Maya maize god
Like other Mesoamerican people, the traditional Mayas recognize in their staple crop, maize, a vital force with which they strongly identify. This is clearly shown by their mythological traditions, according to the 16th-century Popol Vuh, the Hero Twins have maize plants for alter egos and man himself is created from maize. The discovery and opening of the Maize Mountain - the place where the seeds are hidden - is still one of the most popular of Maya tales. In the Classic period, the maize deity shows aspects of a culture hero, in Mayan oral tradition, maize is usually personified as a woman - like rice in Southeast Asia, or wheat in ancient Greece and Rome. The acquisition of this woman through bridal capture constitutes one of the basic Mayan myths, in contrast to this, the pre-Spanish Mayan aristocracy appears to have primarily conceived of maize as male. The classic period distinguished two forms, a foliated maize god and a tonsured one. The foliated god is present in the so-called maize tree, its cobs being shaped like the deitys head, a male maize deity representing the foliated type and labeled God E is present in the three extant Maya books of undisputed authenticity.
Whereas the foliated maize god is a vegetation spirit, the tonsured maize gods functions are much more diverse. When performing ritually, the latter typically wears a netted jade skirt, on stelae, it is a queen rather than a king that tends to represent the tonsured maize god. The queen thus appears as a goddess, in accordance with the Mayan narrative traditions mentioned above. Many classic Mayan paintings, particularly those on vases, testify to the existence of a rich mythology centered on the tonsured maize god, the late pre-classic murals of San Bartolo demonstrate its great antiquity. The tonsured maize god is often accompanied by the hero twins, following Karl Taube, many scholars believe that the resurrected tonsured maize god of the classic period corresponds to the father of the hero twins in the Popol Vuh called Hun-Hunahpu. However, this generally accepted identification has been contested, the maize gods presence in the San Bartolo arrangement of five world trees has been interpreted as his establishment of the world.
Another theory, formulated by Simon Martin, focuses on the tonsured maize gods interaction with a jaguar deity of trade. This interaction is related to the transformation into a cacao tree conceived as a trophy tree. God L is assumed to have presided over the dry season dedicated to trade and the cacao harvest, and the Tonsured Maize God over the wet season. The onset of the two seasons is thought to be symbolized by the defeat of the deity and of God L. In many scenes, an environment strongly comes to the fore
Guthlac of Crowland
Saint Guthlac of Crowland was a Christian saint from Lincolnshire in England. He is particularly venerated in the Fens of eastern England, Guthlac was the son of Penwalh or Penwald, a noble of the English kingdom of Mercia, and his wife Tette. His sister is venerated as Saint Pega, as a young man, he fought in the army of Æthelred of Mercia and subsequently became a monk at Repton Monastery in Derbyshire at age twenty-four, under the abbess. Two years he sought to live the life of a hermit, Guthlac built a small oratory and cells in the side of a plundered barrow on the island, and he lived there the rest of his life until his death on 11 April in AD714. Felix, writing within living memory of Guthlac, described his life as follows, Guthlac suffered from ague. His pious and holy ascetic life became the talk of the land and he gave sanctuary to Æthelbald, future king of Mercia, who was fleeing from his cousin Ceolred. Guthlac predicted that Æthelbald would become king, and Æthelbald promised to him an abbey if his prophecy became true.
Æthelbald did become king and, even though Guthlac had died two years previously, kept his word and started construction of Crowland Abbey on St Bartholomews Day 716 AD, Guthlacs feast day is celebrated on 11 April. At the moment of death a sweet nectar-like odour emanated from his mouth, Guthlac had requested a lead coffin and linen winding sheet from Ecgburh, Abbess of Repton Abbey, so that his funeral rites could be performed by his sister Pega. Arriving the day after his death, she found the island of Crowland filled with the scent of ambrosia and she buried the body on the mound after three days of prayer. A year Pega had a calling to move the tomb and relics to a nearby chapel, Guthlacs body was discovered incorrupt. Subsequently Guthlac appeared in a vision to Æthelbald, prophesying he would be future King of Mercia. The cult of Guthlac continued amongst a community at Crowland. Because of a series of fires at the abbey, few survive from prior to the 12th century. It is known that in 1136 the remains of Guthlac were moved once more, a short Old English sermon and a longer prose translation into Old English are both based on Felixs Vita.
