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Western use of the swastika in the early 20th century

The swastika is an ancient Indo-European religious symbol with the earliest known example found in Mezine, modern Ukraine, that takes the form of an equilateral cross with four legs each bent at 90 degrees in either right-facing form or its mirrored left-facing form. It is considered to be a sacred and auspicious symbol in Hinduism and Jainism and dates back at least 11,000 years; the swastika symbol became a popular symbol of luck in the Western world in the early 20th century, as it had long been in Asia, was used for ornamentation. The Nazi Party adopted the symbol in the 1920s, its use in Western countries faded after the Nazi association became dominant in the 1930s. In recent decades many public swastikas have been removed or covered over, although others have been deliberately retained as part of debate about historical preservation; the discovery of the Indo-European language group in the 1790s led to a great effort by European archaeologists to link the pre-history of European people to the hypothesised ancient "Aryans".

Following his discovery of objects bearing the swastika square in the ruins of Troy, Heinrich Schliemann consulted two leading Sanskrit scholars of the day, Emile Burnouf and Max Müller. Schliemann concluded that the Swastika square was a Indo-European symbol, associated it with the ancient migrations of Proto-Indo-Europeans, he connected it with similar shapes found on ancient pots in Germany, theorised that the swastika square was a "significant religious symbol of our remote ancestors", linking Germanic and Indo-Iranian cultures. Discoveries of the motif among the remains of the Hittites and of ancient Iran seemed to confirm this theory, but the symbol was known for its use by indigenous American Indians as well as Eastern cultures. By the early 20th century it was regarded as a symbol of good luck; the swastika's worldwide use was well documented in an 1894 publication by the Smithsonian. The symbol appeared in many popular, non-political Western designs from the 1880s to the 1920s, with occasional use continuing into the 1930s.

Western use of the motif was subverted in the early 20th century after it was adopted as the emblem of the Nazi Party. The swastika was used as a conveniently geometrical and eye-catching symbol to emphasise the so-called Aryan-German correspondence and instill racial pride. Since World War II, most Westerners have known the swastika as a Nazi symbol, leading to confusion about its sacred religious and historical status; the Danish brewery company Carlsberg Group used the swastika as a logo from the 19th century until the middle of the 1930s, when it was discontinued because of association with the Nazi Party in neighbouring Germany. However, the swastika carved on elephants at the entrance gates of the company's headquarters in Copenhagen in 1901 can still be seen today. In Finland, the hakaristi was used as the official national marking of the Finnish Defence Forces between 1918 and 1945 and of the Finnish Air Force, anti-aircraft troops as a part of the air force and tank troops at that time.

The swastika was used by the Lotta Svärd organisation, Finnish paramilitary organisation for women, dissolved in 1944 according to the terms of the Moscow Armistice. Finnish heraldry does not distinguish between fylfot. Most hakaristi devices are fylfots; the tursaansydän, an elaboration on the swastika, is used by scouts in some instances, by a student organization. The Finnish village of Tursa uses the tursaansydän as a kind of a certificate of authenticity on products made there, is the origin of this name of the symbol, known as the mursunsydän. Traditional textiles are still made in Finland with swastikas as parts of traditional ornaments; the Finnish Airforce units still wear a swastika on their colours. In addition, the shoulder insignia of the Airforce Headquarters bears a swastika design. In 1945, the Air Force changed its national emblem to a roundel but the use of swastika in some other insignia was continued. In 1958, the President of Finland Urho Kekkonen inaugurated the colours of the Air Force units which feature a swastika design.

The latest colour of this pattern was inaugurated by president Tarja Halonen 25 October 2005 for the newly formed Air Force Academy. The Utti Jaeger Regiment, responsible for training special forces, bears a swastika-like emblem on its colour; the swastika has not disappeared in Finnish decorations. The decorations of the Order of the Cross of Liberty, designed by Akseli Gallen-Kallela – who designed the emblem of the Finnish Air Force and the Finnish flight mark in 1918 – bears a fylfot laid on a George's Cross; the President of Finland uses a Cross of Liberty in the personal flag. However, in the flag is only the Cross of Liberty of 3rd Class and overall, the highest Finnish decoration is the Grand Cross of the White Rose with Collar. In 1917, René Croste identified the Basque lauburu; the tourism industry and promoters of Basque culture in the French Basque Country used both for souvenirs and general Basque symbolism. In 1935, the Musée Basque of Bayonne asked to avoid the swastika for its Nazi association and use the lauburu.

