The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld
Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld was a German-born prince, the consort of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands. He belonged to the princely House of Lippe and was a nephew of the Principality of Lippe's last sovereign Leopold IV. From birth he held the title Count of Biesterfeld, he worked as an executive secretary at the Paris office of IG Farben. In 1937 he married Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, was given the title Prince of the Netherlands with the style of Royal Highness. Upon his wife's accession to the throne, in 1948 he became the prince consort of the Netherlands. Although his private life was rather controversial, Prince Bernhard was still regarded as a popular figure by the majority of the Dutch for his performance as a combat pilot and his activities as a liaison officer and personal aide to the Queen during World War II, for his work during post-war reconstruction. During World War II, he was part of the London-based Allied war planning councils, he saw active service as a Wing Commander, flying both bomber planes into combat.
He was a Dutch general and Supreme Commander of the Dutch Armed forces, involved in negotiating the terms of surrender of the German Army in the Netherlands. For proven bravery and loyalty during his wartime efforts, he was appointed a Commander of the Military William Order, the Netherlands' oldest and highest honour. After the war he was made Honorary Air Marshal of the Royal Air Force by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. In 1969, Bernhard was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. Bernhard helped found the World Wildlife Fund, becoming its first president in 1961. In 1970 he established the WWF's financial endowment "The 1001: A Nature Trust". In 1954, he was a co-founder of the international Bilderberg Group, which has met annually since to discuss corporate globalisation and other issues concerning Europe and North America, he was forced to step down from both groups after being involved in the Lockheed Bribery Scandal in 1976. Bernhard was born Bernhard Leopold Friedrich Eberhard Julius Kurt Karl Gottfried Peter, Count of Biesterfeld in Jena, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, German Empire on 29 June 1911, the elder son of Prince Bernhard of Lippe and his wife, Armgard von Cramm.
He was a grandson of Ernest, Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld, regent of the Principality of Lippe until 1904. He was a nephew of the principality's last sovereign, Leopold IV, Prince of Lippe; because his parents' marriage did not conform with the marriage laws of the House of Lippe, it was deemed morganatic, so Bernhard was granted only the title of "Count of Biesterfeld" at birth. He and his brother could succeed to the Lippian throne only if the entire reigning House became extinct. In 1916, his uncle Leopold IV as reigning Prince raised Bernhard and his mother to Prince and Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, thereby retroactively according his parents' marriage dynastic status; the suffix Biesterfeld was revived to mark the beginning of a new cadet line of the House of Lippe. After World War I, Bernhard's family lost their German Principality and the revenue that had accompanied it, but the family was still reasonably well-off. Bernhard spent his early years at Reckenwalde ), the family's new estate in East Brandenburg, thirty kilometres east of the River Oder.
He was taught and received his early education at home. When he was twelve, he was sent to board at the Gymnasium in Züllichau. Several years he was sent to board at a Gymnasium in Berlin, from which he graduated in 1929. Bernhard suffered from poor health as a boy. Doctors predicted that he would not live long; this prediction might have inspired Bernhard's reckless driving and the risks that he took in the Second World War and thereafter. The prince wrecked several planes in his lifetime. Bernhard studied law in Berlin. In the latter city, he acquired a taste for fast cars, horse riding, big-game hunting safaris, he was nearly killed in an aeroplane crash. He suffered a broken neck and crushed ribs in a 160 km/h car crash in 1938. While at university, Bernhard joined the Nazi Party, he enrolled in the Sturmabteilung, which he left in December 1934 when he graduated and went to work for IG Farben. The Prince denied that he had belonged to SA, to the Reiter-SS, to the NSKK, but these are well-documented memberships.