There are two poems in Old English known as Guthlac A and Guthlac B, part of the tenth century Exeter Book, the relationship of Guthlac A to Felixs Vita is debated, but Guthlac B is based on Felixs account of the saints death. At a time when it was being challenged by the crown, the abbey relied significantly on the cult of Guthlac and that is reflected in a shift in the emphasis from the earlier accounts of Felix and others. Formed in 1987, the St. Guthlac Fellowship is a group of churches which share a dedication to St Guthlac, Old English prose translation/adaptation of the Life of St Guthlac by Felix, Gonser, P. Das angelsächsische Prosa-Leben des heiligen Guthlac
The Bargello, known as the Palazzo del Bargello, Museo Nazionale del Bargello, or Palazzo del Popolo, is a former barracks and prison, now an art museum, in Florence, Italy. The word bargello appears to come from the late Latin bargillus, during the Italian Middle Ages it was the name given to a military captain in charge of keeping peace and justice during riots and uproars. In Florence he was hired from a foreign city to prevent any appearance of favoritism on the part of the Captain. The position could be compared with that of a current Chief of police, the name Bargello was extended to the building which was the office of the captain. The palace was built to house first the Capitano del Popolo and later, in 1261, the podestà and this Palazzo del Podestà, as it was originally called, is the oldest public building in Florence. This austere crenellated building served as model for the construction of the Palazzo Vecchio, in 1574, the Medici dispensed with the function of the Podestà and housed the bargello, the police chief of Florence, in this building, hence its name.
When Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor Peter Leopold was exiled, the makeshift Governor of Tuscany decided that the Bargello should no longer be a jail, the original two-story structure was built alongside the Volognana Tower in 1256. The third story, which can be identified by the blocks used to construct it, was added after the fire of 1323. The building is designed around a courtyard with an external staircase leading to the second floor. An open well is found in the center of the courtyard, the Bargello opened as a national museum in 1865, displaying the largest Italian collection of gothic and Renaissance sculptures. The museum houses masterpieces by Michelangelo, such as his Bacchus, Pitti Tondo, benvenuto Cellini is represented with his bronze bust of Cosimo I. There are a few works from the Baroque period, notably Gianlorenzo Berninis 1636-7 Bust of Costanza Bonarelli, the museum has a fine collection of ceramics, tapestries, silver and old coins. Honolulu Hales interior courtyard and open ceiling were modeled after the Bargello
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo, to raise, to create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane. What is actually performed when a relief is cut in from a surface of stone or wood is a lowering of the field. The technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, which is a time-consuming exercise. In other materials such as metal, plaster stucco, ceramics or papier-mâché the form can be just added to or raised up from the background, and monumental bronze reliefs are made by casting. There are different degrees of relief depending on the degree of projection of the form from the field. There is sunk relief, which was restricted to Ancient Egypt. However the distinction between high relief and low relief is the clearest and most important, and these two are generally the only used to discuss most work.
Hyphens may or may not be used in all these terms, works in the technique are described as in relief, especially in monumental sculpture, the work itself is a relief. Reliefs are common throughout the world on the walls of buildings and a variety of settings. Relief is more suitable for depicting complicated subjects with figures and very active poses, such as battles. Most ancient architectural reliefs were painted, which helped to define forms in low relief. Rock reliefs are carved into solid rock in the open air. This type is found in cultures, in particular those of the Ancient Near East and Buddhist countries. A stele is a standing stone, many of these carry reliefs. The distinction between high and low relief is somewhat subjective, and the two are often combined in a single work. In particular, most high reliefs contain sections in low relief, a low relief or bas-relief is a projecting image with a shallow overall depth, for example used on coins, on which all images are in low relief.
