Pararistolochia is a genus of plant family Aristolochiaceae. The genus contains the following species: Hutch. & Dalz. Pararistolochia fimbriata, M. E. Leal & D. Nguema Pararistolochia goldieana, Hutch. & Dalz. Pararistolochia incisiloba, M. E. Leal Pararistolochia leonensis, Hutch. & Dalziel Pararistolochia mannii, Keay Pararistolochia macrocarpa, Poncy Pararistolochia preussii, Hutch. & Dalziel Pararistolochia promissa, Keay Pararistolochia triactina, Hutch. & Dalziel Pararistolochia zenkeri, Hutch. & Dalziel Pararistolochia enricoi, Luino, L. Gaut & Callm. Pararistolochia australopithecurus, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia biakensis, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia decandra, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia deltantha, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia dictyophlebia, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia dielsiana, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia engleriana, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia gracilifolia, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia kepara, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia laheyana, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia linearifolia, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia manokwariensis, M.
J. Parsons Pararistolochia meridionaliana, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia momandul, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia paradisiana, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia peninsulensis, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia pithecurus, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia praevenosa, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia schlechteri, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia sepikensis, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia sparusifolia, M. J. Parsons Pararistolochia tithonusiana, M. J. ParsonsPararistolochia laheyana Leal, M. E. et al. 2011. Aristolochiaceae. In: Sosef, M. S. M. Et al. Fl. Gabon 42: 5-10. Margraf Publishers, Weikersheim. Luino, I. et al. 2016. A new Pararistolochia Hutch. & Dalziel, from the Beanka Tsingy. Candollea, 71: 135- 141. Parsons, M. J. 1996a. New species of Aristolochia and Pararistolochia from Australia and New Guinea. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 199-238. Parsons, M. J. 1996b. The immature stages of Pharmacophagus antenor from Madagascar. J. Lepid. Soc. 50: 337-344. Poncy, O. 1978. Le genre Aristolochiaceae d'Afrique tropicale. Adansonia, 17: 465- 494.
Dressler, S.. "Pararistolochia". African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies, 10 per cent of the total described species of living organisms, it is one of the most widespread and recognizable insect orders in the world. The Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera and Coleoptera. Lepidopteran species are characterized by more than three derived features; the most apparent is the presence of scales that cover the bodies, a proboscis. The scales are modified, flattened "hairs", give butterflies and moths their wide variety of colors and patterns. All species have some form of membranous wings, except for a few that have reduced wings or are wingless. Mating and the laying of eggs are carried out by adults near or on host plants for the larvae.
Like most other insects and moths are holometabolous, meaning they undergo complete metamorphosis. The larvae are called caterpillars, are different from their adult moth or butterfly forms, having a cylindrical body with a well-developed head, mandible mouth parts, three pairs of thoracic legs and from none up to five pairs of prolegs; as they grow, these larvae change in appearance, going through a series of stages called instars. Once matured, the larva develops into a pupa. A few butterflies and many moth species spin a silk case or cocoon prior to pupating, while others do not, instead going underground. A butterfly pupa, called a chrysalis, has a hard skin with no cocoon. Once the pupa has completed its metamorphosis, a sexually mature adult emerges; the Lepidoptera have, over millions of years, evolved a wide range of wing patterns and coloration ranging from drab moths akin to the related order Trichoptera, to the brightly colored and complex-patterned butterflies. Accordingly, this is the most recognized and popular of insect orders with many people involved in the observation, collection, rearing of, commerce in these insects.
A person who collects or studies this order is referred to as a lepidopterist. Butterflies and moths play an important role in the natural ecosystem as pollinators and as food in the food chain. In many species, the female may produce from 200 to 600 eggs, while in others, the number may approach 30,000 eggs in one day; the caterpillars hatching from these eggs can cause damage to large quantities of crops. Many moth and butterfly species are of economic interest by virtue of their role as pollinators, the silk they produce, or as pest species; the term was coined by Linnaeus in 1735 and is derived from Greek λεπίς, gen. λεπίδος and πτερόν. Sometimes, the term Rhopalocera is used for the clade of all butterfly species, derived from the Ancient Greek ῥόπαλον and κέρας meaning "club" and "horn" coming from the shape of the antennae of butterflies; the origins of the common names "butterfly" and "moth" are varied and obscure. The English word butterfly is with many variations in spelling. Other than that, the origin is unknown, although it could be derived from the pale yellow color of many species' wings suggesting the color of butter.
