Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves Jr. was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project, a top secret research project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II. The son of a U. S. Army chaplain, Groves lived at various Army posts during his childhood. In 1918, he graduated fourth in his class at the U. S. Military Academy at West Point and was commissioned into the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. In 1929, he went to Nicaragua as part of an expedition to conduct a survey for the Inter-Oceanic Nicaragua Canal. Following the 1931 earthquake, Groves took over Managua's water supply system, for which he was awarded the Nicaraguan Presidential Medal of Merit, he attended the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1935 and 1936. Groves developed "a reputation as a doer, a driver, a stickler for duty" and in 1940 he became special assistant for construction to the Quartermaster General, tasked with inspecting construction sites and checking on their progress.
In August 1941, he was appointed to create the gigantic office complex for the War Department's 40,000 staff that would become the Pentagon. In September 1942, Groves took charge of the Manhattan Project, he was involved in most aspects of the atomic bomb's development: he participated in the selection of sites for research and production at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. He directed the enormous construction effort, made critical decisions on the various methods of isotope separation, acquired raw materials, directed the collection of military intelligence on the German nuclear energy project and helped select the cities in Japan that were chosen as targets. Groves wrapped the Manhattan Project in security but failed to prevent the Soviet Union from conducting a successful espionage program that stole some of its most important secrets. After the war, Groves remained in charge of the Manhattan Project until responsibility for nuclear weapons production was handed over to the United States Atomic Energy Commission in 1947.
He headed the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project, created to control the military aspects of nuclear weapons. He was given a dressing down by the Army Chief of Staff, General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, told that he would never be appointed Chief of Engineers. Three days Groves announced his intention to leave the Army, he was promoted to lieutenant general just before his retirement on 29 February 1948 in recognition of his leadership of the bomb program. By a special Act of Congress, his date of rank was backdated to 16 July 1945, the date of the Trinity nuclear test, he went on to become a vice-president at Sperry Rand. Leslie Richard Groves Jr. was born in Albany, New York, on 17 August 1896, the third son of four children of a pastor, Leslie Richard Groves Sr. and his wife Gwen née Griffith. He was half Welsh and half English, with some French Huguenot ancestors who came to the United States in the 17th century. Leslie Groves Sr. resigned as pastor of the Sixth Presbyterian church in Albany in December 1896 to become a United States Army chaplain.
He was posted to the 14th Infantry at Vancouver Barracks in Washington in 1897. Following the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in 1898, Chaplain Groves was sent to Cuba with the 8th Infantry. On returning to Vancouver Barracks, he was ordered to rejoin the 14th Infantry in the Philippines; the 14th Infantry moved to Fort Snelling, Minnesota. The family relocated to there from Vancouver moved to Fort Hancock, New Jersey, returned to Vancouver in 1905. Chaplain Groves was hospitalized with tuberculosis at Fort Bayard in 1905, he bought a house in Altadena. His next posting was to Arizona; the family returned to Altadena where the children attended school. In 1911, Chaplain Groves was ordered to return to the 14th Infantry, now stationed at Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana. At Fort Harrison, Groves met Grace Wilson, the daughter of Colonel Richard Hulbert Wilson, a career Army officer who had served with Chaplain Groves during the 8th Infantry's posting to Cuba. In 1913, the 14th Infantry moved once more, this time to Fort Lawton in Washington.
Groves entered Queen Anne High School in 1913, graduated in 1914. While completing high school, Groves enrolled in courses at the University of Washington, in anticipation of attempting to gain an appointment to the United States Military Academy. Groves earned a nomination from President Wilson, which allowed him to compete for a vacancy, but did not score high enough mark on the examination to be admitted. Charles W. Bell from California's 9th congressional district nominated Groves as an alternate, but the principal nominee accepted. Instead, Groves enrolled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and planned to re-take the West Point entrance exam. In 1916, Groves tested again, attained a passing score, was accepted, he said "Entering West Point fulfilled my greatest ambition. I had been brought up in the Army, in the main had lived on Army posts all my life."Groves' class entered West Point on 15 June 1916, but the United States declaration of war on Germany in April 1917 led to their program of instruction being shortened as the War Emergency Course, which graduated on 1 November 1918, a year and a half ahead of schedule.
