Queen of Heaven is a title given to Mary, mother of Jesus, by Christians of the Catholic Church and, to a lesser extent, in Anglicanism and Eastern Orthodoxy. The title is a consequence of the First Council of Ephesus in the fifth century, in which Mary was proclaimed "Theotokos", a title rendered in Latin as Mater Dei, in English "Mother of God"; the Catholic teaching on this subject is expressed in the papal encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam, issued by Pope Pius XII. It states that Mary is called Queen of Heaven because her son, Jesus Christ, is the king of Israel and heavenly king of the universe; the title “Queen of Heaven” has long been a Catholic tradition, included in prayers and devotional literature, seen in Western art in the subject of the Coronation of the Virgin, from the High Middle Ages, long before it was given a formal definition status by the Church. Queen of Heaven is one of many Queen titles used of mother of Jesus; the title derived in part from the ancient Catholic teaching that Mary, at the end of her earthly life, was bodily and spiritually assumed into heaven, that she is there honored as Queen.
Pius XII explained on the theological reasons for her title of Queen in a radio message to Fatima of May 13, 1946, Bendito seja: He, the Son of God, reflects on His heavenly Mother the glory, the majesty and the dominion of His kingship, having been associated to the King of Martyrs in the... work of human Redemption as Mother and cooperator, she remains forever associated to Him, with a unlimited power, in the distribution of the graces which flow from the Redemption. Jesus is King throughout all eternity by nature and by right of conquest: through Him, with Him, subordinate to Him, Mary is Queen by grace, by divine relationship, by right of conquest, by singular choice. In his 1954 encyclical Ad caeli reginam, Pius XII asserts that Mary deserves the title because she is Mother of God, because she is associated as the New Eve with Jesus' redemptive work, because of her preeminent perfection and because of her intercessory power. Ad caeli reginam states that the main principle on which the royal dignity of Mary rests is her Divine Motherhood....
So with complete justice St. John Damascene could write: "When she became Mother of the Creator, she became Queen of every creature.". In the Hebrew Bible, under some Davidic kings, the gebirah, the "Great Lady" the Mother of the King, held great power as advocate with the king. In 1 Kings 2:20, Solomon said to his Mother Bathsheba, seated on a throne at his right, "Make your request, for I will not refuse you." William G. Most sees here a sort of type of Mary. In the New Testament, the title has several biblical sources. At the Annunciation, the archangel Gabriel announces that "... will be great, will be called the Son of the Most High. He will rule over the house of Jacob forever and his reign will be without end." The biblical precedent in ancient Israel is. Mary's queenship is a share in Jesus’ kingship; the Roman Catholic Church views Mary as the woman clothed with the sun in the Book of Revelation 12:1–3: "A great and wondrous sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and a crown of twelve stars on her head.
She was pregnant and cried out in pain. Another sign appeared in heaven: an enormous red dragon with seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on his heads." The Church accepts Revelation 12 as a reference to Mary and the Church as a three-fold symbolism through the Book of Isaiah and affirms Mary as the mother of Jesus as the prophetic fulfilment described in Revelation 12. In the Hebrew Bible, the term "queen of heaven" appears in a context unrelated to Mary; the prophet Jeremiah writing circa 628 BC refers to a "queen of heaven" in chapters 7 and 44 of the Book of Jeremiah when he scolds the people for having "sinned against the Lord" due to their idolatrous practices of burning incense, making cakes, pouring out drink offerings to her. This title was given to Asherah, a Caananite idol and goddess worshipped in ancient Israel and Judah. For a discussion of "queen of heaven" in the Hebrew Bible, see Queen of heaven. In the fourth century St. Ephrem called Mary "Lady" and "Queen". Church fathers and doctors continued to use the title.
