Crocodiles or true crocodiles are large semiaquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, the Americas and Australia. Crocodylinae, all of whose members are considered true crocodiles, is classified as a biological subfamily. A broader sense of the term crocodile, Crocodylidae that includes Tomistoma, is not used in this article; the term crocodile here applies to only the species within the subfamily of Crocodylinae. The term is sometimes used more loosely to include all extant members of the order Crocodilia, which includes the alligators and caimans, the gharial and false gharial, all other living and fossil Crocodylomorpha. Although they appear similar, crocodiles and the gharial belong to separate biological families; the gharial, with its narrow snout, is easier to distinguish, while morphological differences are more difficult to spot in crocodiles and alligators. The most obvious external differences are visible in the head, with crocodiles having narrower and longer heads, with a more V-shaped than a U-shaped snout compared to alligators and caimans.
Another obvious trait is that the upper and lower jaws of the crocodiles are the same width, the teeth in the lower jaw fall along the edge or outside the upper jaw when the mouth is closed. When the crocodile's mouth is closed, the large fourth tooth in the lower jaw fits into a constriction in the upper jaw. For hard-to-distinguish specimens, the protruding tooth is the most reliable feature to define the species' family. Crocodiles have more webbing on the toes of the hind feet and can better tolerate saltwater due to specialized salt glands for filtering out salt, which are present, but non-functioning, in alligators. Another trait that separates crocodiles from other crocodilians is their much higher levels of aggression. Crocodile size, morphology and ecology differ somewhat among species. However, they have many similarities in these areas as well. All crocodiles are semiaquatic and tend to congregate in freshwater habitats such as rivers, lakes and sometimes in brackish water and saltwater.
They are carnivorous animals, feeding on vertebrates such as fish, reptiles and mammals, sometimes on invertebrates such as molluscs and crustaceans, depending on species and age. All crocodiles are tropical species that, unlike alligators, are sensitive to cold, they separated from other crocodilians during the Eocene epoch, about 55 million years ago. Many species are at the risk of some being classified as critically endangered; the word "crocodile" comes from the Ancient Greek κροκόδιλος, "lizard", used in the phrase ho krokódilos tou potamoú, "the lizard of the river". There are several variant Greek forms of the word attested, including the form κροκόδειλος found cited in many English reference works. In the Koine Greek of Roman times and crocodeilos would have been pronounced identically, either or both may be the source of the Latinized form crocodīlus used by the ancient Romans. Crocodilos or crocodeilos is a compound of krokè, drilos/dreilos, although drilos is only attested as a colloquial term for "penis".
It is ascribed to Herodotus, describes the basking habits of the Egyptian crocodile. The form crocodrillus is attested in Medieval Latin, it is not clear whether this derives from alternative Greco-Latin forms. A corrupted form cocodrille was borrowed into Middle English as cocodril; the Modern English form crocodile was adapted directly from the Classical Latin crocodīlus in the 16th century, replacing the earlier form. The use of -y- in the scientific name Crocodylus is a corruption introduced by Laurenti. A total of 15 extant species have been recognized. Further genetic study is needed for the confirmation of proposed species under the genus Osteolaemus, monotypic. A crocodile's physical traits allow it to be a successful predator, its external morphology is a sign of its predatory lifestyle. Its streamlined body enables it to swim swiftly. Crocodiles have webbed feet which, though not used to propel them through the water, allow them to make fast turns and sudden moves in the water or initiate swimming.
Webbed feet are an advantage in shallow water. Crocodiles have a palatal flap, a rigid tissue at the back of the mouth that blocks the entry of water; the palate has a special path from the nostril to the glottis. The nostrils are closed during submergence. Like other archosaurs, crocodilians are diapsid; the walls of the braincase lack supratemporal and postfrontal bones. Their tongues are not held in place by a membrane that limits movement. Crocodiles have smooth skin on their bellies and sides, while their dorsal surfaces are armoured with large osteoderms; the armoured skin is thick and rugged, providing some protection. They are still able to absorb heat through this armour, as a network of small capillaries allows blood through the scales to absorb heat. Crocodilian scales have pores believed to be sensory in function, analogous to the lateral line in fishes, they are seen on their upper an
Indooroopilly is a suburb of Brisbane, Australia 7 kilometres west of the Brisbane central business district. The suburb covers 7.5 km². At the 2016 Australian Census the suburb recorded a population of 12,242. Indooroopilly is a corruption of either the local Aboriginal word nyindurupilli, meaning'gully of the leeches' or yindurupilly meaning'gully of running water'. Locals shorten the name to "Indro"; the traditional owners of the Indooroopilly area are the Aboriginal Turrbal groups. Both groups are classified as belonging to the Yaggera language group; the area was first settled by Europeans in the 1860s and agriculture and dairying were common in the early years. The parish was named in the late 1850s, the first house was built in 1861 by Mr H C Rawnsley; the arrival of rail in 1875 and completion of the Albert rail bridge across the Brisbane River to open the Ipswich rail line the following year spurred the development of Indooroopilly. The 1893 Brisbane flood destroyed the original Albert Bridge, its replacement was opened in 1895.
