Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Greco-Roman world of its languages and literature but of Greco-Roman philosophy and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and a fundamental element of a rounded education; the study of classics has therefore traditionally been a cornerstone of a typical elite education. Study encompasses a time-period of history from the mid-2nd millennium BC to the 6th century AD; the word classics is derived from the Latin adjective classicus, meaning "belonging to the highest class of citizens". The word was used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality. For example, Aulus Gellius, in his Attic Nights, contrasts "classicus" and "proletarius" writers. By the 6th century AD, the word had acquired a second meaning.
Thus the two modern meanings of the word, referring both to literature considered to be of the highest quality, to the standard texts used as part of a curriculum, both derive from Roman use. In the Middle Ages and education were intertwined. Medieval education taught students to imitate earlier classical models, Latin continued to be the language of scholarship and culture, despite the increasing difference between literary Latin and the vernacular languages of Europe during the period. While Latin was hugely influential, Greek was studied, Greek literature survived solely in Latin translation; the works of major Greek authors such as Hesiod, whose names continued to be known by educated Europeans, were unavailable in the Middle Ages. In the thirteenth century, the English philosopher Roger Bacon wrote that "there are not four men in Latin Christendom who are acquainted with the Greek and Arabic grammars."Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there were other differences between the classical canon known today and the works valued in the Middle Ages.
Catullus, for instance, was entirely unknown in the medieval period. The popularity of different authors waxed and waned throughout the period: Lucretius, popular during the Carolingian period, was read in the twelfth century, while for Quintilian the reverse is true; the Renaissance led to the increasing study of both ancient literature and ancient history, as well as a revival of classical styles of Latin. From the 14th century, first in Italy and increasingly across Europe, Renaissance Humanism, an intellectual movement that "advocated the study and imitation of classical antiquity", developed. Humanism saw a reform in education in Europe, introducing a wider range of Latin authors as well as bringing back the study of Greek language and literature to Western Europe; this reintroduction was initiated by Petrarch and Boccaccio who commissioned a Calabrian scholar to translate the Homeric poems. This humanist educational reform spread from Italy, in Catholic countries as it was adopted by the Jesuits, in countries that became Protestant such as England and the Low Countries, in order to ensure that future clerics were able to study the New Testament in the original language.
The late 17th and 18th centuries are the period in Western European literary history, most associated with the classical tradition, as writers consciously adapted classical models. Classical models were so prized that the plays of William Shakespeare were rewritten along neoclassical lines, these "improved" versions were performed throughout the 18th century. From the beginning of the 18th century, the study of Greek became important relative to that of Latin. In this period Johann Winckelmann's claims for the superiority of the Greek visual arts influenced a shift in aesthetic judgements, while in the literary sphere, G. E. Lessing "returned Homer to the centre of artistic achievement". In the United Kingdom, the study of Greek in schools began in the late 18th century; the poet Walter Savage Landor claimed to have been one of the first English schoolboys to write in Greek during his time at Rugby School. The 19th century saw the influence of the classical world, the value of a classical education, decline in the US, where the subject was criticised for its elitism.
By the 19th century, little new literature was still being written in Latin – a practice which had continued as late as the 18th century – and a command of Latin declined in importance. Correspondingly, classical education from the 19th century onwards began to de-emphasise the importance of the ability to write and speak Latin. In the United Kingdom this process took longer than elsewhere. Composition continued to be the dominant classical skill in England until the 1870s, when new areas within the discipline began to increase in popularity. In the same decade came the first challenges to the requirement of Greek at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, though it would not be abolished for another 50 years. Though the influence of classics as the dominant mode of education in Europe and North America was in decline in the 19th century, the discipline was evolving in the same period. Classical scholarship was becoming more systematic and scientific with the "new philology" created at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century.
