Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew
Happy Valley, Hong Kong
Happy Valley is an upper-income residential area in Hong Kong, located on Hong Kong Island. Administratively, it is part of Wan Chai District; the area is sometimes known as Wong Nai Chung Kuk or Wong Nai Chung Valley because of the Wong Nai Chung that leads into the area. The area is home to the Happy Valley Racecourse, Hong Kong Racing Museum, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, home to the grounds of the Valley RFC rugby club, the Hong Kong FC and a number of cemeteries including the Hong Kong Cemetery. Happy Valley is a hot spot in Hong Kong. On August 8, 2015, Happy Valley recorded a temperature of 37.9 °C, some of the highest temperature recorded in Hong Kong. The area now known as Happy Valley was known as Wong Nai Chung Valley, where the Wong Nai Chung referred to is a mud-filled river collecting waters from the Wong Nai Chung Gap and surrounding area; the river nourished the rice paddies until the construction of Happy Valley Racecourse in 1846. In early 1840, the British Army set a military camp in the area.
However, the camp was closed due to the increasing number of soldiers succumbing to malaria. The cause of malaria was unknown at the time and the soldiers suffered a then-unknown fever. Early settlers had suggested the area to be used as a business centre, but the idea was shelved due to the valley's marshy environment, causing fatal diseases; the death rate in the area and Victoria City was high in the early colonial days, the valley became a burial ground for the dead. As a result, the valley was renamed as a common euphemism for cemeteries. In 1846, the British felt that the valley terrain was ideal for horse-racing, thus cleared the paddy fields and developed the Happy Valley Racecourse. For this, the Wong Nai Chung river was redirected to the Bowrinton Canal, known as Ngo Keng Kan locally, concurrent with reclamation of Wan Chai; the canal is now covered by Canal Road. On 26 February 1918, there was a fire in the racecourse. By the next day as many as 576 confirmed deaths were reported by the Hong Kong Telegraph.
It was caused by the collapse of a temporary grandstand, which knocked over food stalls and set bamboo matting ablaze. Most of the dead bodies became unrecognizable and assumed to be "Chinese", they were buried in the nearby So Kon Po area. A Chinese-styled memorial site known as "Race Course Fire Memorial" was built in the Chinese cemetery. In 1922, the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital located in Happy Valley started operation. On 19 December 1941, the Japanese Imperial Army entered the hill east of the valley and fought their way to Blue Pool Road. On a number of large massacres occurred, most notably the Blue Pool Road Massacre, where civilians were bayoneted. Civilians and Soldiers captured were kept in the appalling conditions of'the black hole of Hong Kong'; the Japanese advanced up to Wong Nai Chung Gap, where the battle of Wong Nai Chung gap occurred, resulting in Japanese control of the gap. Although the low-areas of Happy Valley were captured, areas surrounding Leighton hill and Morrison Hill were still contested until in the Battle of Hong Kong.
Happy Valley is made up of upper income residential areas, its residents include of a mix of Hong Kong natives and foreigners. Two of the tallest residential buildings in Hong Kong, "Highcliff" and "The Summit" are located in Happy Valley facing Mount Nicholson. Happy Valley is the location of six cemeteries. From south to north, they are the Jewish Cemetery, the Hindu Cemetery, the Parsee Cemetery, Hong Kong Cemetery, St. Michael's Catholic Cemetery, the Muslim Cemetery; the Hong Kong Racing Museum and the Happy Valley Racecourse, one of the two race tracks belonging to the Hong Kong Jockey Club headquarters, is in Happy Valley. Whenever a race runs, surrounding traffic patterns have to be changed: Cars will have to enter Happy Valley and the racecourse via Wong Nai Chung Road in a clockwise fashion, the road may be congested; the stadium lights in the racecourse illuminate nearby buildings when the buildings themselves are unlit. Happy Valley is the home of Hong Kong First Division's Happy Valley Athletic Association.