The species of Heterocera are called moths. The origins of the English word moth are more clear, deriving from the Old English moððe" from Common Germanic, its origins are related to Old English maða meaning "maggot" or from the root of "midge", which until the 16th century was used to indicate the larva in reference to devouring clothes. The etymological origins of the word "caterpillar", the larval form of butterflies and moths, are from the early 16th century, from Middle English catirpel, catirpeller an alteration of Old North French catepelose: cate, cat + pelose, hairy; the Lepidoptera are among the most successful groups of insects. They are found on all continents, except Antarctica, inhabit all terrestrial habitats ranging from desert to rainforest, from lowland grasslands to mountain plateaus, but always associated with higher plants angiosperms. Among the most northern dwelling species of butterflies and moths is the Arctic Apollo, found in the Arctic Circle in northeastern Yakutia, at an altitude of 1500 m above sea level.
In the Himalayas, various Apollo species such as Parnassius epaphus have been recorded to occur up to an altitude of 6,000 m above sea level. Some lepidopteran species exhibit symbiotic, phoretic, or parasitic lifestyles, inhabiting the bodies of organisms rather than the environment. Coprophagous pyralid moth species, called sloth moths, such as Bradipodicola hahneli and Cryptoses choloepi, are unusual in that they are found inhabiting the fur of sloths, mammals found in Central and South America. Two species of Tinea moths have been recorded as feeding on horny tissue and have been bred from the horns of cattle; the larva of Zenodochium coccivorella is an internal parasite of the coccid Kermes species. Many species have been recorded as breeding in natural materials or refuse such as owl pellets, bat caves, honeycombs or diseased fruit; as of 2007, there was 174,250 lepi
The Aristolochiaceae are a family, the birthwort family, of flowering plants with seven genera and about 400 known species belonging to the order Piperales. The type genus is Aristolochia L, they are perennial, herbaceous plants, shrubs, or lianas. The membranous, cordate simple leaves are spread out, growing alternately along the stem on leaf stalks; the margins are entire. No stipules are present; the bizarre flowers are large to medium-sized. They are radially symmetrical. Aristolochiaceae are magnoliids, a basal group of angiosperms which are not part of the large categories of monocots or eudicots; as of APG IV APG IV, the former families Hydnoraceae and Lactoridaceae are included, because exclusion would make Aristolochiaceae in the traditional sense paraphyletic. Some newer classification schemes, such as the update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, place the family Aristolochiaceae in the order Piperales, but it is still quite common, though superseded, for the Aristolochiaceae to be assigned, sometimes with some other families, their own order.
Four assemblages can be distinguished in the genus-level cladogram of Aristolochiaceae: Aristolochia is related to Thottea. Hydnora is related to Prosopanche. Lactoris occupies an isolated position. Asarum is related to Saruma, both genera display a deep-branching position in the family. Many members of Aristolochia and some of Asarum contain the toxin aristolochic acid, which discourages herbivores and is known to be carcinogenic in rats. Aristolochia species are carcinogenic to humans; the complete plastid genome sequence of one species of Aristolochiaceae, Hydnora visseri, has been determined. As compared to the chloroplast genome of its closest photosynthetic relatives, the plastome of Hydnora visseri shows extreme reduction in both size and gene content; this Aristolochiaceae species therefore possesses one of the smallest plastid genomes among flowering plants. Pipevine swallowtail butterflies lay their eggs on pipevine, the larvae feed on the plant, but are not affected by the toxin, which offers the adult butterfly protection against predators.