Groves finished fourth in his class, which earned him a commission as a second l
Cleveland High School (Seattle)
Cleveland High School known as Grover Cleveland High School, is a public secondary school located in Seattle, Washington. It is operated as part of the Seattle Public Schools system and serves the Beacon Hill and Georgetown neighborhoods; the school was established in 1927 and named for President Grover Cleveland, its building is a designated city landmark. The then-independent city of Georgetown established a high school in 1903, with one class graduating from the facility at the Mueller School annex. Beginning in 1905, Georgetown and south Seattle students were moved to high schools across the city, including West Seattle, Queen Anne and Franklin; the Seattle Public Schools board approved construction of a new high school in the south end of Seattle in 1925, after petitioning from residents. The new school, named for President Grover Cleveland in accordance with naming schools after famous Americans, opened on January 3, 1927, graduated its first class in the spring. Cleveland High School initially hosted a middle school, named Grover Cleveland Junior High School, moved to Asa Mercer Junior High School in 1957.
The school was expanded with a new north wing in 1958, featuring a new metal shop classroom, facilities for art and choir, paid for by a citywide bond issue approved in 1955. A new $1.25 million gymnasium and administrative offices were dedicated by Mayor Wes Uhlman and Lieutenant Governor John Cherberg in 1970. Cleveland, the smallest of the city's high schools with a capacity of 729 students, was slated for conversion into a middle school by the school board in 1979. Under the plan, high school students would be moved to the Asa Mercer Junior High School several blocks to the north, saving $4 million in potential renovation costs for the school district. Students and faculty were opposed to the closure plan, it was modified to keep Cleveland open as a high school. After the approval of a citywide levy for school improvements in 2001, Cleveland High School underwent a $68 million, two-year renovation in 2006; the project was completed in September 2007, after complications arising from asbestos found in ceilings and unexpected geological hazards below the school building.
Earlier concepts for the renovation included sharing the building with a community college, as well as splitting the high school into four autonomous schools. Cleveland High School is still housed in its original 1927 building, designed in the 20th century Neo-Georgian style by Floyd Naramore, who would become a founding member of NBBJ; the three-story school building has a brick facade with a terra cotta trim. The center of the building features a two-story bay with Corinthian columns; the high school, located atop southwestern Beacon Hill, overlooks Georgetown, the Duwamish River valley, Boeing Field, Interstate 5. The surrounding neighborhood on Beacon Hill is now Asian, most of the school's students are African American. In 1993, Cleveland became the home to the Roses project. Fish and Roses integrated fish farming and hydroponics into the school's curriculum. Mark Weber, the project originator, Ted Howard,Sr; the Principal wanted to see the project used as the focus of a new science based school.
A separate building was built with funding from Boeing and Costco to house the project but within a few years the building was razed to make room for the new gym and school remodel. In 2003, under a Gates Foundation grant, the district separated Cleveland into four small academies - the Infotech Academy, which had started up in a small way in 2000 before the grant. By 2009 Cleveland retained the Global Studies and HEAL academies, but overall academic improvement remained elusive. 56.7 % of students graduated on time or otherwise. In 2008, Cleveland was one of two high schools included in the Southeast Initiative, a plan to increase expenditures for three years at schools that parents had fled under the school choice plan; the Seattle Times School Guide reported that Cleveland's 2008 on-time graduation rate had been 44%. Cleveland's enrollment remained low at 695 students in 2008-2009, 94% of them from minority ethnic groups. Few of Cleveland's students chose it as their first choice. Starting in fall 2010, Cleveland will become a citywide Science, Technology and Mathematics high school, divided into a Life Sciences and Global Health academy and an Engineering and Computer Science academy.