Its scope was broadening: it was during the 19th century that ancient history and classical archaeology began to be s
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges
Metropolitan Borough of Walsall
The Metropolitan Borough of Walsall is a local government district in the West Midlands, with the status of a metropolitan borough. It is named after its largest settlement, but covers a larger area which includes the towns of Aldridge, Brownhills and Willenhall; the borough had an estimated population of 254,500 in 2007. The current boundaries were set as part of the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972, with a change to the north of the borough in 1994, it is bounded on the west by the City of Wolverhampton, the south by the Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell, to the south east by the City of Birmingham, by the Staffordshire districts of Lichfield, Cannock Chase and South Staffordshire to the east and northwest respectively. Most of the borough is industrialised and densely populated, but areas around the north and east of the borough are open space. In 1986 the borough became an effective unitary authority when the West Midlands County Council was abolished; however it remains part of the West Midlands for ceremonial purposes, for functions such as policing and public transport.
The residents of the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall are represented in the British Parliament by Members of Parliament for three separate parliamentary constituencies. Since the 2017 General Election, Walsall North has been represented by Eddie Hughes MP, Walsall South by Valerie Vaz MP and Aldridge-Brownhills by Wendy Morton MP; the borough is part of the West Midlands constituency in the European Parliament. The West Midlands region elects six MEPs, as at 2009 made up of two Conservatives, one from the Labour Party, one Liberal Democrat, two members of the United Kingdom Independence Party. Both UKIP MEPs have since left the party. In 1974, Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council was created to administer the newly formed metropolitan borough. Elections to the council take place in three out of every four years, with one-third of the seats being contested at each election. Between its formation in 1974 and the 2003 election, the council varied between control by the Labour Party, where no one party had an overall majority.
From 2003 to 2011 the Conservative Party held a majority of councillors. However at the 2011 election the Conservative Party lost five seats, while Labour gained eight, afterwards no party held a majority; the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall is based on an amalgamation of two former local government districts, Walsall County Borough and Aldridge-Brownhills Urban District. At the time of the United Kingdom Census 2001, according to the Office for National Statistics, the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall had a total resident population of 253,499, of which 123,189 were male and 130,310 were female, with 101,333 households; the Borough occupied 10,395 hectares at the time of the 2001 census. Its population density was 24.39 people per hectare compared with an average of 28.41 across the West Midlands metropolitan county. The median age of the population was 37, compared with 36 within the West Midlands metropolitan county and 37 across England and Wales; the majority of the population of the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall were born in England.
Data on religious beliefs across the borough in the 2001 census show that 72.1% declared themselves to be Christian, 10.0% said they held no religion, 5.4% reported themselves as Muslim. Whereas in the 2011 Census 59% declared themselves to be Christian, 26% said they held no religion or did not state their religion, 8.2% reported themselves as Muslim. Within the Metropolitan Borough, 42.84% of households owned a single car or van, with 31.05% owning none. The average car ownership per household was 1.01, compared with 0.96 across the West Midlands metropolitan county. The table below details the population change in the area since 1801. Although the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall has existed as a metropolitan borough only since 1974, figures have been generated by combining data from the towns and civil parishes that would be constituent parts of the borough. At the time of the 2001 census, there were 105,590 people in employment who were resident within Walsall Metropolitan Borough. Of these, 18.60 % worked including repair of motor vehicles.
At the 2001 UK census, Walsall Metropolitan Borough had 180,623 residents aged 16 to 74. 2.3% of these people were students with jobs, 6.0% looking after home or family, 6.8% permanently sick or disabled and 2.4% economically inactive for other reasons. These figures are in line with the averages for England, though Metropolitan Borough of Walsall has a higher rate of people who are permanently sick and disabled, where the national average is 5.3%. The Metropolitan Borough of Walsall is split between several Travel to Work Areas; the central and northern areas of the borough are within the Walsall and Cannock TTWA, whilst the majority of the area west of the M6 motorway is within the Wolverhampton TTWA. The southeast of the Metropolitan Borough is within the Birmingham TTWA; the entire borough is within the Birmingham Larger Urban Zone. Average house prices in the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall were fourth out of the metropolitan boroughs in the West Midlands county, with the average house price within the borough being £131,131 during the period April – June 2009, compared with the average across the
Payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle measured in terms of weight. Depending on the nature of the flight or mission, the payload of a vehicle may include cargo, flight crew, scientific instruments or experiments, or other equipment. Extra fuel, when optionally carried, is considered part of the payload. In a commercial context, payload may refer only to paying passengers. For a rocket, the payload can be a satellite, space probe, or spacecraft carrying humans, animals, or cargo. For a ballistic missile, the payload is more warheads and related systems; the fraction of payload to the total liftoff weight of the air or spacecraft is known as the "payload fraction". When the weight of the payload and fuel are considered together, it is known as the "useful load fraction". In spacecraft, "mass fraction" is used, the ratio of payload to everything else, including the rocket structure. There is the range of an aircraft. A payload range diagram illustrates the trade-off; the top horizontal line represents the maximum payload.