The oldest fossil leaf remains are of †Aristolochites dentata from the Late Cretaceous of Nebraska, United States. Pollen record of †Aristolochiacidites viluiensis has been described from Upper Cretaceous sediments of Siberia. Fossil wood is known from the Deccan Traps of India some 66 million years ago. Leaf fossils of Aristolochia are known from the Early and Late Tertiary of North America and the Late Tertiary of Abkhazia and Poland. Fossil leaf remains of † Aristolochia austriaca have been described from Late Miocene sediments of the Pellendorf site at the Vienna Basin in Austria. † A. austriaca is most similar to the extant Mediterranean species A. A. baetica. International Agency for Research on Cancer evaluation Dietary Supplements: Aristolochic Acid, U. S. Food and Drug Administration alerts Health Canada advising not to use products labelled to contain Aristolochia Aristolochiaceae in BoDD – Botanical Dermatology Database
External morphology of Lepidoptera
The external morphology of Lepidoptera is the physiological structure of the bodies of insects belonging to the order Lepidoptera known as butterflies and moths. Lepidoptera are distinguished from other orders by the presence of scales on the external parts of the body and appendages the wings. Butterflies and moths vary in size from microlepidoptera only a few millimetres long, to a wingspan of many inches such as the Atlas moth. Comprising over 160,000 described species, the Lepidoptera possess variations of the basic body structure which has evolved to gain advantages in adaptation and distribution. Lepidopterans undergo complete metamorphosis, going through a four-stage life cycle: egg, larva or caterpillar, pupa or chrysalis, imago / adult; the larvae – caterpillars – have a toughened head capsule, chewing mouthparts, a soft body, that may have hair-like or other projections, three pairs of true legs, up to five pairs of prolegs. Most caterpillars are herbivores. Larvae are the feeding and growing stages and periodically undergo hormone-induced ecdysis, developing further with each instar, until they undergo the final larval–pupal moult.
The larvae of many lepidopteran species will either make a spun casing of silk called a cocoon and pupate inside it, or will pupate in a cell under the ground. In many butterflies, the pupa is called a chrysalis; the adult body has a hardened exoskeleton, except for the abdomen, less sclerotised. The head is shaped like a capsule with appendages arising from it. Adult mouthparts include a prominent proboscis formed from maxillary galeae, are adapted for sucking nectar; some species do not feed as adults, may have reduced mouthparts, while others have them modified for piercing and suck blood or fruit juices. Mandibles are absent in all except the Micropterigidae. Adult Lepidoptera have two immobile, multi-faceted compound eyes, only two simple eyes or ocelli, which may be reduced; the three segments of the thorax are fused together. Antennae are prominent and besides the faculty of smell aid navigation and balance during flight. In moths, males have more feathery antennae than females, for detecting the female pheromones at a distance.
There are two pairs of membranous wings which arise from the metathoracic segments. The two wings on each side act as one by virtue of wing-locking mechanisms. In some groups, the females have reduced wings; the abdomen has ten segments connected with movable inter-segmental membranes. The last segments of the abdomen form the external genitalia; the genitalia are complex and provide the basis for family identification and species discrimination. The wings, head parts of thorax, abdomen of Lepidoptera are covered with minute scales, from which feature the order Lepidoptera derives its names, the word lepidos in Ancient Greek meaning "scale". Most scales are lamellar and attached with a pedicel, while other forms may be hair like or specialised as secondary sexual characteristics; the lumen, or surface of the lamella, has a complex structure. It gives colour either due to the pigments contained within it or through its three-dimensional structure. Scales provide a number of functions, which include insulation and aiding flight, amongst others, the most important of, the large diversity of vivid or indistinct patterns they provide which help the organism protect itself by camouflage, to seek mates.
In common with other members of the superorder Holometabola, Lepidoptera undergo complete metamorphosis, going through a four-stage life cycle: egg, larva / caterpillar, pupa / chrysalis, imago / adult. Lepidopterans range in size from a few millimetres in length, such as in the case of microlepidoptera, to a wingspan of many inches, such as the Atlas moth and the world's largest butterfly Queen Alexandra's birdwing; the body of an adult butterfly or moth has three distinct divisions, called tagmata, connected at constrictions. Adult lepidopterans have four wings: a forewing and a hindwing on both the left and the right side of the thorax and, like all insects, have three pairs of legs; the morphological characteristics which distinguish the order Lepidoptera from other insect orders are: Head: The head has large compound eyes and, if mouthparts are present, they are always a drinking straw-like proboscis. Scales: Scales cover the external surface of the body and appendages. Thorax: The prothorax is reduced.