Only 21% of Cleveland's 10th graders passed the WASL math test in 2009 and 16% passed the science test, up from 12% and 6.9% in 2008. Cleveland's 2010-2011 11th and 12th graders will not be accepted into STEM, but will continue to attend Cleveland in a general studies program until the transition is complete; the school's 2009-2010 9th graders will be enrolled in STEM as 10th graders. A new incoming 9th grade class from throughout the city will be the model for all future STEM cohorts. Future high schoolers from Cleveland's own neighborhood, if they don't enroll in STEM, will be sent to other nearby high schools. STEM enrollment at Cleveland is open to any student who will be in the 9th or 10th grade in fall 2010, with no prerequisites. Cleveland's school day will be half an hour longer than in other Seattle high schools. By the time school opened in September 2010, the name of the engineering academy became the School of Engineering and Design. Computer Science was not dropped but is an elective course open to students in 9-12.
Juniors and seniors will be allowed to take freshman and sophomore STEM courses. Cleveland High School website
Gary Arlen Kildall was an American computer scientist and microcomputer entrepreneur who created the CP/M operating system and founded Digital Research, Inc.. Kildall was one of the first people to see microprocessors as capable computers rather than equipment controllers and to organize a company around this concept, he co-hosted the PBS TV show The Computer Chronicles. Although his career in computing spanned more than two decades, he is remembered in connection with IBM's unsuccessful attempt in 1980 to license CP/M for the IBM PC. Gary Kildall was born and grew up in Seattle, where his family operated a seafaring school, his father, Joseph Kildall, was a captain of Norwegian heritage. His mother Emma was half-Swedish—Gary's grandmother was born in Långbäck, Sweden, in Skellefteå Municipality but emigrated to Canada at 23 years of age. Gary attended the University of Washington hoping to become a mathematics teacher, but became interested in computer technology. After receiving his degree, he fulfilled a draft obligation to the United States Navy by teaching at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California.
Being within an hour's drive of Silicon Valley, Kildall heard about the first commercially available microprocessor, the Intel 4004. He began writing experimental programs for it. To learn more about the processors, he worked at Intel as a consultant on his days off. Kildall returned to UW and finished his doctorate in computer science in 1972 resumed teaching at NPS, he published a paper that introduced the theory of data-flow analysis used today in optimizing compilers, he continued to experiment with microcomputers and the emerging technology of floppy disks. Intel lent him systems using the 8008 and 8080 processors, in 1973, he developed the first high-level programming language for microprocessors, called PL/M, he created CP/M the same year to enable the 8080 to control a floppy drive, combining for the first time all the essential components of a computer at the microcomputer scale. He demonstrated CP/M to Intel. Kildall and his wife Dorothy established a company called "Intergalactic Digital Research", to market CP/M through advertisements in hobbyist magazines.
Digital Research licensed CP/M for the IMSAI 8080, a popular clone of the Altair 8800. As more manufacturers licensed CP/M, it became a de facto standard and had to support an increasing number of hardware variations. In response, Kildall pioneered the concept of a BIOS, a set of simple programs stored in the computer hardware that enabled CP/M to run on different systems without modification. CP/M's quick success took Kildall by surprise, he was slow to update it for high density floppy disks and hard disks. After hardware manufacturers talked about creating a rival operating system, Kildall started a rush project to develop CP/M 2. By 1981, at the peak of its popularity, CP/M ran on 3,000 different computer models and DRI had $5.4 million in yearly revenues. IBM, presided by John R. Opel, approached Digital Research in 1980, at Bill Gates' suggestion, to negotiate the purchase of a forthcoming version of CP/M called CP/M-86 for the IBM PC. Gary had left negotiations to his wife, Dorothy, as he did, while he and colleague and developer of MP/M operating system Tom Rolander used Gary's private airplane to deliver software to manufacturer Bill Godbout.
Before the IBM representatives would explain the purpose of their visit, they insisted that Dorothy sign a non-disclosure agreement. On the advice of DRI attorney Gerry Davis, Dorothy refused to sign the agreement without Gary's approval. Gary returned in the afternoon and tried to move the discussion with IBM forward, but accounts disagree on whether he signed the non-disclosure agreement, as well as if he met with the IBM representatives. Various reasons have been given for the two companies failing to reach an agreement. DRI, which had only a few products, might have been unwilling to sell its main product to IBM for a one-time payment rather than its usual royalty-based plan. Dorothy might have believed that the company could not deliver CP/M-86 on IBM's proposed schedule, as the company was busy developing an implementation of the PL/I programming language for Data General. Or, the IBM representatives might have been annoyed that DRI had spent hours on what they considered a routine formality.