Hong Kong Tramways extended their network into Happy Valley in 1922, the community has been served by the trams since. The extension has one terminus. Residents can access the Causeway Bay MTR station via trams. Aberdeen Tunnel, Wong Nai Chung Road and Canal Road Flyover serve Happy Valley. Happy Valley has two at the top of the hill and one at the bottom; the terminus furthest up the hill serves route 19. The upper terminus serves one of Hong Kong's oldest bus routes which spans from Green Lane of Happy Valley to Central; the lower bus terminus serves route 8X, going to Siu Sai Wan, route 117, going to Sham Shui Po, route 10S, going to Kennedy Town. Beverly Hill Beverly House Blue Pool Lodge Broad View Villa Broadville Broadwood Park Celeste Court Colonnade Comfort Mansion Friendship Court Gracedale Highcliff Hooley Mansion Horace Court Leighton Hill Panny Court bilge pump Race View Apartments San Francisco Towers Splendour Court The Summit Valley View Terrace Ventris Court Ventris Place Victoria McKenna-Yao Holdings Villa Lotto Villa Rocha Village Terrace Winfield Building Wong Nai Chung Road Sing Woo Road Blue Pool Road Ventris Road Shan Kwong Road Village Road Tsui Man Street Broadwood Road King Kwong Street Yik Yam Street Yuk Sau Street Stubbs Road Tai Hang Road Stubbs Circle The Lycée Français International Victor Segal
Hopewell Centre (Hong Kong)
Hopewell Centre is a 222-metre, 64-storey skyscraper at 183 Queen's Road East, in Wan Chai, Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. The tower is the first circular skyscraper in Hong Kong, it is named after Hong Kong-listed property firm Hopewell Holdings Limited, which constructed the building. Hopewell Holdings Limited's headquarters are in the building and its Chief executive officer, Gordon Wu, has his office on the top floor. Construction started in 1977 and was completed in 1980. Upon completion, Hopewell Centre surpassed Jardine House as Hong Kong's tallest building, it was the second tallest building in Asia at the time. It kept its title in Hong Kong until 1989; the building is now the 20th tallest building in Hong Kong. The building has a circular floor plan. Although the front entrance is on the'ground floor', commuters are taken through a set of escalators to the 3rd floor lift lobby. Hopewell Centre stands on the slope of a hill so steep that the building has its back entrance on the 17th floor towards Kennedy Road.
There is a circular private swimming pool on the roof of the building built for feng shui reasons. A revolving restaurant located on the 62nd floor, called "Revolving 66", overlooks other tall buildings below and the harbour, it was called Revolving 62, but soon changed its name as locals kept calling it Revolving 66. It completes a 360-degree rotation each hour. Passengers take either office lifts or the scenic lifts to the 56/F, where they transfer to smaller lifts up to the 62/F; the restaurant is now named The Grand Buffet. The building comprises several groups of lifts. Lobbies are on the 3rd and 17th floor, are connected to Queen's Road East and Kennedy Road respectively. A mini-skylobby is on the 56th floor and serves as a transfer floor for diners heading to the 60/F and 62/F restaurants; the building's white'bumps' between the windows have built in window-washer guide rails. This skyscraper was the filming location for R&B group Dru Hill's music video for "How Deep Is Your Love," directed by Brett Ratner, who directed the movie Rush Hour, whose soundtrack features the song.
The circular private swimming pool is well visible in this music video. This swimming pool has featured in an Australian television advertisement by one of that country's major gaming companies, Tattersall's Limited, promoting a weekly lottery competition. MTR Wan Chai Station Exit D, followed by a 5-minute walk south through Lee Tung Avenue. Hopewell shares shoot up 31 per cent after developer unveils HK$21.26 billion privatisation plan List of tallest buildings in Hong Kong List of buildings and structures in Hong Kong List of skyscrapers List of buildings Building's Website Dru Hill's music video How Deep Is Your Love at YouTube Elevator Layout
Wan Chai is a metropolitan area situated at the western part of the Wan Chai District on the northern shore of Hong Kong Island, in Hong Kong. Its other boundaries are Canal Road to the east, Arsenal Street to the west and Bowen Road to the south; the area north of Gloucester Road is referred to as Wan Chai North. Wan Chai is one of the busiest commercial areas in Hong Kong with offices of many small and medium-sized companies. Wan Chai North features office towers, hotels and an international conference and exhibition centre; as one of the first areas developed in Hong Kong, the locale is densely populated yet with noticeable residential zones facing urban decay. Arousing considerable public concern, the government has undertaken several urban renewal projects in recent years. There are various landmarks and skyscrapers within the area, most notably the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Central Plaza and Hopewell Centre. Wan Chai began as Ha Wan meaning "a bottom ring" or "lower circuit".
As one of the earliest developed areas in Hong Kong along the Victoria Harbour, Sheung Wan, Sai Wan and Wan Chai are collectively known as the four rings by the locals. Wan Chai means "a cove" in Cantonese from the shape of its coastal line; the area is no longer a cove, due to drastic city development and continual land reclamation. Wan Chai was first home to the many Chinese villagers living along the undisturbed coastlines in proximity to Hung Shing Temple. Most of them were fishermen, who worked around the area near Hung Shing Temple overlooking the entire harbour. Hung Shing Ye, the God of the Sea, was one of the deities worshiped by the locals. With the growth of the British Hong Kong administration, centred in old Victoria, Wan Chai attracted those on the fringes of society, such as "coolie" workers, who came to live on Queen's Road East. A focal point of development at that time was a red-light zone. By the 1850s the area was becoming a Chinese residential area. There were dockyards on McGregor Street for building and repairing ships.