While he was not a fierce champion of democracy, the Prince was never known to hold any radical political views or express any racist sentiments, although he admitted that he had sympathised with Adolf Hitler's regime. The Prince went to work for the German chemical giant IG Farben the world's fourth-largest company.. He lodged with Count Pavel Kotzbue, an exiled Russian nobleman, his wife Allene Tew, born in the United States. After training, Bernhard became secretary in 1935 to the board of directors at the Paris office. Bernhard met then-Princess Juliana at the 1936 Winter Olympics at Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Juliana's mother, Queen Wilhelmina, had spent most of the 1930s looking for a suitable husband for Juliana; as a Protestant of royal rank (the Lipp
Birendra of Nepal
Birendra Bir Bikram Shah was the King of Nepal from 1972 until 2001. The eldest son of King Mahendra, he reigned until his death in the 2001 Nepalese royal massacre. From a young age, Birendra was described by his school teachers as a kind and emotional prince. King Birendra was described as one of the few Nepalese monarchs who wanted the Nepalese people to experience real democracy; this was observed in the 2036 B. S. Janmat Sangraha when he wanted the people to choose whether they wanted'Multiparty Democracy' or a'Reformed Panchayat System'. In People's Movement I, he decided to establish a constitutional monarchy in Nepal instead of fighting for a dictatorship. In 1989, when the People's Movement I was taking momentum, as a condition of safeguarding the Panchayat system, India put forward some conditions to King Birendra aimed at taking control of national sovereignty. If the King had accepted these conditions, the panchayat system would not have ended, but the king said that, "It is better to surrender to the people rather than surrender to India."
Some historians have speculated that King Birendra's democratic views and simple nature led to the success of the People's Movement I. He is credited for introducing SAARC in Asia in order to strengthen the foreign relations of Nepal with the other South Asian countries. King Birendra was born at the Narayanhiti Royal Palace in Kathmandu as the eldest son of the Crown Prince Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and his first wife, Crown Princess Indra Rajya Lakshmi Devi. Birendra spent eight years studying at St Joseph's School, a Jesuit school in Darjeeling, with his brother Gyanendra. On 13 March 1955 their grandfather King Tribhuvan died and their father succeeded to the Nepalese throne. With his father's ascension King Birendra became the Crown Prince of Nepal. In 1959 King Birendra enrolled at Eton College in the United Kingdom. After studying at Eton until 1964, he returned to Nepal where he began to explore the country by travelling on foot to the remote parts of the country where he lived on whatever was available in the villages and monasteries.
He completed his education by spending some time at the University of Tokyo, before studying political theory at Harvard University from 1967 to 1968. King Birendra enjoyed traveling in his youth and went on trips to Canada, Latin America, many parts of India and a number of other Asian countries, he was an art collector and supporter of Nepalese crafts people and artists, learnt to fly helicopters. King Birendra was married to Aishwarya Rajya Lakshmi Devi from the Rana family, his second cousin, on 27 February 1970; the wedding, billed as one of the most lavish Hindu nuptial ceremonies in history, cost $9.5 million to stage. King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya had three children: Prince Dipendra. Princess Shruti. Prince Nirajan. Birendra succeeded to the Nepalese throne on 31 January 1972, at the age of 27, after the death of his father King Mahendra. On his ascension he was an absolute monarch, as he inherited a country where political parties were banned and he ruled through a system of local and regional councils known as panchayats.
Birendra resented the imputation that he was an absolute monarch, maintaining that he presided over a democracy in which representatives to the assembly were indirectly elected and saying that his poor and backward country could not afford a democracy based on party politics and that it needed firm and decisive government. His first trips abroad as king were to India in October 1973 and China two months as he believed that Nepal, sandwiched between the two Asian powers, should have good relations with both. After his father's death in 1972, King Birendra consulted his court astrologers, who advised him to delay his coronation for three years, with the most auspicious moment for his crowning being at 8:37 am on 4 February 1975. Soon after dawn on that day, King Birendra was driven to the temple of his ancestral palace, the Hanuman Dhoka. There he was smeared with mud taken from various symbolic places - the bottom of a lake, the tusk of an elephant, a mountain, the confluence of two rivers and the doorstep of a prostitute's house.
With Queen Aishwarya beside him, he was cleansed with butter, milk and honey as priests chanted praises and salutations. The coronation ceremony was attended by statesmen and political leaders from 60 nations, with the Prince of Wales representing the British Royal Family; the King's personal guests included his former housemaster at Eton, Peter Lawrence, three other masters and 15 old boys. At the ordained time, the chief priest placed on the King's head the emerald green crown, encrusted with jewels and adorned with feathers from a bird of paradise. On the auspicious occasion of his coronation, the King announced that he had ordered his government to make primary education available and free for every child, but disappointed those Nepalis who hoped that he would promise progress towards democracy. King Birendra announced of Nepal Zone of Peace proposition during his coronation ceremony reception, he formally asked the international community to endorse his proposal that the United Nations should declare Nepal a ZoP, to give a new dimension to Nepalese stance for non-aligned movement.
