Quechua called Runasimi in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples living in the Peruvian Andes and highlands of South America. Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas, with a total of some 8–10 million speakers. 25% of Peruvians speak a Quechuan language. It is most known for being the main language family of the Inca Empire; the Spaniards encouraged its use, so Quechua survived and variants are still spoken today, being the co-official language of many regions and the second most spoken language in Peru. Quechua had expanded across wide ranges of the central Andes long before the expansion of the Inca Empire; the Inca were one among many peoples in present-day Peru who spoke a form of Quechua. In the Cusco region, Quechua was influenced by neighboring languages such as Aymara, which caused it to develop as distinct. In similar ways, diverse dialects developed in different areas, borrowing from local languages, when the Inca Empire ruled and imposed Quechua as the official language.
After the Spanish conquest of Peru in the 16th century, Quechua continued to be used by the indigenous peoples as the "common language". It was recognized by the Spanish administration and many Spanish learned it in order to communicate with local peoples. Clergy of the Catholic Church adopted Quechua to use as the language of evangelization. Given its use by the Catholic missionaries, the range of Quechua continued to expand in some areas. In the late 18th century, colonial officials ended administrative and religious use of Quechua, banning it from public use in Peru after the Túpac Amaru II rebellion of indigenous peoples; the Crown banned "loyal" pro-Catholic texts in Quechua, such as Garcilaso de la Vega's Comentarios Reales. Despite a brief revival of the language after the Latin American nations achieved independence in the 19th century, the prestige of Quechua had decreased sharply, its use declined so that it was spoken by indigenous people in the more isolated and conservative rural areas.
In the 21st century, Quechua language speakers number 8 to 10 million people across South America, the most speakers of any indigenous language. The oldest written records of the language are by missionary Domingo de Santo Tomás, who arrived in Peru in 1538 and learned the language from 1540, he published his Grammatica o arte de la lengua general de los indios de los reynos del Perú in 1560. As result of Inca expansion into Central Chile there were bilingual Quechua-Mapudungu Mapuche in Central Chile at the time of the Spanish arrival, it has been argued that Mapuche and Spanish coexisted in Central Chile, with significant biligualism, during the 17th century. Quechua is the indigenous language. In 2016 the first thesis defense done in Quechua in Europe was done by Peruvian Carmen Escalante Gutiérrez at Pablo de Olavide University. A Peruvian student, Roxana Quispe Collantes of the University of San Marcos and defended the first thesis in the language group in 2019. In 1975, Peru became the first country to recognize Quechua as one of its official languages.
Ecuador conferred official status on the language in its 2006 constitution, in 2009, Bolivia adopted a new constitution that recognized Quechua and several other indigenous languages as official languages of the country. The major obstacle to the usage and teaching of Quechuan languages is the lack of written materials in the languages, such as books, newspapers and magazines; the Bible is distributed by certain missionary groups. Quechua, along with Aymara and minor indigenous languages, remains a spoken language. In recent years, Quechua has been introduced in intercultural bilingual education in Bolivia and Peru. In these areas, the governments are reaching only a part of the Quechua-speaking populations; some indigenous people in each of the countries are having their children study in Spanish for the purposes of social advancement. Radio Nacional del Perú broadcasts news and agrarian programs in Quechua for periods in the mornings. Quechua and Spanish are now intermixed in much of the Andean region, with many hundreds of Spanish loanwords in Quechua.