Other versions distort depth much less and it is a technique which requires less work, and is therefore cheaper to produce, as less of the background needs to be removed in a carving, or less modelling is required
Crowland Abbey is a Church of England parish church, formerly part of a Benedictine abbey church, in Crowland in the English county of Lincolnshire. It is a Grade I listed building, a monk named Guthlac came to what was an island in the Fens to live the life of a hermit, and he dwelt at Croyland between 699 and 714. Following in Guthlac’s footsteps, a community came into being here in the 8th century. Croyland Abbey was dedicated to Saint Mary the Virgin, Saint Bartholomew, during the third quarter of the 10th century, Crowland came into the possession of the nobleman Turketul, a relative of Osketel, Archbishop of York. Turketul, a cleric, became abbot there and endowed the abbey with many estates and it is thought that, about this time, Crowland adopted the Benedictine rule. In the 11th century, Hereward the Wake was a tenant of the abbey, despite these representations, the abbey was dissolved in 1539. The town was captured after a siege by Parliamentarian forces in 1643. The nave roof fell in 1720, the south wall was taken down in 1744.
The north aisle of the nave was refurbished and remains in use as the parish church, Crowland is well known to historians as the probable home of the Croyland Chronicle of Pseudo-Ingulf, begun by one of its monks and continued by several other hands. The church contains a skull which is identified as the skull of the 9th century Abbot Theodore, the relic used to be on public view until it was stolen from its display case in 1982. The skull was returned anonymously in 1999, john Clare wrote a sonnet entitled Crowland Abbey, which was first published in The Literary Souvenir for 1828 and reprinted in his last book, The Rural Muse in 1835. The abbey has a two manual pipe organ. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register, Crowland Abbey was the first church in England - and among the first in the world - to have a tuned peal or ring of bells. The chimes of the present bells were the first to be broadcast on radio by the BBC on 1 November 1925. At 90 feet, the pull or ropes are the longest in England, waltheof II, Earl of Northumbria Saint Ælfthryth of Crowland The churchyard contains the war grave of an airman of the Second World War
Notre-Dame de Paris
Notre-Dame de Paris, known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France. The cathedral is considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture. The naturalism of its sculptures and stained glass are in contrast with earlier Romanesque architecture, as the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Paris, Notre-Dame contains the cathedra of the Archbishop of Paris, currently Cardinal André Vingt-Trois. The cathedral treasury contains a reliquary, which some of Catholicisms most important relics, including the purported Crown of Thorns, a fragment of the True Cross. In the 1790s, Notre-Dame suffered desecration in the phase of the French Revolution when much of its religious imagery was damaged or destroyed. An extensive restoration supervised by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc began in 1845, a project of further restoration and maintenance began in 1991. The Notre-Dame de Paris was among the first buildings in the world to use the flying buttress, in response, the cathedrals architects built supports around the outside walls, and additions continued the pattern.
The total surface area is 5,500 m², many small individually crafted statues were placed around the outside to serve as column supports and water spouts. Among these are the famous gargoyles, designed for water run-off, the statues were originally colored as was most of the exterior. The cathedral was complete by 1345. It is possible therefore that the faults with the structure were exaggerated by the Bishop to help justify the rebuilding in a newer style. According to legend, Sully had a vision of a new cathedral for Paris. To begin the construction, the bishop had several houses demolished and had a new road built to transport materials for the rest of the cathedral. Construction began in 1163 during the reign of Louis VII, both were at the ceremony. Bishop de Sully went on to devote most of his life, construction of the choir took from 1163 until around 1177 and the new High Altar was consecrated in 1182. By this stage, the facade had been laid out. Numerous architects worked on the site over the period of construction, between 1210 and 1220, the fourth architect oversaw the construction of the level with the rose window and the great halls beneath the towers.
Shortly afterwards Pierre de Montreuil executed a similar scheme on the southern transept,1160 Maurice de Sully orders the original cathedral demolished
It is one of six areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, and the second in the Americas along with Norte Chico in present-day northern coastal Peru. As a cultural area, Mesoamerica is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits developed and shared by its indigenous cultures, while Mesoamerican civilization did know of the wheel and basic metallurgy, neither of these technologies became culturally important. Among the earliest complex civilizations was the Olmec culture, which inhabited the Gulf coast of Mexico and extended inland, frequent contact and cultural interchange between the early Olmec and other cultures in Chiapas and Oaxaca laid the basis for the Mesoamerican cultural area. All this was facilitated by considerable regional communications in ancient Mesoamerica and this Formative period saw the spread of distinct religious and symbolic traditions, as well as artistic and architectural complexes. In the subsequent Preclassic period, complex urban polities began to develop among the Maya, with the rise of such as El Mirador and Tikal.