Wings: Two pairs of wings are present in all taxa. The wings have few cross veins. Abdomen: The posterior abdominal segments are extensively modified for reproduction. Cerci are absent. Larva: Lepidoptera larvae are known as caterpillars, have a well-developed head and mandibles, they can have from zero to five pairs of prolegs four. Pupa: The pupae in most species are adecticous and obtect, while others are decticous and exarate; the chief characteristics used to classify lepidopteran species and families are: the mouthparts the shape and venation of the wings whether the wings are homoneurous or heteroneurous whether the wings are aculeate (more or less covered with specialized bristles called
Golden silk orb-weaver
The golden silk orb-weavers are a genus of araneomorph spiders noted for the impressive webs they weave. Nephila consists of numerous species found in warmer regions around the world, they are commonly called golden orb-weavers, giant wood spiders, or banana spiders. The genus name Nephila is derived from Ancient Greek, meaning "fond of spinning", from the words νεῖν = to spin + φίλος = "love". Nephila spiders vary from reddish to greenish yellow in color with distinctive whiteness on the cephalothorax and the beginning of the abdomen. Like many species of the superfamily Araneoidea, most of them have striped legs specialized for weaving, their contrast of dark brown/black and green/yellow allows warning and repelling of potential predators to which their venom might be of little danger. Golden orb-weavers reach sizes of 4.8–5.1 cm in females, not including legspan, with males being two-thirds smaller. The largest specimen recorded was a 6.9-cm female N. plumipes from Queensland, able to catch and feed on a small finch.
In 2012, a large individual was photographed killing and consuming a 0.5-m-long brown tree snake in Freshwater, Queensland. Species from Taiwan have been known to reach over 130 mm, legspan included, in mountainous country. In 2014, a study discovered that golden orb-weavers living in urban areas areas of a high socioeconomic status, grew larger and carried more eggs than those in their native habitats. A number of possible explanations were suggested, such as increased food supplies due to artificial light or lack of predators and parasites; as of May 2017, the World Spider Catalog accepted these species: Golden silk orb-weavers are widespread in warmer regions throughout the world, with species in Australia, Asia and the Americas. One species, N. clavipes, occurs in the United States of America, where it ranges throughout the coastal southeast and inland, from North Carolina to Texas. Spiderlings can be carried by the wind over long distances, each year, a small number of golden orb web spiders are found in New Zealand after having been blown across the Tasman Sea.
Whilst the geographic distribution of Nephila is large, many habitat similarities are seen between these locations. A warm and reasonably wet climate is preferred, as these are some of the environmental cues that induce spiderling hatching. Locally, spiders look for dense vegetation where webs can be set up in areas that insects will fly through. Urban environments are attractive due to the large prey concentrations and lower levels of predation. Nephila spiders produce large asymmetric orb webs up to 1.5 m in diameter. The hub of the web is in the upper section, while most of the sticky capture strands are found in the lower web. Nephila species remain in their webs permanently. A barrier web structure on either side of the main web helps mitigate this risk; the golden silk orb-weaver is named for the yellow color of the spider silk used to construct these webs. Yellow threads of their web shine like gold in sunlight. Carotenoids are the main contributors to this yellow color, but xanthurenic acid, two quinones, an unknown compound may aid in the color.
Experimental evidence suggests that the silk's color may serve a dual purpose: sunlit webs ensnare bees that are attracted to the bright yellow strands, whereas in shady spots, the yellow blends in with background foliage to act as a camouflage. The spider is able to adjust pigment intensity relative to color; the webs of most Nephila spiders are complex, with a fine-meshed orb suspended in a maze of non-sticky barrier webs. As with many weavers of sticky spirals, the orb is renewed if not daily because the stickiness of the orb declines with age; when weather is good and adults rebuild only a portion of the web. The spider removes and consumes the portion to be replaced, builds new radial elements spins the new spirals; this partial orb renewal is distinct from other orb-weaving spiders that replace the entire orb web. The web of Nephila antipodiana contains ant-repellent chemicals to protect the web; the golden orb-weaver first weaves a nonsticky spiral with space for two to 20 more spirals in between.