A text coming from Origen gives her the title domina, the feminine form of Latin dominus, Lord. That same title appears in many other early writers, e.g. Jerome, Peter Chrysologus; the first Mariological definition and basis for the title of Mary Queen of Heaven developed at the Council of Ephesus, where Mary was defined to be the Mother of God. The Council fathers approved this version against the opinion, that Mary is "only" the mother of Jesus. Nobody had participated in the life of her son more, than Mary; the word "Queen" is common after the sixth century. Hymns of the 11th to 13th centuries address Mary as queen: “Hail, Holy Queen,” “Hail, Queen of Heaven,” “Queen of Heaven.” The Dominican rosary and the Franciscan crown as well as numerous invocations in Mary’s litany celebrate her queenship. For centuries she has been invoked as the Queen of Heaven, she is invoked in the Litany of Loreto as: Queen of the Angels, Queen of Patriarchs, Queen of Prophets, Queen of Apostles, Queen of Martyrs, Queen of Confessors, Queen of Virgins
"Little Miss Honky Tonk" is a song written by Ronnie Dunn, recorded by American country music duo Brooks & Dunn. It was released in February 1995 as the third single from their album Waitin' on Sundown; the song reached the top of the Billboard Hot Country Tracks chart. Deborah Evans Price, of Billboard magazine reviewed the song favorably, calling it "an ode to a barroom queen." She goes on to say that it is a nice taste of the duo's rockier side and the first use of the phrase "buckle bunny" in a country song. The music video was directed by Sherman Halsey and premiered in early 1995, it features the duo as observers as a female mechanic sets out to be crowned "little miss honky tonk". Kix Brooks magically changes her car from a rusty station wagon to a sleek black pickup and her clothes from dusty old rags to a polka dot dress. At the event, she impresses the judges and wins the contest, is escorted out by the whole bar in the end. "Little Miss Honky Tonk" debuted at number 70 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks for the week of February 18, 1995.
Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Manjit Singh is an Indian middle-distance runner who specialises in the 800 metres and 1500 metres events. He represented India at the 2018 Asian Games where he won the gold in the 800 metres event at Jakarta. Manjit was born in Jind district, Haryana, to Randhir Chahal and Bimala Devi, he grew his passion for athletics from his father only, Randhir who himself was an field athlete, in discus throw and shot put. Manjit is married, have a son, names Abhir with wife Kiran. In his spare time he use to help his father in dairy and agriculture farming, he had a two-year contract job with ONGC from 2013 to 2016. In 2013 Manjit took part in his first international event, in the 2013 Asian Athletics Championships, at Pune, where he finished 4th place in the Men's 800 metres final clocking 1:49.70 mins. In 2014, he bagged a silver in the 800 metres in Federation Cup, but failed to qualify for the Commonwealth Games and Asian Games. After a long injury for one and half year, he took part in the National Inter-state Championship at Hyderabad winning silver at Guntur and bettered his 800 m time, clocking 1:48.04 mins and winning silver on July 16, 2017.
In the same event, on 18 July, he competed in the 1500m and finished with a timing 3:49.30, his personal best at that time. On March 7, 2018, in the Patiala Federation Cup, he competed in both 800 m and 1500 m and bettered his timings of 1500 m to 3:42.24 and qualified for 1500 m in the 2018 Asian Games. On 27 August 2018, Manjit Singh, stunned everyone and compatriot Jinson Johnson to win gold in the Men's 800 metres at the Asian Games after 36 years for India where he clocked 1:46.15 as his personal best. Manjit Singh at World Athletics
The Constantine Tramway is a tram way system, operating in Constantine, Algeria, since 2013. There have been several delays and cost over-runs in the construction of the tramway. Scheduled to enter revenue service in November 2011, the first section of 8.9 kilometres with 10 stations between the Ben-Abdelmalek-Ramdhan stadium and Zouaghi opened on 4 July 2013 and includes 5 additional stations as of 2019. The tram system construction project was overseen by Pizzarotti an Italian construction company. Construction of the tramway system of the city of Constantine – stretching for 15 km from the terminal in Zouaghi District to the station of Ben-Abdelmalek Stadium, the line runs from the city’s old-town alongside the main historical Mosque, passes over the slope of the Oued Rhumel, proceeds through the university area, ending in the modern part of the city; the works include 11 stations, three of which are multimodal, two viaducts stretching 465 and 114 metres, an underpass for urban traffic, 12 supporting walls having an overall length of 1,885 metres, a ground level depot that guarantees the maintenance and parking of 27+20 trains.
The works include the renovation of the stadium, the demolition of the existing stand in order to allow for the passing of the line and the building of the four stands. Constantine Cable Car Algiers tramway Oran Tramway Template:Suburban railways in Africa "Alstom delivered the first trainsets of the Constantine's Citadis tramway". Archived from the original on 29 November 2011
Primitive Baptists – known as Hard Shell Baptists, Foot Washing Baptists or Old School Baptists – are conservative Baptists adhering to a degree of Calvinist beliefs, that coalesced out of the controversy among Baptists in the early 19th century over the appropriateness of mission boards, tract societies, temperance societies. The adjective "primitive" in the name is used in the sense of "original"; this controversy over whether churches or members should participate in mission boards, Bible tract societies, temperance societies led the Primitive Baptists to separate from other general Baptist groups that supported such organizations, to make declarations of opposition to such organizations in articles like the Kehukee Association Declaration of 1827. The Kehukee Primitive Baptist Church released a proclamation that they rejected formal service institutions outside of the church; the declaration proposed that "Upon examination, it was found that most of the churches had given their opinions.