Quechua phrases and words are used by Spanish speakers. In southern rural Bolivia, for instance, many Quechua words such as wawa, waska, are as used as their Spanish counterparts in Spanish-speaking areas. Quechua has had a profound influence on other native languages of the Americas, such as Mapuche; the number of speakers given varies according to the sources. The total in Ethnologue 16 is 10 million based on figures published 1987–2002, but with a few dating from the 1960s; the figure for Imbabura Highland Quechua in Ethnologue, for example, is 300,000, an estimate from 1977. The missionary organization FEDEPI, on the other hand, estimated one million Imbabura dialect speakers. Census figures are problematic, due to under-reporting; the 2001 Ecuador census reports only 500,000 Quechua speakers, compared to the estimate in most linguistic sources of more than 2 million. The censuses of Peru and Bolivia are thought to be more reliable. Argentina: 90
Kuldeep Yadav is an Indian cricketer who plays for India and for Uttar Pradesh in domestic cricket and for Kolkata Knight Riders in the IPL. He started out as a fast bowler at academy level, but his coach advised him to become a rare left-arm unorthodox spin bowler considering his build, ill-suited for fast bowling, he played for India Under-19 cricket team in the 2014 ICC Under-19 Cricket World Cup where he took a hat-trick against Scotland which brought him into the limelight. He became the second Indian other than Bhuvneshwar Kumar and the third spinner other than Imran Tahir and Ajantha Mendis to take 5-wicket hauls in all three formats. On 18 December 2019, against the West Indies, he became the first bowler for India to take two hat-tricks in international cricket. On 17 January 2020, in the second ODI against Australia, Yadav became the fastest spin bowler for India, in terms of innings, to take 100 wickets in ODI cricket, in his 58th innings. Kuldeep Yadav was raised in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, the son of a brick kiln owner.
In an interview, he revealed that it was his father who wanted him to continue playing cricket and took him to a coach. Inspired by bowling greats Wasim Akram and Zaheer Khan, he wanted to become a left-arm seamer. However, given his slight build, his coach insisted on him becoming a wrist-spin bowler as he was impressed with the turn and variations he was providing unknowingly at the trials. Since he started following and watching videos of Shane Warne's bowling and made him his role model. "I keep watching videos of Warne. His grip of the ball, length of deliveries and use of the crease are unbeatable. I try to learn from the footage" He revealed that earlier in his life, there was a dark phase in his life when he thought of giving up cricket and committing suicide, when he was not selected in the Uttar Pradesh’s under-15 team, he was a member of the Mumbai Indians squad in 2012 and signed up by the Kolkata Knight Riders in 2014, whom he represented at the 2014 Champions League Twenty20. In January 2018, he was bought back by KKR in the 2018 IPL auction for INR 5.8 crores.
In the 2019 edition, he played only 9 matches, scoring a total of 12 runs. He broke down during the match between Kolkata Knight Riders and Royal Challengers Bangalore, at Eden Gardens, because Moeen Ali thrashed 3 sixes and 2 fours during his last over. Kuldeep Yadav did not play any further match in the 2019 edition of IPL, after the encounter between RCB and KKR at Eden Gardens. On September 21, 2017, he became the third bowler for India to take a hat-trick in an ODI after Chetan Sharma and Kapil Dev, he took a hat-trick at Eden Gardens, against Australia, on 21 September 2017. He was selected in the Indian cricket team to play against West Indies in October 2014 but did not appear in any match. In February 2017 he was added to India's Test squad for their one-off match against Bangladesh, he made his Test debut for India against Australia on 25 March 2017, at the Dharamshala Cricket Stadium, taking four wickets in the first innings. Kuldeep Yadav is the first left-arm wrist spin bowler to represent India national cricket team in Test cricket.
He is only the third such bowler in Test cricket to take four wickets on debut. In June 2017, he was named in India's squad for a limited overs tour to the West Indies, he made his One Day International debut for India against the West Indies on 23 June 2017. However, during this game, he was unable to bowl a single delivery as the game ended with no result due to rain during the first innings while India was batting, he was able to bowl in the next match of the series, where he took three wickets. He made his Twenty20 International debut for India against the West Indies on 9 July 2017. On 3 July 2018, Kuldeep Yadav took his first five-for in a T20I and became the first left-arm wrist-spin bowler to take five wickets in a T20I during the first T20I against England, in fact he became only the third Indian after Yuzvendra Chahal and Bhuvneshwar Kumar to take a five-wicket haul in a T20I. On 12 July 2018 during the first ODI against England, he grabbed his maiden five-wicket haul in an ODI and set a new record for registering the best bowling figures by a left-arm spin bowler of any kind in an ODI.