According to Kildall, the IBM representatives took the same flight to Florida that night that he and Dorothy took for their vacation, they negotiated further on the flight, reaching a handshake agreement. IBM lead negotiator Jack Sams insisted that he never met Gary, one IBM colleague has confirmed that Sams said so at the time, he accepted that someone else in his group might have been on the same flight, but noted that he flew back to Seattle to talk with Microsoft again. Sams related the story to Gates, who had agreed to provide a BASIC interpreter and several other programs for the PC. Gates' impression of the story was that Gary capriciously "went flying", as he would tell reporters. Sams left Gates with the task of finding a usable operating system, a few weeks he proposed using the operating system 86-DOS—an independently developed operating system that implemented Kildall's CP/M API—from Seattle Computer Products. Paul Allen negotiated a licensing deal with SCP. Allen had 86-DOS adapted for IBM's hardware, IBM shipped it as PC DOS.
Kildall obtained a copy of PC DOS, examined it, concluded that it infringed on CP/M. When he asked Gerry Davis what legal options were available, Davis told him that intellectual property law for
West Seattle High School
West Seattle High School is a comprehensive public high school in Seattle's West Seattle neighborhood that serves grades nine through twelve as part of the Seattle School District. The school opened in 1902 and it was first called "West Seattle School." In 1917, the current building was opened and the school was renamed "West Seattle High School." The mascot was an Indian Chief, the athletic teams were known as the Indians. A change in the nickname was considered several times beginning in 1974; the mascot was changed to a Wildcat in 2002. The current neo-Renaissance building was designed by architect Edgar Blair on 3.5 acres. Various expansions of the site increased the property to its current 8.6 acres. Additions and renovation included the 1924 expansion by School District architect Floyd Naramore, a 1930 annex, a 1954 addition by architects Naramore Bains Brady Johansen, by Theo Damn in 1958, major interior renovations in 1972. At various times portable classrooms had been installed on the site.
The Seattle Landmarks Preservation Board designated the building a Landmark in 1981. There was a major remodel in 2000-2002 by Bassetti Architects; this involved featuring the historic building while doubling the size of the facility. The addition was arranged to provide a new entrance to the school surrounded by a new gymnasium and Commons spaces; the main entrance was restored, the central auditorium was converted to the Commons, the gym was converted into the library. Awards for this renovation included: 2001 Excellence in Masonry, Honorable Mention. West Seattle is a member of the 3A Metro league; the 2006 Senior Varsity Baseball Team was Metro League Champions. The 2004 and 2005 Varsity volleyball team were Metro League Champions; the 2004 Wrestling Team was the Metro League Champions. The 2007-08 Men's basketball team made it to the State championship playoffs for the first time in 38 years, losing 1st round to Sqalicum. Most the Wildcats were the champions of the 2008-09 metro sound football season with a record of 9-2, the team made it to the second round of the state playoffs beating Enumclaw and losing to Ferndale.
The team graduated three Division 1 players. Ed Bahr, Former MLB player Byron "By" Canadian Football League player.
Arthur C. Brooks
Arthur C. Brooks is an American social scientist and contributing opinion writer for The Washington Post He is the president of the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think tank. Brooks is best known for his work on the junctions between culture and politics, he is the author of 11 books, including two New York Times best sellers: The Road to Freedom: How to Win the Fight for Free Enterprise and The Conservative Heart: How to Build a Fairer and More Prosperous America. He is a self-described independent. In March 2018, Brooks announced his intent to step down as AEI's president. In the summer of 2019, he will join the faculty of the Harvard Kennedy School and Harvard Business School. Brooks was raised in Seattle's Queen Anne neighborhood, his father was a professor and mother an artist and his upbringing has been described as being liberal. After high school, Brooks pursued a career as a professional French hornist, serving from 1983 to 1989 with the Annapolis Brass Quintet in Baltimore, from 1989 to 1992 as the associate principal French hornist with the City Orchestra of Barcelona in Spain, teaching from 1992 to 1995 at The Harid Conservatory, Music Division.