In an attempt to maintain the panchayat system of government prominent leaders of the Nepali Congress Party were arrested. Because of the growing pro-democracy movement Birendra announced that a referendum to decide between a non-party and a multi-party system would be held; the referendum was held in May 1980 with the non-party system winn
Order of the Precious Crown
The Order of the Precious Crown is a Japanese order, established on January 4, 1888 by Emperor Meiji of Japan, the lowest ranking of the Japanese orders awarded. The order had five classes, but on April 13, 1896 the sixth and eighth classes were added; this Order is conventionally reserved for female recipients. More men have been awarded the Order of the Rising Sun rather than the Order of the Precious Crown. In 1917, medals of the Order of the Crown were bestowed upon twenty-nine Americans who participated in the Russo-Japanese War; this unusual list of honorees was composed of ten women volunteer nurses and nineteen correspondents of American newspapers. Until 2003, the Order of the Precious Crown ranked below the Order of the Rising Sun but above the Order of the Sacred Treasure, was bestowed as a female-only version of the Order of the Rising Sun. In 2003 the Order of the Rising Sun reserved for males, was made available to women as well, the lowest two classes of the Order of the Precious Crown were abolished.
The Order of the Precious Crown is now only bestowed upon female members of the Imperial Family and foreign ladies of distinction. The first class honour has been conferred to female royalty; as conceived, the order consisted of eight classes. Unlike its European counterparts, the order may be conferred posthumously; the badge of the order is a gold oval medallion, with floral designs at its four ends. It is suspended from a smaller badge, its design varies according to class, on a ribbon in yellow with red stripes near the borders, as a sash on the right shoulder for the 1st class, as a bow on the left shoulder for the other classes; the star of the order, worn only by the first class, has five rays studded with pearls, with floral designs between the rays. The central disc features a Ho-o or phoenix on a blue background, surrounded by a red ring emblazoned with a laurel wreath; the medal for the 6th and 7th classes are golden bronze. The face presents the crossed flags of Japan and the Emperor, both of which are surmounted by the Rising Sun.
The obverse presents a conventional monumental shaft, flanked by a branch of laurel and a branch of palm. Maria Teresa, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg Princess Salote Mafile'o Pilolevu Tuita of Tonga Margrethe II of Denmark Empress Farah of Iran Queen Paola of Belgium Queen Silvia of Sweden Queen Sirikit of Thailand Queen Mathilde of Belgium Queen Sofia of Spain Queen Letizia of Spain Queen Sonja of Norway Tuanku Fauziah of Malaysia Tuanku Hajah Haminah Hamidun of Malaysia Princess Srinagarindra of Thailand Princess Sirindhorn of Thailand Princess Chulabhorn of Thailand Anne, Princess Royal Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy Mette-Marit, Crown Princess of Norway Princess Basma bint Talal of Jordan Empress Dowager Cixi of China Queen Liliʻuokalani of Hawaii Queen Kapiʻolani of Hawaii Queen Máxima of the Netherlands Tuanku Bainun Te Ataairangikaahu Princess Sarvath al-Hassan of Jordan Princess Alia bint Hussein of Jordan Noriko Senge Princess Tsuguko of Takamado Ayako Moriya Princess Akiko of Mikasa Princess Yōko of Mikasa Princess Alexandra of Luxembourg Joyce Ackroyd, 1918–1991.