It is limited structurally by maximum zero-fuel weight of the aircraft. Maximum payload is the difference between maximum zero-fuel operational empty weight. Moving left-to-right along the line shows the constant maximum payload as the range increases. More fuel needs to be added for more range; the vertical line represents the range at which the combined weight of the aircraft, maximum payload and needed fuel reaches the maximum take-off weight of the aircraft. If the range is increased beyond that point, payload has to be sacrificed for fuel; the maximum take-off weight is limited by a combination of the maximum net power of the engines and the lift/drag ratio of the wings. The diagonal line after the range-at-maximum-payload point shows how reducing the payload allows increasing the fuel when taking off with the maximum take-off weight; the second kink in the curve represents the point. Flying further than that point means that the payload has to be reduced further, for an lesser increase in range.
The absolute range is thus the range at which an aircraft can fly with maximum possible fuel without carrying any payload. Examples of payload capacity: Antonov An-225 Mriya: 250,000 kg Saturn V: Payload to Low Earth Orbit 118,000 kg Payload to Lunar orbit 47,000 kg Space Shuttle: Payload to Low Earth Orbit 24,400 kg Payload to geostationary transfer orbit 3,810 kg Trident: 2800 kg Automated Transfer Vehicle Payload: 7,667 kg 8 racks with 2 x 0.314 m3 and 2 x 0.414 m3 Envelope: each 1.146 m3 in front of 4 of these 8 racks Cargo mass: Dry cargo: 1,500 - 5,500 kg Water: 0 – 840 kg Gas: 0 – 100 kg ISS Refueling propellant: 0 – 860 kg ISS re-boost and attitude control propellant: 0 - 4,700 kg Total cargo upload capacity: 7,667 kg For aircraft, the weight of fuel in wing tanks does not contribute as to the bending moment of the wing as does weight in the fuselage. So when the airplane has been loaded with its maximum payload that the wings can support, it can still carry a significant amount of fuel.
Launch and transport system differ not only on the payload that can be carried but in the stresses and other factors placed on the payload. The payload must not only be lifted to its target, it must arrive safely, whether elsewhere on the surface of the Earth or a specific orbit. To ensure this the payload, such as a warhead or satellite, is designed to withstand certain amounts of various types of "punishment" on the way to its destination. Most rocket payloads are fitted within a payload fairing to protect them against dynamic pressure of high-velocity travel through the atmosphere, to improve the overall aerodynamics of the launch vehicle. Most aircraft payloads are carried within the fuselage for similar reasons. Outsize cargo may require a fuselage such as the Super Guppy; the various constraints placed on the launch system can be categorized into those that cause physical damage to the payload and those that can damage its electronic or chemical makeup. Examples of physical damage include extreme accelerations over short time scales caused by atmospheric buffeting or oscillations, extreme accelerations over longer time scales caused by rocket thrust and gravity, sudden changes in the magnitude or direction of the acceleration caused by how quick engines are throttled and shut down, etc.