Brooks continually draws on his musical background in speeches he delivers at events such as the Aspen Ideas Festival. Toward the end of his professional music career, Brooks began pursuing his higher education with a bachelor's degree in economics in 1994 from Thomas Edison State College in New Jersey, a public university that offers distance and nontraditional education programs to working adults, he received a master's degree in economics from Florida Atlantic University in 1995 before pursuing a doctorate at the Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School, a public policy program located at the RAND Corporation. After receiving his PhD in policy analysis in 1998, Brooks continued to be affiliated with RAND, for which he produced a number of studies on arts funding and orchestra operations, he began to study the junction of culture and economics that would come to be his trademark. "He kept his head down during the early years of his academic career, publishing the usual economics fare on philanthropy—such as how tax rates and government spending affect giving," writes Ben Gose.
Brooks himself said, "I made my academic career doing that stuff, but the whole time I knew I was missing something."After a stint at Georgia State University, Brooks landed at Syracuse University in 2001. In 2005, he became a full professor, held the Louis A. Bantle Chair in Business and Government Policy from 2007 to 2008. At Syracuse, Brooks held joint appointments in management schools. In the early 2000s, Brooks began to look deeper into behavioral economics using the General Social Survey. During his time at Syracuse, Brooks continued his academic work on philanthropy and nonprofits, authoring several articles and textbooks. Brooks's first book was published in 2006 with Who Really Cares: The Surprising Truth about Compassionate Conservatism. Originating in his research on philanthropy and drawing on survey data, he articulates a charity gap between the 75% of Americans who donate to charitable causes and the rest who do not. Brooks argues that there are three cultural values that best predict charitable giving: religious participation, political views, family structure.
91% of people who identify themselves as religious are to give to charity but only 66% of people who do not. The religious giving sector is just as to give to secular programs as it is to religious causes. Brooks claims that those who think government should do more to redistribute income are less to give to charitable causes, those who believe the government has less of a role to play in income redistribution tend to give more, he argues that couples who raise children are more to give philanthropically than those who do not. The more children there are in a family, the more that a family will donate to charity. One of Brooks's most controversial findings was that political conservatives give more, despite having incomes that are, on average, 6% lower than liberals. Brooks adopts what he calls a "polemic" tone when offering recommendations, urging that philanthropic giving not be crowded out by government programs and that giving must be cultivated in families and communities, he admits being surprised by his conclusion: "These are not the sort of conclusions I thought I would reach when I started looking at charitable giving in graduate school, 10 years ago.
I have to admit I would have hated what I have to say in this book."Who Really Cares was reviewed and critiqued. Many commentators thought that Brooks played up the role of religion too much and argued that a charity gap is erased when religious giving is not considered. However, Brooks raises some arguments to this objection in the book by saying that giving to houses of worship should be counted as charity. Jim Lindgren writes: "Although the liberal v. conservative split is the hook for the book, the data are not nearly as stark as the hype surrounding the book might indicate."In February 2007, after the release of Who Really Cares, Brooks briefed President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush on his findings; that year, Brooks joined the American Enterprise Institute as a visiting scholar. In April 2008, Brooks published a survey and analysis of U. S. happiness research entitled Gross National Happiness: Why Happiness Matters for America—and How We Can Get More of It. Drawing his title from the Bhutanese measurement of national well-being, Brooks argues that despite the fact that the U.
S. is one of the few countries in the world to enshrine happiness in its credo, happi
United Launch Alliance
United Launch Alliance is a provider of spacecraft launch services to the United States government. It was formed as a joint venture between Lockheed Martin Space Systems and Boeing Defense, Space & Security in December 2006 by combining the teams at the two companies. U. S. government launch customers include the Department of Defense and NASA, as well as other organizations. With ULA, Lockheed and Boeing held a monopoly on military launches for more than a decade until the US Air Force awarded a GPS satellite contract to SpaceX in 2016. ULA provides launch services using two expendable launch systems – Delta IV and Atlas V; the Atlas and Delta launch system families have been used for more than 50 years to carry a variety of payloads including weather, telecommunications and national security satellites, as well as deep space and interplanetary exploration missions in support of scientific research. ULA provides launch services for non-government satellites: Lockheed Martin retains the rights to market Atlas commercially.