Eleanor Jorden, 1920–2009. Elizabeth Gray Vining, 1902–1999. Lillian Moller Gilbreth, 1878–1972, Honor conferred 1968. Chika Kuroda, 1884–1968. Kono Yasui, 1880–1971. Toshiko Yuasa, 1909–1980. Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart, 18th Duchess of Alba Jean Charlotte Barnes Morden 1923-2010 Anita Newcomb McGee. William H. Brill, Associated Press and Reuter's Telegram Company. Richard Harding Davis, Collier's Weekly. John Fox, Jr. Scribner's Magazine. George Kennan, The Outlook. Jack London, Hearst papers. Frederick Palmer, Collier's Weekly. Herbert Ponting and journalist, Harper's Weekly James Ricalton, Travel Magazine. Grant Wallace, San Francisco Bulletin. Order of Chula Chom Klao Peterson, James W. Barry C. Weaver and Michael A. Quigley.. Orders and Medals of Japan and Associated States. San Ramon, California: Orders and Medals Society of America. ISBN 1-890974-09-9 Roth, Mitchel P. and James Stuart Olson.. Historical Dictionary of War Journalism. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-29171-5 Japan, Cabinet Office: Order of the Precious Crown Japan Mint
Laos the Lao People's Democratic Republic referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao, is a socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia. Located at the heart of the Indochinese peninsula, Laos is bordered by Myanmar and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand to the west and southwest. Present-day Laos traces its historic and cultural identity to the kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao, which existed for four centuries as one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia. Due to Lan Xang's central geographical location in Southeast Asia, the kingdom became a popular hub for overland trade, becoming wealthy economically as well as culturally. After a period of internal conflict, Lan Xang broke off into three separate kingdoms—Luang Phrabang and Champasak. In 1893, it became a French protectorate, with the three territories uniting to form what is now known as the country of Laos, it gained independence in 1945 after Japanese occupation, but was recolonised by France until it won autonomy in 1949.
Laos became independent with a constitutional monarchy under Sisavang Vong. Shortly after independence, a long civil war began, which saw the communist resistance, supported by the Soviet Union, fight against, the monarchy and a number of military dictatorships, supported by the United States. After the Vietnam War ended in 1975, the Communist Pathet Lao movement came to power, seeing the end to the civil war. During the first years of Communist rule, Laos was dependent on military and economic aid supported by the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. In 2018, the country had the fourth highest GDP per capita in Indochina, after Singapore and Thailand. In the same year, the country ranked 139th on the Human Development Index, indicating medium development. Laos is a member of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, East Asia Summit and La Francophonie. Laos applied for membership of the World Trade Organization in 1997, it is a one-party socialist republic espousing Marxism–Leninism governed by the Lao People's Revolutionary Party.
The capital and largest city is Vientiane. Other major cities include Luang Prabang and Pakse; the official language is Lao. Laos is a multi-ethnic country, with the politically and culturally dominant Lao people making up about 55 percent of the population in the lowlands. Mon-Khmer groups, the Hmong and other indigenous hill tribes, accounting for 45 percent of the population, live in the foothills and mountains. Laos's strategies for development are based on generating electricity from its rivers and selling the power to its neighbours, namely Thailand and Vietnam, as well as its initiative to become a "land-linked" nation, shown by the construction of four new railways connecting Laos to its neighbours. Laos has been referred to as one of East Asia and Pacific's Fastest Growing Economies by the World Bank, with annual GDP growth averaging 7.8% for the past decade. The English word Laos was coined by the French, who united the three Lao kingdoms in French Indochina in 1893 and named the country as the plural of the dominant and most common ethnic group, which are the Lao people.
In the Lao language, the country's name is "Muang Lao" or "Pathet Lao", both mean "Lao Country". An ancient human skull was recovered from the Tam Pa Ling Cave in the Annamite Mountains in northern Laos. Stone artifacts including Hoabinhian types have been found at sites dating to the Late Pleistocene in northern Laos. Archaeological evidence suggests agriculturist society developed during the 4th millennium BC. Burial jars and other kinds of sepulchers suggest a complex society in which bronze objects appeared around 1500 BC, iron tools were known from 700 BC; the proto-historic period is characterised by contact with Indian civilisations. According to linguistic and other historical evidence, Tai-speaking tribes migrated southwestward to the modern territories of Laos and Thailand from Guangxi sometime between the 8th–10th centuries. Laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang, founded in the 14th century by a Lao prince Fa Ngum, with 10,000 Khmer troops, took over Vientiane. Ngum was descended from a long line of Lao kings.