A lead-silver mine was established on an Indooroopilly property in 1919 and extraction continued until 1929 when the mine became unprofitable. Today the University of Queensland operates the site as an experimental mine and teaching facility for engineering students; the landmark Walter Taylor Bridge across the Brisbane River was completed in 1936. The first stage of Indooroopilly Shoppingtown opened in 1970. Indooroopilly was the location for Australia's principal interrogation centre during World War II; the three interrogation cells at Witton Barracks are the only cells remaining in the country. The Indooroopilly Library opened in 1981 and had a major refurbishment in 2011. Indooroopilly has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Brisbane River between Indooroopilly and Chelmer: Albert Bridge 203 Clarence Road: Tighnabruaich Coonan Street: Walter Taylor Bridge 47 Dennis Street: Greylands Harts Road: Thomas Park Bougainvillea Gardens 60 Harts Road: Ross Roy 66 Harts Road: Chapel of St Peter's Lutheran College 9 Lambert Road: Combined Services Detailed Interrogation Centre 72 Lambert Road: St Andrews Church Hall Ward Street: Indooroopilly State High School Buildings 10-12 Westminster Road: Keating residence In the 2011 census, Indooroopilly had a population of 11,670 people.
The median age of the Indooroopilly population was 29 years of age, 8 years below the Australian median. The most notable difference is the group in their twenties. Children aged under 15 years made up 13.9% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 10.2% of the population. 60% of people living in Indooroopilly were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 69.8%. The other top responses for country of birth were China 3.7%, England 3.2%, New Zealand 2.5%, India 2.1%, Malaysia 1.8%. 70.4% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion in Indooroopilly were No Religion 29.7%, Catholic 20.6%, Anglican 13.1%, Uniting Church 5.1% and Buddhism 3.1%. The suburb is designated as a regional activity centre. Indooroopilly boasts significant commercial and retail sectors and is home to Indooroopilly Shopping Centre, the largest shopping centre in Brisbane’s western suburbs; the suburb is popular with professionals and a large number of university students from the nearby University of Queensland campus in St Lucia.
The housing stock consists of a mix of detached houses and medium density apartments. There has been a trend towards increasing small lot and townhouse development in the suburb in recent years. Many post-war homes and iconic Queenslanders have been restored. Brisbane City Council regulations to preserve the'pre-war' look of Brisbane discourage destruction of many of Brisbane's Queenslanders and buildings, it is one of the Brisbane City Council's proposed Major Centres. Moggill Road is the main thoroughfare, connecting Indooroopilly to Toowong and the city via Coronation Drive, Chapel Hill and Kenmore; the Western Freeway serves the suburb. Indooroopilly is well connected by public transport. There is a bus interchange adjoining the Indooroopilly Shopping Centre, where Brisbane Transport operates services to the CBD, university and other western suburbs. Indooroopilly railway station provides frequent services to the Brisbane CBD, Ipswich and Caboolture. There is a café and restaurant precinct along Station Road between the shopping centre and railway station as well as to the east of the railway station.