Electrical, chemical, or biological payloads can be damage by extreme temperatures, rapid changes in temperature or pressure, contact with fast moving air streams causing ionization, radiation exposure from cosmic rays, the van Allen belt, or solar wind. Heavy-lift launch vehicle Medium-lift launch vehicle Tsiolkovsky rocket equation Shannon Ackert. "Aircraft Payload-Range Analysis for Financiers". Aircraft Monitor. "Using the Payload/Range and Takeoff Field Length Charts in the Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning Documents". Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Feb 12, 2014
College of Arms
The College of Arms known as the College of Heralds, is a royal corporation consisting of professional officers of arms, with jurisdiction over England, Northern Ireland and some Commonwealth realms. The heralds are appointed by the British Sovereign and are delegated authority to act on behalf of the Crown in all matters of heraldry, the granting of new coats of arms, genealogical research and the recording of pedigrees; the College is the official body responsible for matters relating to the flying of flags on land, it maintains the official registers of flags and other national symbols. Though a part of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom the College is self-financed, unsupported by any public funds. Founded by royal charter in 1484 by King Richard III, the College is one of the few remaining official heraldic authorities in Europe. Within the United Kingdom, there are two such authorities, the Court of the Lord Lyon in Scotland and the College for the rest of the United Kingdom; the College has had its home in the City of London since its foundation, has been at its present location, on Queen Victoria Street, since 1555.
The College of Arms undertakes and consults on the planning of many ceremonial occasions such as coronations, state funerals, the annual Garter Service and the State Opening of Parliament. Heralds of the College accompany the sovereign on many of these occasions; the College comprises thirteen officers or heralds: three Kings of Arms, six Heralds of Arms and four Pursuivants of Arms. There are seven officers extraordinary, who take part in ceremonial occasions but are not part of the College; the entire corporation is overseen by the Earl Marshal, a hereditary office held by the Duke of Norfolk Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk. King Richard III's interest in heraldry was indicated by his possession of two important rolls of arms. While still Duke of Gloucester and Constable of England for his brother from 1469, he in the latter capacity supervised the heralds and made plans for the reform of their organisation. Soon after his accession to the throne he created Sir John Howard as Duke of Norfolk and Earl Marshal of England, who became the first Howard appointed to both positions.
In the first year of his reign, the royal heralds were incorporated under royal charter dated 2 March 1484, under the Latin name "Le Garter regis armorum Anglicorum, regis armorum partium Australium, regis armorum partium Borealium, regis armorum Wallæ et heraldorum, sive pursevandorum armorum." Translated as: "the Garter King of Arms of England, the King of Arms of the Southern parts, the King of Arms of the Northern parts, the King of Arms of Wales, all other heralds and pursuivants of arms". The charter goes on to state that the heralds "for the time being, shall be in perpetuity a body corporate in fact and name, shall preserve a succession unbroken." This charter titled. There has been some evidence that prior to this charter, the royal heralds had in some ways behaved like a corporation as early as 1420; the charter is the earliest surviving document to affirm the chapter as a corporate body of heralds. The charter outlines the constitution of the officers, their hierarchy, the privileges conferred upon them and their jurisdiction over all heraldic matters in the Kingdom of England.
The King empowered the College to have and use only one common seal of authority, instructed them to find a chaplain to celebrate mass daily for himself, Anne Neville, the Queen Consort, his heir, Prince Edward. The College was granted a house named Coldharbour on Upper Thames Street in the parish of All-Hallows-the-Less, for storing records and living space for the heralds; the house, built by Sir John de Pulteney, four times Lord Mayor of London, was said to be one of the greatest in the City of London. The defeat and death of Richard III at Bosworth field was a double blow for the heralds, for they lost both their patron, the King, their benefactor, the Earl Marshal, slain; the victorious Henry Tudor was crowned King Henry VII soon after the battle. Henry's first Parliament of 1485 passed an Act of Resumption, in which large grants of crown properties made by his two predecessors to their supporters were cancelled. Whether this act affected the status of the College's charter is debatable.