Mesoamerica is one of three regions of the world where writing is known to have independently developed. Upon the collapse of Teotihuacán around AD600, competition between several important political centers in central Mexico, such as Xochicalco and Cholula, ensued. During the early period, Central Mexico was dominated by the Toltec culture, Oaxaca by the Mixtec. Towards the end of the period, the Aztecs of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mesoamerica. The distinct Mesoamerican cultural tradition ended with the Spanish conquest in the 16th century, over the next centuries, Mesoamerican indigenous cultures were gradually subjected to Spanish colonial rule. The exact geographic extent of Mesoamerica has varied through time, as the civilization extended North and South from its heartland in southern Mexico, Mesoamerica is recognized as a near-prototypical cultural area, and the term is now fully integrated in the standard terminology of pre-Columbian anthropological studies.
Conversely, the sister terms Aridoamerica and Oasisamerica, which refer to northern Mexico, 10° and 22° northern latitude, Mesoamerica possesses a complex combination of ecological systems, topographic zones, and environmental contexts. A main distinction groups these different niches into two categories, the lowlands and the altiplanos, or highlands. In the low-lying regions, sub-tropical and tropical climates are most common, as is true for most of the coastline along the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. The highlands show much more diversity, ranging from dry tropical to cold mountainous climates. The rainfall varies from the dry Oaxaca and north Yucatan to the humid southern Pacific, several distinct sub-regions within Mesoamerica are defined by a convergence of geographic and cultural attributes. These sub-regions are more conceptual than culturally meaningful, and the demarcation of their limits is not rigid, the Maya area, for example, can be divided into two general groups, the lowlands and highlands.
The lowlands are further divided into the southern and northern Maya lowlands, the southern Maya lowlands are generally regarded as encompassing northern Guatemala, southern Campeche and Quintana Roo in Mexico, and Belize
Chalcatzingo is a Mesoamerican archaeological site in the Valley of Morelos dating from the Formative Period of Mesoamerican chronology. The site is known for its extensive array of Olmec-style monumental art. Located in the portion of the Central Highlands of Mexico. The inhabitants began to produce and display Olmec-style art and architecture around 900 BCE, at its height between 700 BCE and 500 BCE, Chalcatzingos population is estimated at between five hundred and a thousand individuals. By 500 BCE it had gone into decline, the Chalcatzingo center covers roughly 100 acres. It was well-situated in a plain, at the base of two tall hills, Cerro Chalcatzingo and Cerro Delgado. Cerro Chalcatzingo has evidence of long regard and use as a site of ritual significance, the climate in Morelos is generally warmer and more humid than the rest of the Highlands. A spring rising at the base of the hills provided a source of drinking water for the population, Chalcatzingo connected trade routes between Guerrero, the Valley of Mexico and the Gulf Lowlands.
Chalcatzingo provides unique and interesting examples of Olmec-style art and architecture, the village contained a central plaza area, designated Terrace 1, downhill from elite residences. Terrace 25 is composed of a patio of a style seen at Teopantecuanitlan. Stone-faced patios and bas-relief monumental art are the features that are both at Chalcatzingo and at Teopantecuanitlan. These are the two sites known with these features. The sunken patio of Teopantecuanitlan is older, there are other parallels between these sites. At Chalcatzingo, in the center of the patio is a tabletop altar reminiscent of those at La Venta and San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán. Structure 4 is Chalcatzingo’s largest structure, a platform measuring approximately 70 m on each side. Burials of high-status individuals have been excavated here, with jade ornaments, most of the villages burials were located under the floors of houses—individuals representing the whole variety of social statuses were buried this way. Chalcatzingo is perhaps most famous for its bas-relief carvings, most of the 31 known monuments occur in three distinct groupings, two on Cerro Chalcatzingo and the third on the terraces within the actual settlement.
Drawings of these carvings have been made, but molds were taken of many of them before any drawings were taken, the process of making those molds tended to destroy fine lines and actually tore small portions of the stone out
Clover or trefoil are common names for plants of the genus Trifolium, consisting of about 300 species of plants in the leguminous pea family Fabaceae. They are small annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial herbaceous plants. The leaves are trifoliate, with adnate to the leaf-stalk, and heads or dense spikes of small red, white, or yellow flowers. Other closely related genera often called clovers include Melilotus and Medicago, several species of clover are extensively cultivated as fodder plants. The most widely cultivated clovers are white clover Trifolium repens and red clover Trifolium pratense, in many areas, particularly on acidic soil, clover is short-lived because of a combination of insect pests and nutrient balance, this is known as clover sickness. When crop rotations are managed so that clover does not recur at intervals shorter than eight years, clover sickness in more recent times may be linked to pollinator decline, clovers are most efficiently pollinated by bumblebees, which have declined as a result of agricultural intensification.
