Promise of May by Alfred Lord Tennyson, the Poet Laureate, because it included a villainous atheist in its cast of characters. Under the auspices of the British Secular Union, Queensberry wrote a pamphlet entitled The Religion of Secularism and the Perfectibility of Man; the Union, always small, ceased to function in 1884. His divorces, brutality and association with the boxing world made Queensberry an unpopular figure in London high society. In 1893 his eldest son Francis was made a baron in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, thus giving him an automatic seat in the House of Lords.

Queensberry resented his son sitting in a chamber that had refused to admit him, leading to a bitter dispute between himself and both his son an


Diazirines are a class of organic molecules consisting of a carbon bound to two nitrogen atoms, which are double-bonded to each other, forming a cyclopropene-like ring, 3H-diazirene. Upon irradiation with ultraviolet light, diazirines form reactive carbenes, which can insert into C-H, N-H, O-H bonds. Hence, diazirines have grown in popularity as small photo-reactive crosslinking reagents, they are used in photoaffinity labeling studies to observe a variety of interactions, including ligand-receptor, ligand-enzyme, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid interactions. A number of methods exist in the literature for the preparation of diazirines, which begin from a variety of reagents. Synthetic schemes that begin with ketones involve conversion of the ketone with the desired substituents to diaziridines; these diaziridenes are subsequently oxidized to form the desired diazirines. Diaziridines can be prepared from ketones by oximation, followed by tosylation, finally by treatment with ammonia. Oximation reactions are performed by reacting the ketone with hydroxylammonium chloride under heat in the presence of a base such as pyridine.

Subsequent tosylation or mesylation of the alpha substituted oxygen with tosyl or mesyl chloride in the presence of base yields the tosyl or mesyl oxime. The final treatment of the tosyl or mesyl oxime with ammonia produces the diaziridine. Diaziridines can be produced directly by the reaction of ketones with ammonia in the presence of an aminating agent such as a monochloramine or hydroxyl amine O-sulfonic acid. Diaziridines can be oxidized to diazirines by a number of methods; these include oxidation by chromium based reagents such as the Jones oxidation, oxidation by iodine and triethylamine, oxidation by silver oxide, oxidation by oxalyl chloride, or electrochemical oxidation on a platinum-titanium anode. Diazirines can be alternatively formed in a one-pot process using the Graham reaction. In these schemes, amidines can be directly converted to diazirines by hypohalite oxidation; this reaction yields a halogenated diazirine. The resulting aforementioned halodiazirine can undergo an exchange reaction to further functionalize the diazirene.

In these reactions, anion nucleophiles, such as tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride or methoxytetra-n-butylammonium, can replace the halogen substituents yielding a fluorodiazirine or methoxydiazirine respectively. Upon irradiation with UV light, diazirines form reactive carbene species; the carbene may exist in the singlet form, in which the two free electrons occupy the same orbital, or the triplet form, with two unpaired electrons in different orbitals. The substituents on the diazirine affect which carbene species is generated upon irradiation and subsequent photolytic cleavage. Diazirine substituents that are electron donating in nature can donate electron density to the empty p-orbital of the carbene that will be formed, hence can stabilize the singlet state. For example, phenyldiazirine produces phenylcarbene in the singlet carbene state whereas p-nitrophenylchlorodiazirine or trifluorophenyldiazirine produce the respective triplet carbene products. Electron donating substituents can encourage photoisomerization to the linear diazo compound, rather than the singlet carbene, hence these compounds are unfavorable for use in biological assays.

On the other hand, trifluoroaryldiazirines in particular show favorable stability and photolytic qualities and are most used in biological applications. Carbenes produced from diazirines are quenched by reaction with water molecules, hence yields for photoreactive crosslinking assays are low. Yet, as this feature minimizes unspecific labeling, it is an advantage of using diazirines. Diazirines are used as photoreactive crosslinking reagents, as the reactive carbenes they form upon irradiation with UV light can insert into C-H, N-H, O-H bonds; this results in proximity dependent labeling of other species with the diazirine containing compound. Diazirines are preferred to other photoreactive crosslinking reagents due to their smaller size, longer irradiation wavelength, short period of irradiation required, stability in the presence of various nucleophiles, in both acidic and basic conditions. Benzophenones, which form reactive triplet carbonyl species upon irradiation require long periods of irradiation which can result in non-specific labeling, moreover are inert to various polar solvents.

Aryl azides require a low wavelength of irradiation, which can damage the biological macromolecules under investigation. Diazirines are used in receptor labeling studies; this is because diazirine-containing analogs of various ligands can be synthesized and incubated with their respective receptors, subsequently exposed to light to produce reactive carbenes. The carbene will covalently bond to residues in the binding site of the receptor; the carbene compound may include a bioorthogonal tag or handle by which the protein of interest can be isolated. The protein can be digested and sequenced by mass spectrometry in order to the identity which residues the carbene containing ligand is bound to, hence the identity of the binding site in the receptor. Examples of diazirines used in receptor labeling studies include: The discovery of a brassinosteroid receptor for brassinosteroid plant hormones by Kinoshita et al. Researchers used a plant hormone analog with a diazirine crosslinking moiety and a biotin tag for isolation to identity the new receptor.