He made Theravada Buddhism Lan Xang prospered. Within 20 years of its formation, the kingdom expanded eastward to Champa and along the Annamite mountains in Vietnam, his ministers, unable to tolerate his ruthlessness, forced him into exile to the present-day Thai province of Nan in 1373, where he died. Fa Ngum's eldest son, Oun Heuan, ascended to the throne under the name Samsenthai and reigned for 43 years. Lan Xang became an important trade centre during Samsenthai's reign, but after his death in 1421 it collapsed into warring factions for 100 years. In 1520, Photisarath came to the throne and moved the capital from Luang Prabang to Vientiane to avoid a Burmese invasion. Setthathirat became king in 1548, after his father was killed, ordered the construction of what became the symbol of Laos, That Luang. Setthathirat disappeared in the mountains on his way back from a military expedition into Cambodia and Lan Xang began to decline, it was not until 1637, when Sou
Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
The Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany is the only federal decoration of Germany. It was created by the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany, Theodor Heuss, on 7 September 1951, has been awarded to over 200,000 individuals in total, both Germans and foreigners. Since the 1990s the number of annual awards has declined from over 4,000, first to around 2,300–2,500 per year, now under 2,000, with a low of 1752 in 2011. In recent years women have made up a steady 30–31% of recipients. Colloquially, the decorations of the different classes of the Order are known as the Federal Cross of Merit. Most of the German federal states have each their own order of merit as well, with the exception of the Free and Hanseatic Cities of Bremen and Hamburg, which reject any orders; the order was established on 7 September 1951 by the decree of the Federal President Theodor Heuss. The decree, co-signed by the President Heuss together with Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and the Minister of the Interior, Robert Lehr, states: Desiring to visibly express recognition and gratitude to deserving men and women of the German people and of foreign countries, on the second Anniversary of the Federal Republic of Germany, I establish the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany.
It is awarded for achievements that served the rebuilding of the country in the fields of political, socio-economic and intellectual activity, is intended to mean an award of all those whose work contributes to the peaceful rise of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Order comprises four groups with seven regular and two special classes, hereafter the official denominations in English: Grand Cross Grand Cross special class. Grand Cross special issue. Class Cross, it is awarded to him in a ceremony by the President of the Bundestag, attended by the Chancellor of Germany, the President of the Bundesrat, the Supreme Court President. Other than the German president, only a foreign head of state and their spouse can be awarded with this highest class. There is the provision of awarding the Grand Cross in a "special issue" with laurel wreath design, in which the central medallion with the black eagle is surrounded by a stylized laurel wreath in relief; this Grand Cross special issue has been awarded so far only twice, to former German chancellors Konrad Adenauer and Helmut Kohl.
Except for the lowest class, the badge is the same for all classes, but with different versions for men and women: The badge is a golden cross enamelled in red, with a central disc bearing a black eagle. The star is a golden star with straight rays, its size and points vary according to class, with the badge superimposed upon it. 8-pointed golden Star: Grand Cross special class 6-pointed golden Star: Grand Cross 1st class 4-pointed golden Star: Grand Cross silver Square-upon-point: Knight Commander The riband is red with gold-black-gold stripes. Recipients by years Iron Cross Order of Karl Marx Pour le Mérite Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross Awards and decorations of the German Armed Forces The Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Classes of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany with their official French, English and Russian translations The President of the Federal Republic of Germany webpage Stiftung Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Tribhuvan of Nepal
Tribhuwan Bir Bikram Shah, was King of Nepal from 11 December 1911 until his death. Born in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, he ascended to the throne at the age of five, upon the death of his father, King Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah, crowned on 20 February 1913 at the Nasal Chowk, Hanuman Dhoka Palace in Kathmandu, with his mother acting as regent. At the time, the position of monarch was titular, with real power in the country residing in the powerful, conservative Rana family, which supplied the country with its hereditary prime minister; the Rana period is known for the tyranny, economic exploitation and religious persecution by the rulers. King Tribhuvan was born on 30 June 1906 to Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah and Queen Divyeshwari Lakshmi Devi Shah. After the death of his father, Tribhuvan Bir Birkarm Shah ascended the throne on 11 December 1911, at the age of five. Queen Mother Divyeshwari Lakshmi Devi was appointed the regent until King Tribhuvan would come to his age. In a double ceremony, he married first at the Narayanhity Royal Palace, March 1919, H.