Honeybees can pollinate clover, and beekeepers are often in demand from farmers with clover pastures. Farmers reap the benefits of increased reseeding that occurs with increased bee activity, beekeepers benefit from the clover bloom, as clover is one of the main nectar sources for honeybees. Trifolium repens, white or Dutch clover, is a perennial abundant in meadows, the flowers are white or pinkish, becoming brown and deflexed as the corolla fades. Trifolium hybridum, alsike or Swedish clover, is a perennial which was introduced early in the 19th century and has now become naturalized in Britain, the flowers are white or rosy, and resemble those of the last species. Trifolium medium, meadow or zigzag clover, a perennial with straggling flexuous stems, clovers occasionally have four leaflets, instead of the usual three. These four-leaf clovers, like other rarities, are considered lucky, clovers can have five, six, or more leaflets, but these are rarer. The record for most leaflets is 56, set on 10 May 2009 and this beat the 21-leaf clover, a record set in June 2008 by the same discoverer, who had held the prior Guinness World Record of 18. A common idiom is to be in clover, meaning to live a life of ease, comfort.
The cloverleaf interchange is named for the resemblance to the leaflets of a clover when viewed from the air, quattrofolium Edibility of clover, Edible parts and visual identification of wild clover
Monastery of Stoudios
The residents of the monastery were referred to as Stoudites. The ruins of the monastery are situated not far from the Propontis in the section of the city called Psamathia and it was founded in 462 by the consul Flavius Studius, a Roman patrician who had settled in Constantinople, and was consecrated to Saint John the Baptist. Its first monks came from the monastery of Acoemetae and they were driven from the monastery and the city by Emperor Constantine V, after his death however, some of them returned. Hegumenos Sabas of Stoudios zealously defended the Orthodox doctrines against the Iconoclasts at the Seventh Ecumenical Council in Nicaea and his successor was Theodore the Studite to whom the monastery owes most of its fame, and who especially fostered academic and spiritual study. During St. Theodores administration the monks were harassed and driven away several times, Theodores pupil, Naukratios, re-established discipline after the Iconoclastic dispute had come to an end. Hegumenos Nicholas refused to recognize the Patriarch St.
Photios and was on this account imprisoned in his own monastery and he was succeeded by five abbots who recognized the patriarch. The brilliant period of the Stoudios came to an end at this time, as regards the intellectual life of the monastery in other directions, it is especially celebrated for its famous school of calligraphy which was established by Theodore. The art of illumination was cultivated, with many brilliant products of the monastic scriptorium now residing in Venice, Vatican City. The Theodore Psalter, created at the monastery in the century is in the collection of the British Library. In the eighth and eleventh centuries, the monastery was the centre of Byzantine religious poetry, besides Theodore and Niketas, a number of other theological writers are known. Three of the Stoudite monks rose to become the ecumenical patriarchs, in 1204, the monastery was destroyed by the Crusaders and was not fully restored until 1290, by Constantine Palaiologos. The Russian pilgrims Anthony and Stephen were amazed by the size of the monastic grounds and it is thought that the cloister sheltered as much as 700 monks at the time.
The greater part of the monastery was destroyed when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453. The ancient structure sustained damage from the great fires of 1782 and 1920. The church building, presently a museum, after the end of its restoration in 2014 had plans to be converted into a mosque. Degrees of Orthodox monasticism History of Eastern Orthodox Christianity Sabas of Stoudios This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Charles. Official Website of the Ecumenical Patriarch | Studius Media related to Monastery of Stoudios at Wikimedia Commons Byzantium 1200 | Monastery of Saint John of Stoudios
In architecture, tracery is the stonework elements that support the glass in a Gothic window. The term probably derives from the floors on which the complex patterns of late Gothic windows were laid out. There are two types, plate tracery and the bar tracery. Romanesque church windows were normally quite small, somewhat taller than wide, from around the 1140s, the pointed-arch Gothic window started to take over. With this type of design, the spandrels are just blank wall, the rose windows of early- and high-Gothic cathedrals, such as the example in the north transept of Laon Cathedral or the west facade at Chartres, employed plate tracery. This greatly limited the amount of light admitted to the interior by these windows. The earliest bar tracery designs were made for the windows at Reims around 1215. The cross-section of each mullion or tracery bar was important both for the integrity of the window and for the visual effect. As can be seen in Viollet-le-Ducs diagram there was normally a roll-moulding on both the inside and outside of the windows, which made the mullions appear even more slender than they actually were.