It was however contested by Ph. Aranart; the success of the campaign was not total and the German occupiers of the Frenc

Harvest Moon GB

Harvest Moon GB is the second game in the Story of Seasons series of video games, was developed and published by Victor Interactive Software. Harvest Moon GB is the first portable Harvest Moon game, developed for the Game Boy. A Game Boy Color version was released under the name Harvest Moon GBC; the Game Boy Color version was released on the 3DS Virtual Console in 2013. Before beginning, the player is able to choose whether to play as a girl or a boy, name themselves. At the beginning of the game, the player's deceased grandfather visits them as a spirit and asks them to take over his farm, he implores them to succeed him as a Ranch Master, stating he will check on the player at the end of each winter to determine his progress. The player must develop their farm by growing and selling crops, raising livestock to reach this goal. If the farm meets his criteria for you to be a Ranch Master, the player may receive extra tools. Crops are the primary source of income in Harvest Moon GB. Different seeds can be sown during different seasons, but any seed sown outside of its designated season will not sprout.

After being planted, the seeds must be watered every day. All harvested crops may be put in the shipping bin to be sold. All crops require active farming and maintenance, although every day, the player can harvest two Mushrooms from their underground cellar to sell. Either a dog or a cat may be chosen as a pet. If you choose a cat, wild dogs won't attack your chickens; the player receives a horse early in the game, which when grown can be used for farm work and shipping items. There are two types of livestock - chickens. Cows can produce milk, which can be turned into cheese and butter, chickens produce eggs. Both livestock can reproduce: cows by giving them Miracle Potion, chickens by hatching their eggs. There are a wide variety of tools in Harvest Moon GB. At the beginning of the game, the tools available are the axe, hammer, watering can, sickle; these tools may be improved. The player may receive a fishing rod and umbrella after reaching their grandfather's goal. Harvest Moon GB was well received, earning a 7.2/10 review from Nintendo Power.

GameSpot gave it a 7.4/10, saying "Harvest Moon is a relaxing and rewarding simulation of the simple life on the farm... you're better off waiting for the Game Boy Color version." IGN gave the GBC version a 6.0/10, saying "Without the dating aspects and with only a few mini-quests to play through, Harvest Moon GBC is a lightweight version of a feathery game."

Nathan Eckstein

Nathan Eckstein was a German-born American businessman, associated in business and by marriage with the Schwabacher Brothers firm and family. In 1926 he received the honor of being named "Seattle's Most Useful Citizen", an honor sponsored by the Seattle Post-Intelligencer and chosen by service clubs and community organizations. At that time, Seattle's Jewish Transcript called him "the man who has brought the greatest amount of respect and prestige to the Jewish people of Seattle." Seattle's Nathan Eckstein Middle School is named in his honor. Eckstein was born to Lazarus Eckstein and Johanna Haas in Bavaria in 1873. After a gymnasium education in Munich, he emigrated to New York City, where he spent a decade in the wholesale grocery business beginning in 1888, he came to Seattle in 1898, where he went to work for Seattle wholesaler Schwabachers and Co. and in 1902 married Mina Alice Schwabacher daughter of Abraham Schwabacher, one of the original Schwabacher Brothers. Eckstein became vice president and chief executive officer of Schwabachers, guiding the company through both World Wars and the Great Depression.

Besides being a member of numerous organizations ranging from the Rainier Club to B'nai B'rith to both the Shrine and Scottish Rite Masons, a trustee of organizations such as Goodwill Industries and the Seattle Symphony Orchestra, he served on a volunteer basis in numerous public capacities, including on the Seattle School Board, as chair of the Washington State Tax Commission, chair of the Seattle Community Fund, as a member of a commission to revise the City Charter. The last resulted in a proposed charter, defeated by the city's voters. In 1931 there was talk of him running as a Republican for the U. S. Senate, but he declined to do so. Eckstein's years on the School Board were controversial; this was during a period of great confrontation between labor and capital in Seattle—the Seattle General Strike of 1919 was the first such action in the United States—and Schwabachers' support for the open shop put Eckstein on capital's side of the divide. The labor unions opposed his candidacy. Eckstein, a naturalized American citizen of German birth, stood with most businessmen in supporting U.

S. entry into World War I and bowed to pressure to drop German language courses from the Seattle Public Schools curriculum. Eckstein was a proudly believing Jew, served as president and trustee of Seattle's Temple De Hirsch, now Temple De Hirsch Sinai. "The prejudice under which the Jew is suffering is not due to his religion," he said on one occasion. "The greatest criticism of the Jew is. If every Jew belonged to a temple or synagogue there would not be one percent of the prejudice that exists today"By the late 1930s, though still running Schwabachers', had a much-improved relationship with organized labor. In 1937 and 1938, he was part of a citizen's committee that arbitrated in a jurisdictional dispute between the International Longshoremen's Association under Harry Bridges and the Teamsters under Dave Beck over organizing inland warehouse workers. Nathan and Mina Eckstein had two daughters, Johanna—a noted Seattle philanthropist and patron of the arts—and Babette. Preliminary Guide to the Nathan Eckstein Papers 1880-1943, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.