When she has completed the coarse weaving, she fills in the gaps. Whereas most orb-weaving spiders remove the nonsticky spiral when spinning the sticky spiral, Nephila spiders leave it; this produces a "manuscript paper" effect when the orb is seen in the sun: groups of sticky spirals reflecting light with "gaps" where the nonsticky spiral does not reflect the light. The circular-orb portion of a mature N. clavipes web can be more than 1 m across, with support strands extending several more meters away. In relation to the ground, the webs of adults may be woven from eye-level upwards high into the tree canopy; the orb web is truncated by a top horizontal support strand, giving it an incomplete look. Adjacent to one face of the main orb, a rather extensive and haphazard-looking network of guard-strands may be suspended a few cm distant across a free space; this network is decorated with a lumpy string or two of plant detritus
Swallowtail butterflies are large, colorful butterflies in the family Papilionidae, include over 550 species. Though the majority are tropical, members of the family inhabit every continent except Antarctica; the family includes the largest butterflies in the world, the birdwing butterflies of the genus Ornithoptera. Swallowtails have a number of distinctive features; the osmeterium remains hidden, but when threatened, the larva turns it outward through a transverse dorsal groove by inflating it with fluid. The forked appearance of the swallowtails' hindwings, which can be seen when the butterfly is resting with its wings spread, gave rise to the common name swallowtail; as for its formal name, Linnaeus chose Papilio for the type genus, as papilio is Latin for "butterfly". For the specific epithets of the genus, Linnaeus applied the names of Greek figures to the swallowtails; the type species: Papilio machaon honored Machaon, one of the sons of Asclepius, mentioned in the Iliad. Further, the species Papilio homerus is named after Homer.
The genera of extant swallowtails are classified into three subfamilies, Baroniinae and Papilioninae, the latter two being further divided into tribes. In swallowtails, besides morphological characteristics, the choice of food plants and ecological lifestyle reflect phylogeny and classification; the Baroniinae are a monotypic subfamily, restricted to a small region in Mexico and are considered to be the most basal of the subfamilies. Baronia brevicornis is considered to be a relict species, shares features with a fossil taxon Praepapilio. Baronia is unique among papilionids as having an Acacia species as its food plant. Subfamily: Baroniinae; the Parnassiinae are a subfamily of Holarctic butterflies. The vast majority of species Parnassius, can be found in mountain habitats. Parnassiinines can be found in other habitats such as "arid deserts, humid forests and lowland meadows"; the tribes recognized in the Parnassiinae are Parnassiini and Luehdorfiini. Tribe Parnassiini contains two genera, Hypermnestra confined to central Asia and the genus Parnassius, a distinctive group of many species, all of which are alpine and capable of living at high altitudes.
Most Parnassius have two small reddish spots on their hindwings. The tribe Luehdorfiini contains the genera Archon of Asia minor and the genus Luehdorfia of China and Japan; these two tribes have evolved to change their food plants, while the third tribe, has retained the archetypical papilionid food plant, the lowland vine Aristolochia. Zerynthiini comprises four genera – Sericinus, Bhutanitis and Allancastria. Subfamily: Parnassiinae; the tribes recognized in the Papilioninae are Leptocircini, Teinopalpini and Papilionini. Subfamily: Papilioninae. An additional subfamily, consisting of a single genus Praepapilio, includes two species of extinct butterflies, each member being described from single fossils found in a middle Eocene deposit in Colorado, United States. A phylogeny of the Papilionidae based on Nazari is given: It is now accepted that the subfamily Papilioninae is monophyletic; the swallowtail butterflies in the nominate tribe Papilionini number about 225 species and studies have been made on their host plant coevolution and phylogeny.