The edge of Sun Street, Moon Street and Star Street was the original site of the first power station in Hong Kong, operated by the Hongkong Electric Company, which began supplying power in 1890. One of the first water-front hospitals was the Seaman's Hospital, built in 1843, funded by the British merchant group Jardine's, it was sold to the British Royal Navy in 1873 and subsequently redeveloped into the Royal Naval Hospital. After the Second World War, the hospital was revitalised as the Ruttonjee Hospital and became one of the main public hospitals in Hong Kong; the district was home to several well-known schools. One of these schools was established by Mo Dunmei. Started as a shushu in 1919, the school was renamed Dunmei School in 1934 after him, it taught Confucian ethics. In 1936, the Chinese Methodist Church moved its building from Caine Road, Mid-levels Central, to Hennessy Road, Wanchai, a thoroughfare of the district running from west to east; this church building became the landmark of the district.
In 1998, this building was replaced by a 23-storey building. During the Japanese occupation in the early 1940s, many bombardments took place in Wan Chai. There were abundant incidences of cannibalism, starvation and abuses of the local population by the Japanese soldiers, including the illegal use of child labour. Senior residents could recall vividly how they survived the hardships: this oral history became an important, first-hand source of the harsh life conditions in Hong Kong under the Japanese period; the Dunmei school was closed during the Japanese occupation period. After the war, the school continued to provide Chinese education for children from families of higher income. During the 1950s the pro-Communist underground cell network Hailiushe established their headquarters at the rooftop of a multi-story house on Spring Garden Lane; this group was raided by the Hong Kong police. Prostitution has been one of the oldest occupations in Wan Chai. There are numerous historical accounts of women trading sex for western merchandise with sailors from trading ships visiting this area.
In the 1960s, Wan Chai became legendary for its exotic night life for the US servicemen resting there during the Vietnam War. Despite rapid changes of Wan Chai's demography from reclamation and redevelopment, the presence of sex workers operating among ordinary residential areas has continued to be a distinctive feature; some of the lifestyle was illustrated in past movies such as The World of Suzie Wong. Wan Chai's HKCEC has been home to major economic events, it was the site of the Hong Kong handover ceremony in 1997, in which the last governor of Hong Kong, Chris Patten, formally concluded the British chapter and transferred Hong Kong to China. The WTO Ministerial Conference in 2005 was one of the largest international events hosted in Hong Kong, with delegates from 148 countries participating. In May 2009, 300 guests and staff members at the Metropark Hotel in Wan Chai were quarantined, suspected of being infected or in contact with the H1N1 virus during the global outbreak of swine flu.
A 25-year-old Mexican man who had stayed at the hotel was found to have caught the viral infection. He had travelled to Hong Kong from Mexico via Shanghai. Wan Chai's coastal line has been extended outward after a series of land reclamation schemes. Early in 1841, the coastline was located at Queen's Road East; the first reclamation took place and new land
The word coolie, meaning a labourer, has a variety of other implications and is sometimes regarded as offensive or a pejorative, depending upon the historical and geographical context. It is similar, in many respects, to the Spanish term peon, although both terms are used in some countries, with differing implications; the word originated in South Asia in the 17th century and meant day labourer but since the 20th century, the word means porters at railway stations. Bollywood movies celebrating coolies were made in 1975, 1983, 1995. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, coolie was a term implying an indentured labourer from South Asia, South East Asia or China. However, coolie is now regarded as derogatory and/or a racial slur in the Caribbean, Oceania, North America, Southeast Asia and Europe – in reference to people from Asia; this is so in South Africa, East Africa and Tobago, Suriname, Mauritius and the Malay Peninsula. In 2000, the parliament of South Africa enacted the Promotion of Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act, which has among its primary objectives the prevention of hate speech terms such as coolie.
An etymological explanation is that the word came from Hindustani word qulī, which itself could be from the Ottoman Turkish word for slave, قول. Another explanation is that the Hindustani word qulī originated from the Gujarati aboriginal tribe or caste known as Kuli, the word was picked up by the Portuguese who used it in South India, hence the Tamil word kuli; the word was used in this sense for labourers from India. In 1727, Dr. Engelbert Kämpfer described "coolies" as dock labourers who would unload Dutch merchant ships at Nagasaki in Japan; the Chinese phrase 苦力 translates as "bitter strength" but is more understood as meaning "bitter labour". Social and political pressure led to the abolition of the slave trade throughout the British Empire in 1807, with other European nations following suit. Labour-intensive industries, such as cotton and sugar plantations and railway construction, in the colonies were left without a cheap source of manpower; as a consequence, a large-scale slavery-like trade in Asian indentured labourers began in the 1820s to fill this vacuum.