This study led to a number of similar studies conducted with regards to other plant hormones. The discovery of novel non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors using anandamide analog probes containing a diazirine group by Balas et al; the binding ca

Jodi (art collective)

Jodi, or, is a collective of two internet artists, Joan Heemskerk and Dirk Paesmans, created in 1994. They were some of the first artists to create Web art and started to create software art and artistic computer game modification, their most well-known art piece is their website, a landscape of intricate designs made in basic HTML. Joan Heemskerk was born in 1968 in Kaatsheuvel, the Netherlands, Dirk Paesmans was born in 1965 in Brussels, Belgium, they both have a background in photography and video art and studied at CADRE Laboratory for New Media at San Jose State University in California. Paesmans studied at Kunstakademie Dusseldorf with the founder of video art Nam June Paik. Both Heemskerk and Paesmans work out of the Netherlands. In 1999 they began the practice of modifying old video games such as Wolfenstein 3D to create art mods like SOD, their efforts were celebrated in the 1999 Webby Awards, where they took top prize in the category of "net art." Jodi used their 5-word acceptance speech to criticize the event with the words "Ugly commercial sons of bitches."

Further video game modifications soon followed for Quake, Jet Set Willy, the latest, Max Payne 2, to create a new set of art games. Jodi's approach to game modification is comparable in many ways to deconstructivism in architecture because they would disassemble the game to its basic parts, reassemble it in ways that do not make intuitive sense. In one of their more well-known modifications of Quake places, the player inside a closed cube with swirling black-and-white patterns on each side; the pattern is the result of a glitch in the game engine discovered by the artists through trial and error. Since 2002, they have been in what has been called their "Screen Grab" period, making video works by recording the computer monitor's output while working, playing video games, or coding. Jodi's "Screen Grab" period began with the four-screen video installation My%Desktop, which premiered at the Plugin Media Lab in Basel; the piece appeared to depict mammoth Mac OS 9 computers running amok: opening windows cascaded across the screen, error messages squawked, files replicated themselves endlessly.

But this was not a computer gone haywire. To make this video, Jodi pointed-and-clicked and dragged-and-dropped so frantically, it seemed that no human could be in control of such chaos; as graphics exploded across the screen, the viewer realized that what had appeared to be a computer glitch was the work of an irrational, playful, or crazed human. Their exhibition Jodi: goodmorning goodnight was on display at the Whitney Museum from 2013- 2015. Another project, OXO, was displayed at the Lightbox Gallery at Harvard University; the piece is an interactive multichannel installation based on tic-tac-toe. "Difference Engine" was on display at the And/Or Gallery in Pasadena, during the same year. The exhibition marked Jodi's first solo show in the Los Angeles area. A 2012 Vice magazine article said JODI's work "underlines the innate anarchy of the online medium, an arena that we've come to recognize as public but one that the duo undermines and tweaks to their own purposes." Baumgärtel, Tilman. - Materialien zur Netzkunst. Nürnberg: Verlag für Moderne Kunst Nürnberg. Pp. 106–113. ISBN 3-933096-17-0. Baumgärtel, Tilman. 2.0 - New Materials towards Net art. Nürnberg: Verlag für Moderne Kunst Nürnberg. Pp. 106–181. ISBN 3-933096-66-9. Baumgärtel, Tilman. Install.exe/Jodi. Basel: Christoph Merian Verlag. ISBN 3856161848. Bosma, Josephine. Nettitudes: Let's Talk Net Art. Rotterdam: NAi/INC. Pp. 71–73. ISBN 978-90-5662-800-0. Conner, Michael.. Required Reading: A Closer Look at JODI's'Untitled Game'. Rhizome Journal. Http:// Galloway, Alexander. Jodi's Infrastructure. E-flux Journal #74. Http:// Saltiel, Natalie.. From the Rhizome Artbase: %20 Wrong -JODI. Rhizome Journal. Http:// Full archive of Jodi Talk with Dirk Peasmans, May 2006 Artists' Biography and list of video works by JODI at Electronic Arts Intermix

Thomas Dreher: History of Computer Art, chap. VI.3.2 HTML Art with a wider explanation of one of Jodi´s early works. From the Rhizome Artbase: %20wrong - JODI

Lelio Brancaccio

Lelio Brancaccio, Marquess of Montesilvano, was a Neapolitan commander of Habsburg armies in Italy, the Low Countries and Catalonia. Brancaccio was born in Naples around 1560. In 1584 he joined the Order of Malta. In 1589 he entered Spanish Habsburg service as captain of an infantry company. Apart from a brief stint as sergeant major of a regiment of Italian infantry in the Long Turkish War, he served the Habsburgs for the rest of his life. In 1602 he joined the Army of Flanders, as Maestre de Campo of an infantry regiment. Taking ship from Flanders for Spain to convoy Spanish infantry, he was captured en route by an English naval squadron, he was released and returned to Naples in 1603. By 1604 he was back in Flanders, was appointed to the Council of War in Brussels. After the signing of the Twelve Years' Truce between the Habsburgs and the Dutch Republic, he returned to Naples and became a member of the Collateral Council, he wrote a military treatise, I Carichi militari, dedicated to Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, first printed in Antwerp by Joachim Trognaesius, went through further editions in Milan and Venice.

Brancaccio became an inspector of fortifications for the Viceroy of the Duke of Osuna. With the recommencement of war in Flanders in 1621, Brancaccio returned there. In 1623, in recognition of his services to the Spanish monarchy, Philip IV of Spain created him Marquess of Montesilvano. In 1626 he became maestro di campo generale of the Genoese forces in their conflict with Savoy over the Marquisate of Zuccarello. From 1627 to 1630 he was in Spain as an adviser to the Council of War in Madrid, he returned to Italy in 1630 to command forces in the War of the Mantuan Succession, when that war was settled by treaty in 1631 he travelled to Flanders for a fourth time. He commanded the garrison defending Maastricht during the siege of 1632. In that year or the following Philip IV named him a councillor of state. In 1633 he travelled via Lombardy to Barcelona. Given command of the army of Roussillon, he died at Perpignan in December 1637. Gaspare De Caro, "Brancaccio, Lelio", Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, vol.

13. Accessed 28 Jan. 2015. Lelio Brancaccio, I Carichi Militari. Available on Google Books