There are two cinema complexes in Indooroopilly, the Eldorado cinemas on Coonan Street and Event Cinema Megaplex inside Indooroopilly Shopping Centre. This cinema complex once had 8 cinemas, now it boasts 16, it is the major cinema complex in the Western Suburbs. Indooroopilly youth organisations include the Indooroopilly Scout Group including Rovers and Indooroopilly Girl Guide District Indooroopilly is home to one of Brisbane's oldest Soccer Football Clubs, Taringa Rovers; the Indooroopilly Golf Club is a 36-hole championship course offering members and guests a variety of competition and social golf. The Brisbane City Council operate a public library in the Indooroopilly Shopping Centre. Many schools are located in the suburb. Indooroopilly State School and Indooroopilly State High School are both well performing state schools accessed by bus. There is Holy Family Primary School, Brigidine College and St Peters Lutheran College; the J
Queen Street Mall, Brisbane
The Queen Street Mall is a pedestrian mall located on Queen Street in the centre of Brisbane, Australia. The mall extends 500 metres from George Street to Edward Street, has more than 700 retailers over 40,000 square metres of retail space, which includes six major shopping centres, it receives over 26 million visitors each year. It was intended to bring more people into the central business district; the mall was designed by Robin Gibson and opened in 1982, in order to be ready for the Brisbane Commonwealth Games. The section of Queen Street between Albert Street and Edward Street was partitioned off to form a pedestrian-only retail precinct, it was extended in 1988 to include the section of Queen Street between Albert Street and George Street, timed to coincide with Brisbane's Expo'88; the mall underwent a $25,000,000 refurbishment in 1999, which saw the terracotta paving being replaced by granite. The Albert Street section of the mall was refurbished again in 2007; the Brisbane City Council announced in 2009 that Burnett Lane, a narrow laneway that runs between George Street and Albert Street, parallel to the mall, would be refurbished and integrated into the Queen Street Mall precinct.
On 8 March 2013, the mall was the scene of a 90 minute siege. The offender, Lee Matthew Hillier, had a long criminal history, he was shot several times with non-lethal rounds. He pled guilty to charges including going armed to cause fear. In January 2014 he was sentenced to four-and-a-half years in jail. There are a number of shopping centres located in the Queen Street Mall, including: Wintergarden, The Myer Centre, Broadway on the Mall, Queens Plaza, Brisbane Arcade, Q&A Building, Queen Adelaide Building, Tattersall's ArcadeAt the intersection of Queen Street and Albert Street at the centre of the mall is a 15-metre-high steel structure designed to provide shade and cover from the weather. An entertainment stage for music, model shows, other performances is situated near the George Street end of the mall, between the Myer Centre and the Queen Adelaide Building; the stage is covered by an 11-metre-high roof. Underneath the Queen Street Mall is the Queen Street Bus Station. In the development of stage one and stage two of the mall, significant heritage-listed building facades were preserved, giving the mall a restored yesteryear feeling.
There are several significant shopping centres located on the Queen Street Mall. These include the Wintergarden, The Myer Centre, Broadway on the Mall and the lavish Queens Plaza, situated at the northern end of the mall, opened in two stages, the first in 2005, the second in 2008; the Wintergarden is a three level shopping centre with over 70 specialty stores including a gymnasium, ten pin bowling alley, Georg Jensen, Lisa Ho and R. M. Williams. In November 2009, it was announced that the Wintergarden will undergo a A$100 million refurbishment in two 12-month stages; the new Wintergarden will once more become of the Brisbane central business district's premier shopping destinations, an impressive architectural site. The Myer Centre is the Brisbane CBD's largest shopping centre, it has 200 stores spread across 6 floors including Queensland's largest department store, Myer, as well as Target and Birch Carroll and Coyle. Broadway on the Mall is a four level shopping centre with around 60 stores.
It is expected to take 18 months to complete. QueensPlaza is the Brisbane CBD's most upmarket shopping centre, it has around 80 stores on three levels including Australia's largest single location David Jones department store. There are other smaller shopping arcades on the Queen Street Mall; these include the Q&A Building and the heritage Tattersall's Arcade. The mall underwent refurbishment in 1999 from its signature terracotta tile footpath to a grey slate tile footpath, with several significant art commissions and new tree and shrub enclosures throughout. In 2006, the other end of the George Street engagement with the Mall saw the opening of Brisbane Square which further extended the grey slate tile rendering of the Mall, and, in 2008 extension of the Mall along Albert Street to the corner of Albert Street and Adelaide Street; the Brisbane City Council announced in 2009 that Burnett Lane, a narrow laneway that runs between George Street and Albert Street, parallel to the Mall, will be integrated into the Queen Street Mall precinct with a vibrant boutique bar/restaurant scene on the cards.
Management of the mall was covered by the Local Government Act 1981, until it was repealed and replaced by the City of Brisbane Act 2010. List of shopping centres in Australia
Queen Street, Brisbane
Queen Street is the main street of Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, Australia. It is named after Victoria of the United Kingdom; the western part of the street is covered by a new plaza at the base of Brisbane Square and underneath part of the western half is the Queen Street bus station. Queen Street is built up with arcades, hotels and apartment high-rises such as MacArthur Central, Brisbane Square, Central Plaza, Aurora Tower, Treasury Casino, Broadway on the Mall, The Myer Centre and QueensPlaza. Queen Street is the location of Brisbane's General Post Office. Queen Street is the city's central road covered by a pedestrian mall called the Queen Street Mall, it is bounded by two of the Brisbane River's central reaches. Uptown at the top of the mall is George Street; the next street parallel to the south is Elizabeth Street, while Adelaide Street is the next parallel street to the north. Before 1842 and free settlement, Queen Street was a track leading from the main section of the early Moreton Bay Penal Colony, crossing a stream known as Wheat Creek with a deviation going up to the Windmill.