Beginning in October 2014, ULA announced that they intended to undertake a substantial restructuring of the company, its products and processes, in the coming years in order to decrease launch costs. ULA is planning on building a new rocket that will be a successor to the Atlas V, using a new rocket engine on the first stage. In April 2015, they unveiled the new vehicle as the Vulcan, with the first flight of a new first stage planned for no earlier than 2020. Boeing and Lockheed Martin announced their intent to form the United Launch Alliance joint venture on May 2, 2005. ULA merged the production and operation of the government space launch services of the two companies into one central plant in Decatur and merged all engineering into another central facility in Littleton, Colorado. Marketing and sales responsibilities for the Delta and Atlas launch vehicles was retained by the parent companies. Boeing Integrated Defense Systems Delta IV and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Atlas V are both launchers developed for the late-1990s US government Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle program intended to provide the government with assured access to space.
ULA had a peak of seven space launch facilities during 2005–2011. It announced a consolidation to five in 2008 with the intent to close two of its three Delta II pads, closed the two-pad launch complex at Cape Canaveral after its final Delta II launch in 2011. SpaceX challenged the United States antitrust law legality of the launch services monopoly on October 23, 2005, creating a competition with reusable launch systems; the FTC gave their anti-trust clearance on October 3, 2006. Two years following company formation from units of Lockheed Martin and Boeing, ULA announced it would lay off 350 workers in early 2009, reducing from a company-wide employment of 4200 employees in 2008. In the event, ULA had 3900 employees by August 2009. In November 2010, United Launch Alliance was selected by NASA for consideration for potential contract awards for heavy lift launch vehicle system concepts, propulsion technologies, it was announced in August 2014 that Michael Gass, ULA CEO since ULA was founded in 2006, would step down and that he would be replaced by Tory Bruno, effective immediately.
In September 2014, it was announced that the firm had won a contract from the United States Air Force for US$938 million for additional work on military rocket launch services related to its existing contracts with the US Air Force. ULA announced in February 2015 that they are considering undertaking domestic production of the Russian RD-180 engine at the Decatur, Alabama rocket stage manufacturing facility; the US-manufactured engines would be used only for government civil or commercial launches, would not be used for US military launches. Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings Inc submitted a $2 billion offer to purchase the joint venture on September 8, 2015. According to industry officials, the bid, if successful, would create a unified leadership for the company. On September 16, 2015, spokesperson Todd Blecher for joint owner Boeing commented that Aerojet Rocketdyne's bid was never "seriously entertained" and rejected the offer. In October 2014, ULA announced a major restructuring of processes and workforce in order to decrease launch costs by half.
One of the reasons given for the restructuring and new cost reduction goals was competition from SpaceX. ULA intends to have preliminary design ideas in place for a blending of the Atlas V and Delta IV technology by the end of 2014, to build a successor that will allow them to cut launch costs in half; the restructuring is intended to facilitate ULA's shift into providing widespread access to space, growing the customer base to include significant commercial customers in addition to the principally US government customers of ULA's first decade. CEO Tory Bruno stated in November 2014 that he intends to transform the company and reorganize it "to make it more agile, establish new business models to adapt to the new environment; these changes will lead to improvements in how ULA interacts with its customers, both governmental and commercial, shorter launch cycles, launch costs cut in half again." ULA intends to shrink the number of company launch pads from six in 2008 and five in 2015 to only two by 2021 as they ramp down the legacy Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicles.
In May 2015, ULA stated that it would go out of business unless it won commercial and civil satellite launch orders to offset an expected slump in U. S. military and spy launches. The same month, ULA announced it would decrease its executive ranks by 30 percent in December 2015, with the layoff of 12 executives; the management layoffs are the "beginning of a major reorganization and redesign" as ULA endeavours to "slash costs and hunt out new customers to ensur