We further do unanimously agree that should any of the members of our churches join the fraternity of Masons, or, being members, continue to visit the lodges and parades, we will not invite them to preach in our pulpits, believing them to be guilty of such practices. African-American Primitive Baptist groups have been considered a unique category of Primitive Baptist. 50,000 African Americans are affiliated with African-American Primitive Baptist churches as of 2005. 64,000 people were affiliated with Primitive Baptist churches in the various other emergences of Primitive Baptists. Since arising in the 19th century, the influence of Primitive Baptists has waned as "Missionary Baptists became the mainstream", they reject elements of Calvin's theology, such as rejecting infant baptism, avoid the term "Calvinist". However, they are Calvinist in the sense of holding to the Five Points of Calvinism and they explicitly reject Arminianism, they are characterized by "intense conservatism". One branch, the Primitive Baptist Universalist church of central Appalachia, developed their own unique Trinitarian Universalist theology as an extension of the irresistible grace doctrine of Calvinist theology.
They were encouraged in this direction by 19th century itinerant Christian universalist preachers of similar theological bent to Hosea Ballou and John Murray. Primitive Baptist practices that are distinguishable from those of other Baptists include a cappella singing, family integrated worship, foot washing. Primitive Baptists do not play musical instruments as part of their worship services, they believe that all church music should be a cappella because there is no New Testament command to play instruments, but only to sing. Further, they connect musical instruments in the Old Testament with "many forms and customs, many types and shadows, many priests with priestly robes, many sacrifices, tithings" which they see as having been abolished. African-American Primitive Baptists may not share the general Primitive Baptist opposition to musical instruments, however. Primitive Baptists reject the idea of Sunday School, viewing it as unscriptural and interfering with the right of parents to give religious instruction to their children.
Instead, children are expected to attend at least part of the church service. Primitive Baptists consider theological seminaries to have "no warrant or sanction from the New Testament, nor in the example of Christ and the apostles". Most Primitive Baptists perform foot washing as a symbol of humility and service among the membership; the sexes are separated during the ritual. The practice is credited with increasing equality, as opposed to hierarchy, within Primitive Baptist churches. Mount Zion Old School Baptist Church – Aldie, Virginia Goshen Primitive Baptist Church – Winchester, Kentucky Primitive Baptist Church of Brookfield – Slate Hill, New York Spring Green Primitive Baptist Church – Hamilton, North Carolina Smithwick's Creek Primitive Baptist Church – Martin County, North Carolina Primitive Baptist Universalism Progressive Primitive Baptists Reformed Baptists Strict Baptists Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists Crowley, John G. "'Written that Ye May Believe': Primitive Baptist Historiography" in Keith Harper and James P. Byrd, eds.
Through a Glass Darkly: Contested Notions of Baptist Identity pp 205-27, excerpt Crowley, John G. Primitive Baptists of the Wiregrass South: 1815 to the Present. University of Florida Press. ISBN 978-0-8130-1640-5. Crowley, John G.. "The Primitive or Old School Baptists". In Jonas, William Glenn; the Baptist River: Essays on Many Tributaries of a Diverse Tradition. Mercer University Press. ISBN 0-88146-030-3. Guthman, Joshua. Strangers Below: Primitive Baptists and American Culture. Mathis, James R; the Making of the Primitive Baptists: A Cultural and Intellectual History of
Music Fund, a non-profit organisation has been collecting musical instruments and organising training on instrument repair in developing countries and conflict areas since 2005. Music Fund is the result of work between Oxfam Solidarity Belgium, the Ictus Ensemble; the first collection of instruments took place in 2005, one year after the creation of Music Fund, more than 500 instruments of all kinds were collected. Several months in December 2005, the first shipment was organised and the instruments were transported to Palestine and Israel; this operation was a huge success, following which it was decided to do it again, this time to Congo and Mozambique. Some training is provided locally, within the partner schools, through training sessions or workshops; some students obtain a grant and are sent for a lengthy period in a specialised school, where they follow an internship in the workshops of experts affiliated with Music Fund in Europe. Official website in English and Dutch "The Exchange: Music Fund in the Middle East".
The documentary follows Lukas Pairon and Pol De Winter during the first action of Music Fund, in the Winter of 2005-2006, when they drove a loaded truck with music instruments to partnerschools of the organisation in Gaza, Nablus and Tel Aviv and Nazareth