In early 1840, a surveyor named Dixon drew up a survey for the central Brisbane streets with all streets 66 feet wide. Changes were made to this plan with square blocks flattened into a rectangular grid with streets becoming 1.4 chains. On Governor Gipps' visit to Brisbane Town in March 1842, Gipps remarked that Brisbane Town was "simply an ordinary provincial settlement", which would need no grand avenues; as a result, Gipps moved the planned width of Queen Street, along with other streets, back to 66 feet, arguing that this change would mean that buildings could be kept out of the sun. There was compromise with the main street that would be known as Queen Street, with the western boundary's width changed to 1.2 chains. The first sitting of Legislative Assembly of Queensland in May 1860 occurred in the old converted convict barracks on Queen Street. In 1864, there were two significant fires along the street; the September 1864 fire started in the Little Wonder store on Edward Street which destroyed 14 shops in Queen Street.
This event became known as Bulcock's Fire. On 1 December 1864, the Great Fire of Brisbane started within the cellar of a Queen Street drapery store which burnt down buildings bordering Queen Street, as well as Albert Street, Edward Street, George Street and Elizabeth Street. Brisbane Courier described the fire as "the whole of the business premises and private residences...were, in a couple of hours, reduced to a heap of ruins". On 9 December 1882, a demonstration of electricity was conducted with eight arc lights along Queen Street. Power was supplied by a 10 hp generator driven by a small engine in a foundry in Adelaide Street; this was Australia's first recorded use of electricity for public purposes. In 1902, part of Queen Street was not paved or sealed although stormwater drainage was well maintained. Queen Street is significant as it contains MacArthur Central, the building in which the American General Douglas MacArthur had his South West Pacific headquarters during World War II and directed the Allied Forces campaign.
The former AMP building was renamed MacArthur Central as a tribute to General MacArthur. Tram services along Queen Street were converted to buses on 14 April 1969. There are many heritage-listed buildings in Queen Street, including: 21 Queen Street: Treasury Building 33 Queen Street: Bank of New South Wales Building 43 Queen Street: Trustees Chambers 62 Queen Street: Colonial Mutual Chambers 86 Queen Street: Palings Building 110 Queen Street: Allan and Stark Building 114 Queen Street: Gardams Building 116 Queen Street: Hardy Brothers Building 120 Queen Street: Edwards and Chapman Building 160 Queen Street: Brisbane Arcade 167 Queen Street: Regent Theatre 180 Queen Street: National Australia Bank 196 Queen Street: Finney Isles & Co Building 229 Queen Street: MacArthur Chambers 270 Queen Street: Sir William Glasgow Memorial 289 Queen Street: Newspaper House 299 Queen Street: National Mutual Life Building 308 Queen Street: National Australia Bank and its First World War Honour Board 424–426 Queen Street: Queensland Country Life Building facade 427 Queen Street: former Brisbane Customs House 443–501 Queen Street: Petrie Bight Retaining Wall 560 Queen Street: Orient Hotel North Quay / William Street George Street Albert Street Edward Street Creek Street Wharf Street / Eagle Street Adelaide Street Ann Street Road transport in Brisbane Media related to Queen Street, Brisbane at Wikimedia Commons
Albert Street, Brisbane
Albert Street is a road in Brisbane, Australia. It was named after Prince Albert, the Prince Consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, it ran from Alice Street to Wickham Terrace; the section between Adelaide Street and Ann Street has now been included in King George Square. The section of Albert Street between Queen Street Mall and Adelaide Street has now been converted into part of the Mall, in connection with the busway tunnel from the Queen Street bus station to the King George Square busway station. At 102 Albert Street, the site of the now demolished Brisbane Festival Hall, is Festival Towers, an apartment building offering short-term accommodation. 123 Albert Street is an office building, completed in 2011. It has achieved 6 stars on the Green Star environmental rating. Albert Street has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Upper Albert Street: Albert Park Air Raid Shelter 167 Albert Street: Perry House 319 Albert Street: Albert Street Uniting Church Alice Street Margaret Street Mary Street Charlotte Street Elizabeth Street Queen Street Adelaide Street Ann Street Turbot Street Wickham Terrace Road transport in Brisbane Media related to Albert Street, Brisbane at Wikimedia Commons
The go card is an electronic smartcard ticketing system developed by Cubic Corporation and used on the TransLink public transport network in South East Queensland. To use the go card users hold the card less than 10 cm away from the reader to "touch on" before starting a journey, must do the same to "touch off" the service at the end of the journey; the cost of each journey is deducted from the go card balance. The Queensland Government awarded the $134 million contract to design, build and maintain the go card system to Cubic Corporation in July 2003. In July 2006, TransLink signed up around 1,000 volunteers to trial the new smartcard system in the Redcliffe area; the go card was launched throughout Brisbane in February 2008, the go card was available at selected retail stores and Queensland Rail stations. It could be accessed by phone or online; the go card was a major part of the Queensland Government's integrated ticketing system to improve the efficiency and convenience of public transport.