Some of these labourers signed contracts based on misleading promises, some were kidnapped and sold into the trade, some were victims of clan violence whose captors sold them to coolie brokers, while others sold themselves to pay off gambling debts. For those who did sign on voluntarily, they signed on for a period of two to five years. In addition to having their passage paid for, coolies were paid under twenty cents per day, on average. However, over a dollar would be taken from them every month. British companies were the first to experiment with this potential new form of cheap labour in 1807, when they imported 200 Chinese men to work in Trinidad. One of the first people to begin importing coolies from the East was Sir John Gladstone; the coolie trade was compared to the earlier slave trade and they accomplished similar things. Much like slave plantations, one Caribbean estate could have over six hundred coolies, with Indians making up over half. Much like slave plantations, there were preconceived notions of.
In his paper "Eastern Coolie Labour", W. L. Distant recalled his time on an estate observing the work ethic and behaviors of coolies. Just as many believed that Africans had an affinity for hard outdoor labor, Distant believed that Indian and Japanese coolies were different in their ability to perform certain jobs. Indian coolies were viewed as lower in status; those who ran estates believed that Chinese and Japanese coolies were harder working and clean. Indian coolies, on the other hand, were viewed as dirty and were treated as children who required constant supervision. Although there are reports of ships for Asian coolies carrying women and children, the great majority of them were men. Regulations were put in place as early as 1837 by the British authorities in India to safeguard these principles of voluntary, contractual work and safe and sanitary transportation, although in practice this occurred; the Chinese government made efforts to secure the well-being of their nation's workers, with representations being made to relevant governments around the world.
Workers from China were transported to work in Peru and Cuba. However, many Chinese laborers worked in British colonies such as Singapore, British Guiana, British Malaya and Tobago, British Honduras – as well as in the Dutch colonies within the Dutch East Indies, Suriname; the first shipment of Chinese labourers was to the British colony of Trinidad in 1806. In 1847, two ships from Cuba transported workers to Havana to work in the sugar cane fields from the port of Xiamen, one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened to the British by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842; the trade soon spread to other ports in Guangdong, demand became strong in Peru for workers in the silver mines and the guano collecting industry. Australia began importing workers in 1848, the United States began using them in 1865 on the First Transcontinental Railroad construction; these workers were deceived about their terms of employment to a much greater extent than their Indian counterparts, there was a much higher level of Chinese emigration during this period.
Land reclamation in Hong Kong
The reclamation of land from the ocean has long been used in mountainous Hong Kong to expand the limited supply of usable land with a total of around 60 square kilometres of land created by 1996. The first reclamations can be traced back to the early Western Han Dynasty, when beaches were turned into fields for salt production. Major land reclamation projects have been conducted since the mid-19th century. One of the earliest projects, the works were completed in two phases; the second added 50 to 60 acres of land in 1890 during the second phase of construction. It was one of the most ambitious projects undertaken during the Colonial Hong Kong era, it expanded the land around Praya Central. The new towns were built on reclaimed land, such as Tuen Mun, Tai Po, Sha Tin, Ma On Shan, West Kowloon, Kwun Tong and Tseung Kwan O; these were built in a series of three phases. Several projects in and around Victoria Harbour, constructed for various purposes; this includes transportation improvements such as the Hong Kong MTR Station, Airport Express Railway & Central-Wanchai Bypass, as well as public recreation space such as the Central Harbourfront Event Space, Tamar Park and the Hong Kong Observation Wheel.