Henry granted the house to his mother Lady Margaret Beaufort, for life. This was because it was supposed that the house was granted to John Writhe the Garter King of Arms and not to the heralds as a corporation; as a result, the heralds were left destitute and many of their books and records were lost. Despite this ill treatment from the King, the heralds' position at the royal court remained, they were compelled by the King to attend him at all times. Of the reign of King Henry VIII, it has been said that: "at no time since its establishment, was in higher estimation, nor in fuller employment, than in this reign." Henry VIII was fond of pomp and magnificence, thus gave the heralds plenty of opportunity to exercise their roles in his court. In addition, the members of the College were expected to be despatched to foreign courts on missions, whether to declare war, accompany armies, summon garrisons or deliver messages to foreign potentates and generals. During his magnificent meeting with Francis I of France at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, Henry VIII brought with him eighteen officers of arms all he had, to regulate the many tournaments and ceremonies held there.
The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills is a non-ministerial department of the UK government, reporting to Parliament. Ofsted is responsible for inspecting a range of educational institutions, including state schools and some independent schools, it inspects childcare and fostering agencies and initial teacher training, regulates a range of early years and children’s social care services. The Chief Inspector is appointed by an Order-in-Council and thus becomes an office holder under the Crown. Amanda Spielman has been HMCI since 2017. In 1833, Parliament agreed an annual grant to the National Society for Promoting Religious Education and the British and Foreign School Society, which provided Church of England and non-denominational elementary schools for poor children. To monitor the effectiveness of the grant, two inspectors of schools were appointed in 1837, Seymour Tremenheere and the Rev. John Allen. Dr. James Kay-Shuttleworth secretary of the Privy Council education committee, ensured that the inspectors were appointed by Order-in-Council to guard their independence.
The grant and inspection system was extended in 1847 to Roman Catholic elementary schools established by the Catholic Poor School Committee. Inspectors were organised on denominational lines, with the churches having a say in the choice of inspectors, until 1876, when inspectors were re-organised by area. After the Education Act 1902, inspections were expanded to state-funded secondary schools along similar lines. Over time, more inspections were carried out by inspectors based in local education authorities, with HMI focussing on reporting to the Secretary of State on education conditions across the country; the government of John Major, concerned about variable local inspection regimes, decided to introduce a national scheme of inspections though a reconstituted HMI, which became known as the Office for Standards in Education. Under the Education Act 1992, HMI would supervise the inspection of each state-funded school in the country, would publish its reports for the benefit of schools and government instead of reporting to the Secretary of State.
In September 2001, Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Schools in England became responsible for registration and inspection of day care and childminding in England, the position was renamed Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Education, Children's Services and Skills. This was done by 150 local authorities, based on their implementation by 1992 of the Daycare Standards provisions of the 1989 Children Act. Schedule 11 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006 changed the way in which Ofsted works without changing the provision. Since 2006 the structure of Ofsted has derived elements from business models, with a Chair, an executive board, regional officers, a formal annual report to Parliament in the light of concerns about schools, local authority children's services. In April 2007 the former Office for Standards in Education merged with the Adult Learning Inspectorate to provide an inspection service that includes all post-16 government funded education. At the same time it took on responsibility for the registration and inspection of social care services for children, the welfare inspection of independent and maintained boarding schools from the Commission for Social Care Inspection.
The services Ofsted inspects or regulates now include: local services, child day care, children's centres, children's social care, CAFCASS, state schools, independent schools and teacher training providers and learning and skills providers in England. It monitors the work of the Independent Schools Inspectorate. HMI are empowered and required to provide independent advice to the United Kingdom government and parliament on matters of policy and to publish an annual report to parliament on the quality of educational provision in England. Ofsted distributes its functions amongst its offices in London, Nottingham, Cambridge and Bristol. Ofsted only covers England; the current Chief Inspector is Amanda Spielman, appointed in January 2017 replacing Sir Michael Wilshaw. Ofsted directly employs Her Majesty's Inspectors; as of July 2009 there were 443 HMIs, of whom 82 were engaged in management, 245 in the inspection of schools, the rest in inspection of other areas for which Ofsted in responsible. All HMIs inspecting schools have teaching experience.