In July 2003, the Queensland Government awarded the $134 million contract to design, build and maintain the go card system to Cubic Corporation. Following the development of the go card, in July 2006, TransLink signed up around 1,000 volunteers to test out the new smartcard system in the Redcliffe area. TransLink installed the new smartcard equipment in Hornibrook Bus Lines and Brisbane Transport buses. Sunbus' bus fleet underwent pre-wiring so onboard equipment could be installed later. TransLink installed new smartcard fare machines at Petrie, Brunswick Street and Roma Street stations; the go card was launched throughout Brisbane in February 2008. The system is available on 2,200 buses; the system continues to grow, with Cubic supplying ticketing equipment for the Gold Coast light rail system. The go card topped up at retail stores and Queensland rail stations, it can be accessed by phone or online. During the launch, TransLink had staff on hand at rail stations and major bus interchanges to talk to passengers about go card and answer any questions.
To encourage the use of the go card, from 4 August 2008 all go card trips received a minimum 20% discount off paper tickets. Regular users who travel more than 10 journeys within a week received an additional discount of 50% off the price of any extra journeys. On 4 January 2010, to encourage the use of the go cards during 2010, TransLink gave away 400,000 free go cards loaded with $10 credit. Go cards users received off-peak discounts and automatic top-up. TransLink had proposed to scrap paper-based ticketing but following controversy over this proposal single-trip paper tickets were retained, whilst other paper ticket formats were abolished. Apart from frequent user schemes, periodic ticketing formats have not been introduced for go card since its inception; as a further incentive, fare restructuring saw go card users offered substantial discounts in single fares over the price of paper tickets. In November 2015, Cubic was awarded a three-year contract extension until 2019. In 2012, TransLink launched a new SEEQ Card targeting tourists.
The SEEQ Card operates to the go card, but includes: unlimited travel within the TransLink region for a duration of 3 or 5 consecutive days from the first trip Adult or Child fare classes expiry 12 months after the date of purchase if not used 2 trips to/from Brisbane Domestic or International Airports via the Airport line In 2014, TransLink launched the go explore card – Australia’s first limited-use tourist smartcard – to coincide with the official opening of the $1.2 billion Gold Coast light rail system. Developed to make travel easier for tourists and visitors to the Gold Coast, the go explore card uses the same technology as the go card and works with the ticketing equipment installed at the 16 new light rail stations, 40 Add Vending Machines and 138 standalone validators; the go explore card offers visitors unlimited travel on any TransLink bus or light rail service on the Gold Coast for just $10 a day and $5 for children. It can be reloaded with up to 8 day passes at any one time. In 2015, TransLink launched a new dual purpose travel card for people with visual impairement.
Developed in consultation with Vision Australia and Guide Dogs Queensland, the go access VITP uses smartcard technology to open fare gates at train stations without the assistance of a station staff member and has raised tactile elements to help vision-impaired customers identify the card. VITP holders are entitled to free travel across all TransLink services, qconnect buses in regional Queensland and on other services provided by participating interstate transport operators. In 2016, TransLink introduced the go access Corporate Events Card; the go access Corporate Events card is a ticketing solution for conference and event organisers to provide easy travel for delegates around South East Queensland, via the TransLink network. For $12, the card allows unlimited travel for three days across bus, train and tram services; the go card is available in Adult, Child and Seniors fare types: Adult is for use by passengers without concessions. Tertiary students, job seekers and asylum seekers will need to have an adult go card to have concession fares activated on the card.
Child is for use by children under the age of 15 years. Concession is for use by passengers entitled to a concession, such as secondary students, holders of a Pensioner Concession Card, holders of