In October 2018, a development project was announced with the intention of creating 1700 hectares of land in the form of new islands off the east coast of Lantau, to house an estimated 1.1 million people. The project has an estimated cost of 500 billion Hong Kong dollars. Much reclamation has taken place in prime locations on the waterfront on both sides of Victoria Harbour; this has raised environmental issues of the protection of the harbour, once the source of prosperity of Hong Kong, traffic congestion in the Central district, as well as the collusion of the Hong Kong Government with the real estate developers in the territory. Hong Kong legislators passed the Protection of the Harbour Ordinance in 1996 in an effort to safeguard the threatened Victoria Harbour against encroaching land development. Land reclamations of the People's Republic of China Society for Protection of the Harbour Enhancing Land Supply Strategy Reclamation History Maps of the reclamations Detailed list of historical land reclamation projects in Hong Kong Chen Yu, "Transformation of waterfront space in Asian cities: Macau, Hong Kong, Shanghai", National University of Singapore, 2009 "Enhancing Land Supply Strategy: Reclamation Outside Victoria Harbour and Rock Cavern Development"
Lieutenant General Sir Henry Pottinger, 1st Baronet, GCB, PC, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and colonial administrator who became the first Governor of Hong Kong. Henry Pottinger was born in County Down, Ireland, in 1789, he was the fifth son of Eldred Curwen Pottinger, Esq. of Mount Pottinger, County Down, his wife Anne, the daughter of Robert Gordon, Esq. of Florida House in the same county. They had eight sons. Eldred Pottinger was his nephew. Henry studied at the Belfast Academy, today known as Belfast Royal Academy. In 1804, he went to India to serve in the army and explored the lands between the Indus and Persia, travelling in disguise as a Muslim merchant and studying local languages, under the orders of Sir John Malcolm. In 1806, he joined the British East India Company and in 1809, he was a Lieutenant who fought in one of the Anglo-Mahratta wars. In 1810, he and Charles Christie undertook an expedition from Nushki to Isfahan disguised as Muslims. Christie went north to Herat and west while Pottinger went west across two deserts to Kerman and Isfahan where they rejoined.
The expedition was funded by the East India Company to map and research the regions of Balochistan and Persia because of concerns about India being invaded by French forces. It would be 100 years before another European took this route, Pottinger rose to the rank of Colonel. Pottinger became Resident Administrator of Sindh in 1820, he held the same post in Hyderabad. In 1820, he married Susanna Maria Cooke who in 1831 gave birth to their son, Frederick Pottinger who became notorious for his run-ins with bushrangers as Inspector of Police in New South Wales, Australia, their second son, was born on 10 June 1834 and died on 18 October 1909. He was created a baronet when he returned to England in 1839. Pottinger accepted Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston's offer of the post of envoy and plenipotentiary in China and superintendent of British trade, thus replacing Charles Elliot. In 1841, when Pottinger was sent to China, Palmerston instructed him to "examine with care the natural capacities of Hong Kong, you will not agree to give up that Island unless you should find that you can exchange it for another in the neighbourhood of Canton, better adapted for the purposes in view.
On 4 November 1841, Palmerston's successor Lord Aberdeen wrote to Pottinger that he had doubts over Hong Kong's acquisition since it would incur administrative expenses, complicate relations with China and other nations. After Pottinger joined the British expeditionary force in northern China, he negotiated the terms of the Treaty of Nanking, which ended the First Opium War and ceded Hong Kong Island to the United Kingdom. Pottinger became the first Governor of Hong Kong; when he forwarded the treaty to Aberdeen, Pottinger remarked, "the retention of Hong Kong is the only point in which I have intentionally exceeded my modified instructions, but every single hour I have passed in this superb country has convinced me of the necessity and desirability of our possessing such a settlement as an emporium for our trade and a place from which Her Majesty's subjects in China may be alike protected and controlled."On 26 April 1843, the Governor's residence was robbed. On 26 June 1843, he was appointed to become the Chief Commander of the British troops stationed in Hong Kong.
During his short tenure, Pottinger established executive and legislative chambers, with one discussing political affairs and one designing legal codes. However, the chambers did not convene and this gave Pottinger wide-ranging powers to decide on policy. Towards the end of his tenure, Pottinger lost the support of the local British merchants and was isolated, he left on 7 May 1844. During his governorship, Hong Kong became the major port for trading opium in China. Pottinger became a member of the Privy Council in 1844, became Governor of Cape Colony in 1847 and of Madras in the same year. In 1851, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general, he died in retirement in Malta in 1856. He was buried in the Protestant cemetery in Floriana, nowadays known as "Msida Bastion Historic Garden". A marble plaque is still visible. Pottinger Street, Hong Kong Island Pottinger Peak, Hong Kong Island Pottinger Gap, between Pottinger Peak and Mount Collinson Pottinger Battery, Devil's Peak, Hong Kong Pottingers Entry off High Street in Belfast, Northern Ireland Pottinger House, Belfast Royal Academy, his former school, named a house in his honour Mount Pottinger, Belfast Belfast Pottinger, UK Parliament constituency Pottinger County, is one of the 141 Cadastral divisions of New South Wales, Australia Eldred Pottinger.
List of heads of Hong Kong by education Endacott, G. B.. A Biographical Sketch-book of Early Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-962-209-742-1. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Pottinger, Henry". Dictionary of National Biography. 46. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 224–226. Media related to Henry Pottinger at Wikimedia Commons