Photo of Eckstein marching in a 1915 Shriners' parade, University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections Photo of Mina and Nathan Eckstein circa 1930, University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections

Tina Sinatra

Christina Sinatra is an American former singer, film producer, memoirist. Christina Sinatra was born on June 20, 1948 in Los Angeles, the youngest child of the American singer and actor Frank Sinatra and his first wife, Nancy Barbato Sinatra, she has two full siblings and Frank Jr. Her parents divorced. Sinatra appeared on the album The Sinatra Family Wish You a Merry Christmas with her father and siblings in 1968, she contributed to five tracks on the album, including "Santa Claus Is Coming to Town" and a duet on "O Bambino", with her sister. Tina appeared with her siblings on an episode of Dean Martin's television show with Martin's children. Sinatra never wished to be a singer like her father and siblings, but took acting classes with Jeff Corey, appeared opposite Hampton Fancher in the 1969 television mini-series Romeo und Julia 70 in Germany, where she lived for several years. After returning to the United States, she took more classes with Corey, appeared in episodes of Adam-12, It Takes a Thief, McCloud, Mannix.

In her memoir, she wrote of her acting career that though her reviews were favourable, she lacked the ambition and confidence to become an actress. Sinatra remained in the entertainment industry, becoming a theatrical agent under Arnold Stiefel, at one stage represented Robert Blake. An occasional film producer, she appeared in the television movie Fantasy Island, which became the pilot program for the long-running TV series of the same title, she was executive producer of the 1992 CBS television miniseries, about her father's life. She was a producer of the 2004 remake of her father's 1962 film, The Manchurian Candidate. A lead actor in The Manchurian Candidate, Frank Sinatra owned the film's legal distribution rights until his death. Sinatra published My Father's Daughter in 2000, co-written with Jeff Coplon. On 26 January 1974 Sinatra married the musician Wes Farrell at her father's apartment at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, they divorced on 3 September 1976, after 2.5 years of marriage. On 30 January 1981 Sinatra married Richard M Cohen.

They divorced on 11 January 1983, after 2 years of marriage. She started a petition in favor of the construction of the Beverly Hills Community Dog Park in Beverly Hills, California in 2015. Tina Sinatra on IMDb

L'École Internationale de Théâtre Jacques Lecoq

École internationale de théâtre Jacques Lecoq is a school of physical theatre situated on Rue du Faubourg-Saint-Denis in the 10th arrondissement of Paris. Founded in 1956 by Jacques Lecoq, the school offers a professional and intensive two-year course emphasizing the body and space as entry point in theatrical performance and prepares its students to create collaboratively; this method is called mimodynamics. The school’s graduate list includes renowned figures of stage such as Ariane Mnouchkine of Théâtre du Soleil, Steven Berkoff and Simon McBurney of Théâtre de Complicité among others; the Lecoq program lasts for two years. Ninety students from all over the world are accepted in the first year, out of these, thirty will be accepted into the second year. Classes are conducted in French; the first year focuses upon observing movement dynamics in the world and in doing so, rediscovering life anew. In the words of Jacques Lecoq:To mime is to embody and therefore understand better. A person who handles bricks all day long reaches a point where he no longer knows what he is handling.

It has become an automatic part of his physical life. If he is asked to mime the object, he rediscovers the meaning of its weight and volume; this has interesting consequences for our teaching method: miming is a way of rediscovering a thing with renewed freshness…Note that his method, called mimodynamics and involving corporal movement, is not miming in the traditional sense, as the spoken word is involved. The focus and the goals of mimodynamics are different than those of miming. Aside from observing the world anew through the study of natural elements, animals, words and colours, students discover themselves anew with the Neutral Mask, an exercise which reveals their habits and tendencies and teaches stage presence; the second year focuses on exploring major dramatic territories, such as melodrama, tragedy, Commedia dell'arte clowning and so on. In general, each day students have three sessions:Movement analysis; this includes physical preparation – learning and analysing 20 essential movements, juggling, stage combat, etc.

Improvisation. Autocours; each Friday, students are asked to work in groups to prepare for a performance upon a certain theme related to their other classwork. The process of collaborative directing is frustrating at first, but allows students to engage with each other creatively. In this way, students get to know each other well, learn to work with others to create a piece of work. In addition to the two-year professional course the school offers LEM, a course which studies space and rhythm through scenography. Lecoq, Jacques; the Moving Body. London: Methuen. Lecoq, Jacques. A comprehensive overview of his pedagogy published as Le Corps poétique in French Official website, English version