He shattered the record of Shahid Afridi for registering the best bowling figures by a spinner against England in ODIs and broke Afridi's record for recording the best bowling figures by a spinner in an ODI in England. On 6 October 2018, in the first test against West Indies he took his first five-wicket haul in Tests. After an impressive showing against Australia, in the T20I series of India tour of Australia 2018/19, Kuldeep jumped 20 places to claim a career-best third position in the MRF ICC T20I Bowlers Rankings, updated on 26 November 2018. On 6 January 2019, in the fourth Test against Australia at the SCG and in his first Test match on Australian soil, he took his second five-wicket haul in Tests, in Australia's first innings. On 11 February 2019, he moved to second position in the T20I Bowlers Rankings. In April 2019, he was named in India's squad for the 2019 Cricket World Cup. On 30 June 2019, in the match against England, Kuldeep played in his 50th ODI. On 18 December 2019, against West Indies became the first bowler for India to take two hat-tricks in ODIs.
Waikolu Valley called Waikola, is on the North Shore of Molokai in Hawaii. Access to this uninhabited valley is restricted as it is a within the Kalaupapa National Historical Park. Hawaiians lived along the North Shore of Molokai including Waikolu Valley, cultivating taro and other food crops; these isolated valleys were visited in the summer months. The Native Hawaiian inhabitants were removed in 1865 and 1866 when the leper colony was established on the Kalaupapa Peninsula. Waikolu Valley was where the first leprosy patients were off loaded in 1866. However, the valley was soon abandoned, the colony was established at Kalawao nearby. Kalawao obtained its water supply from a spring in the Waikolu Valley, carried by pipe across the adjacent Waialeia Valley, one mile from the settlement; the spring was the source of the water supply for Kalaupapa, on the dry side of the peninsula, where the leper colony moved in the early 20th century. In the late 1930s, the colony had expanded to the point that the limited water from Waikolu was no longer sufficient for the growing needs of the settlement.
A water development project was undertaken to provide a sufficient supply of fresh water from Waikolu stream. An intake system was installed at the 520 foot elevation, 1.4 miles up the valley, with a catchment system in the upper Waikolu Valley. The water was piped in galvanized 8” and 6” pipe down to the shoreline where it ran on concrete posts along the base of the high cliffs separating Waikolu from Kalawao; the pipeline had sufficient head to push the water up to Kalawao peninsula where the settlement was located. The concrete monuments along the shoreline are the remnants of this early water delivery system; this system was difficult to maintain in the winter months when the shoreline is pounded with winter swells and storms would damage or clog the intake. Maintenance crews would hike up to a point near the intake and camp in a maintenance shack to do repairs to the system; this system was replaced in 1982 with a well. The modern water development from Waikolu Valley started with a federally funded project to divert water from Waikolu Stream to supply water to the dry western part of Molokai to help create jobs in construction and agriculture.
In the late 1960s, a contract was awarded to construct the Waikolu diversion and development tunnel which diverts water from Waikolu Stream into a 5-mile tunnel that delivers water above Kaunakakai town. This water flows into the reservoir in Kualapuu and supplies domestic and agricultural water to Molokai farmers and residents. Two-thirds of the water is for the Hawaiian Homes lands of Molokai and one-third of the water is for other agricultural users and domestic users on Molokai; the project took 5 years to complete. You can see 4 miles through the tunnel, it has a 4" elevation change. Cars can travel through the tunnel for maintenance work. There are six springs; when the well in the tunnel is turned on, it reduces the inflow from the springs and therefore it is used. Intake one was constructed to divert water from the main Waikolu Stream, intake two from a side tributary both gravity feeding into the tunnel. A third intake is located about a mile below the tunnel and an intake and pumping system adds lower elevation water captured behind a dam and pumps the water up to the tunnel.
The pumping is on demand. When there is sufficient water in the catchment area the pump automatically turns on until the level is at a designated level and turns off; these pumps are run by electricity, brought in through the tunnel. A series of 22 transformers are needed to get sufficient power to the pumps. There are several environmental improvements including a fish ladder in the intake #1 and a water replacement pipe that allows some of the water from the lower elevation intake to flow back into the stream; the tunnel is 12’ round with a concrete floor that slopes. The tunnel has a drop of 4” over 5 miles; this water system generates 2 to 5 million gallons of water per day