Most school inspections were carried out by Additional Inspectors employed by external companies known as Regional Inspection Service Providers. As of July 2009 there were 1,948 AIs. Although Ofsted claims that most of these have teaching experience, in 2012 it was forced to admit that it had done no quality control checks on these inspectors, that many of them – including lead inspectors – were not qualified teachers and many had no experience of working with children. A further scandal surrounded headteachers dismissed following poor OFSTED reports being hired as inspectors. In 2015, 40% of additional inspectors who wanted to continue working for OFSTED were not re-hired after a contractual change. Although OFSTED insisted that this was part of a quality control process and'should not be seen as an admi
David Ennals, Baron Ennals
David Hedley Ennals, Baron Ennals, was a British Labour Party politician and campaigner for human rights. He served as Secretary of State for Social Services from 1976 to 1979. Born in 1922 in Walsall, Staffordshire to Arthur Ford Ennals and his wife Jessie Edith Taylor, Ennals was educated at Queen Mary's Grammar School and the Loomis Institute in Windsor, Connecticut on a one-year student exchange scholarship. In 1939 he was a reporter on the Walsall Observer and during World War II he served in the Royal Armoured Corps from 1941 to 1945, he was commissioned into the Reconnaissance Corps in 1942 and posted to the 3rd Reconnaissance Corps. He served in North Africa and the Rhine Crossing, he failed to return from a night patrol during the Normandy campaign in June 1944 and spent several months as a prisoner of war. He was invalided out with the rank of Lieutenant. Ennals stood unsuccessfully as a Liberal candidate for Richmond in the 1950 general election and again in 1951, he joined the Labour Party and served as secretary to the international department at the Labour Party's head office.
In 1964 he was elected as the Member of Parliament for Dover. Following the 1966 election, Harold Wilson appointed Ennals as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Army, he moved to become Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department in 1967 under James Callaghan before being appointed as a Minister of State for Social Services in 1968. He lost his seat following Labour's defeat in the 1970 general election. However, in Wilson's Resignation Honours, he was sworn of the Privy Council. Ennals returned to parliament representing Norwich North following the February 1974 general election and was appointed Minister of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. In 1976 he became Secretary of State for Social Services, which he held until Labour lost power in 1979. During his tenure he appointed Sir Douglas Black to produce the Black Report into health inequality. After losing his seat in the general election of 1983, he was created a life peer, as Baron Ennals, of Norwich in the County of Norfolk.
Following his exit from parliament in 1970, Ennals became Campaign Director for the National Association for Mental Health, which he served as until 1973. He became chairman in 1984, served as President from 1989 to 1995. After serving as secretary to the United Nations Association from 1952 to 1957, he became chairman in 1984, as well as Chairman of the Gandhi Foundation, which he held until 1995. Ennals served as Chairman of the Anti-Apartheid Movement, from 1960 to 1964, a position that would be held by his brother John from 1968 to 1976. However, he came under criticism from the Movement for his involvement in passing the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968. In 1987 Lord Ennals went on a parliamentary fact-finding mission to Tibet and on his return to the UK he became a tireless campaigner for Tibetan independence and a personal friend of the 14th Dalai Lama, he joined the Tibet Society of the UK, the first Tibet support group in the world, established in 1959, became its chairman for a number of years.
He campaigned energetically and enthusiastically with it and various other UK and international Tibet support groups until his death in 1995. Ennals married Eleanor Maud Caddick on 10 June 1950, they had four children before they divorced in 1977; that year he married Katherine Gene Tranoy. Ennals's younger brother, Martin Ennals, was a human rights activist and Secretary-General of Amnesty International, his son, Sir Paul Ennals, is chief executive of the National Children's Bureau. He died in 1995 of pancreatic cancer at his home in London. 1922–1964: Mr David Ennals 1964–1970: Mr David Ennals 1970: Mr David Ennals 1970–1974: The Rt Hon. David Ennals 1974–1983: The Rt Hon. David Ennals 1983: The Rt Hon. David Ennals 1983–1995: The Rt Hon; the Lord Ennals Dalyell, Tam. "Obituary: Lord Ennals". The Independent. Retrieved 13 September 2009. "Lord Ennals. The New York Times. 19 June 1995. Retrieved 13 September 2009. Glennerster, Howard. "Ennals, David Hedley, Baron Ennals". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/59129. Retrieved 13 September 2009. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by David Ennals