M. Svasti Sri Ojaswi Rajanya Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Sriman Maharajadhiraja Patta Rajninam Bada Maharani Kanti Rajya Lakshmi Devi Shahanam Sada Saubhajnabatinam; the same day he married her sister, H. M. Svasti Sri Ojawsi-Rajanya Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Sriman Maharajadhiraja Patta Rajninam Kancha Maharani Ishwari Rajya Lakshmi Devi Shahanam Sada Saubhajnabatinam. Both were full sisters, he had junior wives. King Tribhuvan had thirteen daughters, they include: 1) H. M. Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah, King of Nepal born in 1920. 2) H. R. H. Prince Himalaya Pratap Bir Bikram Shah, GCMG, GBE born in 1921. 3) H. R. H. Prince Basundhara Bir Bikram Shah, GCMG born in 1921; the daughters include: 1) H. R. H. Princess Trilokya Rajya Lakshmi Devi born in 1923. 2) H. R. H. Princess Nalini Rajya Lakshmi Devi born in 1925. 3) H. R. H. Princess Vijaya Rajya Lakshmi Devi born in 1925. 4) H. R. H. Princess Bharati Rajya Lakshmi Devi born in 1927. Children of junior wives include: 5) Rajkumari Rajya Lakshmi Devi. 6) Rajkumari Divyeshwari Rajya Lakshmi Devi.
7) Rajkumari Praja Rajya Lakshmi Devi. 8) Rajkumari Achala Rajya Lakshmi Devi. 9) Rajkumari Tika Rajya Lakshmi Devi. 10) Rajkumari Bimala Rajya Lakshmi Devi. Three unnamed daughters of King Tribhuvan perished during the Great earthquake, at the Narayanhity Royal Palace, Kathmandu, 15 January 1934. Tensions between the royal family and the Ranas came to a head during World War I; the Ranas wanted to join the war in support of Britain. The prime minister, HH Maharaja Sri Chandra Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana always had his way with the young king, who ordered the troops to go to war. By the mid-1930s, popular discontent with the Ranas led to the establishment of several movements, notably the Nepal Praja Parishad, to which Tribhuvan himself gave explicit support, to overthrow the Ranas. In each instance, the Ranas responded harshly, banning the liberal movements and executing their leadership. King Tribhuvan worked with Praja Parishad to abolish the Rana regime. In November 1950, King Tribhuvan took refuge at the Indian Embassy in a campaign aimed at removing the Rana oligarchy from power, which had ruled Nepal for more than a century.
He was accompanied among others. Prime Minister Sir Tin Maharaja, Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana became furious and responded to Tribhuvan's move by calling an emergency meeting of the cabinet on 7 November 1950 at Singha Durbar. In that meeting he announced Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah, the four-year-old grandson of King Tribhuvan as the new King of Nepal. In the afternoon, on the same day, Prince Gyandendra Bir Bikram Shah was brought to Hanuman Dhoka Palace and crowned as the king of Nepal. On 10 November, two Indian planes landed at Gauchar Airport and flew back to New Delhi with the Royal family excluding the infant King, Gyanendra. King Tribhuvan was formally welcomed by the Indian prime minister Jawahar Lal Nehru and other high officials; the removal of the king led to huge demonstrations in the country that compelled the Rana prime minister, Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana to come into negotiations with Tribhuvan and the Nepali Congress. On 22 November 1950, Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India announced that India was not going to recognize Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah as the legitimate King of Nepal.
When Mohan Shumsher saw that the situation was out of his control, he sent the king's brother-in-law, Sir Kaiser Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana and Bijaya Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana to New Delhi for peace talks. In New Delhi, King Tribhuvan, representatives of Nepali Congress and of the Rana Government all sat together to discuss the situation. At last an agreement was reached according to which King Tribhuvan to form a new ministry, under his leadership, consisting of the Nepali Congress and the Ranas on an equal basis, King Tribhuvan flew back to Nepal, along with the members of the Royal family and the leaders of the Congress Party on 15 February 1951. On 18 February 1951, King Tribhuvan returned from India as the monarch. Three days after the return, Tribhuvan formally declared an end to Rana's family rule and established a democratic system, but Mohan Shamsher continued as a prime minister for a few more months. According to the New Delhi Agreement, King Tribhuvan announced on 13 February 1951, a