Old morphological classifications were found to be valid in that they formed clusters. Species belonging to the groups that use Rutaceae as host plants formed two groups corresponding to Old World and American taxa; those that fed on Lauraceae and Magnoliaceae were found to form another cluster which includes both Asian and American taxa. The Parnassinae, like the Papilioninae, were believed to be monophyletic based on morphological studies but recent studies based on both morphological and molecular characteristics suggest that this is not the case. Of the Parnassiinae, the genera Parnassius and Hypermnestra were found to be close based on molecular studies and are now considered to be part of the tribe Parnassiini; the two taxa and Luehdorfia, have been found to be related through analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, though they share no morphological similarities, have now been united in the tribe Luehdorfiini. The subfamily Baroniinae is represented by the sole representative species Baronia brevicornis.
They are unique in the family to use the Fabaceae as their larval host plants. The Baronninae and the extinct subfamily Praepapilioninae share many external similarities and are traditionally considered to be the most primitive subfamilies and sister to the rest of the swallowtails. Recent research suggests that this may not be the case, the Baroniinae being related to only the Parnassiinae, Praepapilio to only the Papilionini and neither taxa being sister to the rest of the swallowtails; as of 2005, 552 extant species have been identified which are distributed across the tropical and temperate regions. Various species inhabit altitudes ranging from sea level to high mountains, as in the case of most species of Parnassius; the majority of swallowtail species and the greatest diversity are found in the tropics and subtropical regions between 20°N and 20°S Southeast Asia, between 20°N and 40°N in East Asia. Only 12 species are found in Europe and only one species, Papilio machaon is found in the British Isles.
North America has 40 species, including Parnassius. The northernmost swallowtail is the Siberian Apollo, found in the Arctic Circle in northeastern
Mount Lamington is an andesitic stratovolcano in the Oro Province of Papua New Guinea. The forested peak of the volcano had not been recognised as such until its devastating eruption in 1951 that caused about 3,000 deaths; the volcano rises to 1680 meters above the coastal plain north of the Owen Stanley Range. A summit complex of lava domes and crater remnants rises above a low-angle base of volcaniclastic deposits that are dissected by radial valleys. A prominent broad "avalanche valley" extends northward from the breached crater; the mountain was named after Charles Cochrane-Baillie, 2nd Baron Lamington, Governor of Queensland. Mount Lamington began to erupt on the night of January 18, 1951. Three days there was a violent eruption when a large part of the northern side of the mountain was blown away and devastating pyroclastic flows poured from the gap for a considerable time afterwards; the area of extreme damage extended over a radius of about 12 km, while people near Higaturu, 14 km from the volcano, were killed by the blast or burned to death.
The pyroclastic flows and subsequent eruptions of dust and ash which filled streams and tanks, caused the death of some 3,000 persons, considerable damage. More than 5,000 people were made homeless. Rescue parties which arrived on the scene were hampered by suffocating pumice dust and sulphurous fumes, hot ashes on the ground; the advance post of relief workers at Popondetta was threatened with destruction by other eruptions during the several days following. Further tremors and explosions occurred during February; as late as 5 March a major eruption occurred which threw large pieces of the volcanic dome as far as three kilometres and caused a flow of pumice and rocks for a distance of 14km, the whole time being so hot as to set fire to every tree in its path. Volcanologist and former Australian Army Warrant Officer, Tony Taylor, studied the volcano during the eruption cycle, his work is credited to saving lives by informing rescue parties when it was safe to go into the area. In 1952 he was awarded a George Cross for his efforts.
List of volcanoes in Papua New Guinea List of volcanic eruptions by death toll Footnotes Citations Downs, Ian. The New Guinea Volunteer Rifles NGVR 1939–1943: A History. Broadbeach Waters, Queensland: Pacific Press. ISBN 1-875150-03-X. Taylor GA; the 1951 eruption of Mount Lamington, Papua. Bureau of Mineral Resources and Geophysics, Department of National Development 1958. Collection of photographs and colour slides from the 1951 eruption of Mt Lamington, Papua New Guinea / Albert Speer - held and digitised by the National Library of Australia