The shoulder marked B on the diagram is the glazing slot, as bar tracery opened the way for more complex patterns, masons started applying those same patterns to other surfaces as well as the actual window openings. When used on an otherwise solid walls, such motifs are known as blind tracery, open tracery in particular was a key feature of the phases of Rayonnant Gothic. Most 19th-century histories of Gothic architectural style used a series of rather arbitrary categories based on the evolution of the dominant patterns of window tracery. Such teleological models are now regarded as oversimplistic and are shunned by art historians. Because of the cost and size limitations of parchment sheets, such designs would normally be drawn by incising onto a board or a conveniently placed section of flat wall. In the latter case, the wall would be prepared with a layer of plaster. A number of churches and cathedrals still show the faint remains of these tracings, from where the compass points scratched through the plaster. A number of building sites originally had dedicated tracery chambers.
This meant that masons could carry on working through the winter season, the tracing floors themselves were covered with plaster of paris, which could be relaid and smoothed down after each set of designs were finished with
Trained as a goldsmith and sculptor, he established an important workshop for sculpture in metal. His book of Commentari contains important writing on art, as well as what may be the earliest surviving autobiography by any artist, Ghiberti was born in Pelago,20 km from Florence. His father was Bartoluccio Ghiberti, an artist and goldsmith, who trained his son in goldsmithing and he went to work in the Florence workshop of Bartoluccio di Michele, where Antonio del Pollaiolo received his training. When the bubonic plague struck Florence in 1400, Ghiberti emigrated to Rimini, Ghibertis career was dominated by his two successive commissions for pairs of bronze doors to the Florence Baptistery. They are recognized as a masterpiece of the Early Renaissance. Ghiberti first became famous when as a 23-year-old he won the 1401 competition for the first set of bronze doors, the original plan was for the doors to depict scenes from the Old Testament, but the plan was changed to depict scenes from the New Testament instead.
However, the piece made was of the sacrifice of Isaac. To carry out this commission, he set up a workshop in which many artists trained, including Donatello, Michelozzo, Uccello. Instead of twenty-eight scenes, he produced ten rectangular scenes in a different style. These were more naturalistic, with perspective and a greater idealization of the subject, dubbed The Gates of Paradise by Michelangelo, this second set remains a major monument of the age of Renaissance humanism. As recommended by Giotto, Andrea Pisano was awarded the commission to design the first set of doors at the Florence Baptistery in 1329, the south doors were originally installed on the east side facing the Duomo, and were transferred to their present location in 1452. These proto-Renaissance doors consist of 28 quatrefoil panels, with the twenty top panels depicting scenes from the life of St. John the Baptist, the eight lower panels depict the eight virtues of hope, charity, fortitude, temperance and prudence. Pisano took six years to them, finishing in 1336.
In 1453, Ghiberti and his son Vittorio were commissioned to add a door case to Pisanos existing panels, Ghiberti died in 1455, eight years before the frame was finished leaving a majority of the work to Vitorrio and other members of his workshop. There is a Latin inscription on top of the door, Andreas Ugolini Nini de Pisis me fecit A. D. MCCCXXX, the South Doors were undergoing restoration during September,2016. In 1401, the Arte di Calimala announced a competition to design doors which would eventually be placed on the side of the baptistry. These new doors would serve as an offering to celebrate Florence being spared from relatively recent scourges such as the Black Death in 1348. Many artists competed for this commission and a jury selected seven semifinalists which included Ghiberti, Filippo Brunelleschi, Donatello, at the time of judging, only Ghiberti and Brunelleschi were finalists, and when the judges could not decide, they were assigned to work together on them