An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection, the term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand, private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere. In broad terms, in North American usage, the word gallery alone often implies a private gallery, the term contemporary art gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are found clustered together in large urban centers. Smaller cities are home to at least one gallery, but they may be found in towns or villages. Contemporary art galleries are open to the general public without charge, however. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales, from 25% to 50% is typical, there are many non-profit or collective galleries.
Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, curators often create group shows that say something about a certain theme, trend in art, or group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly, a gallerys definition can include the artist cooperative or artist-run space, which often operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process. A vanity gallery is an art gallery that charges fees from artists in order to show their work, the shows are not legitimately curated and will frequently or usually include as many artists as possible. Most art professionals are able to identify them on an artists resume, University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art that are developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities. This phenomenon exists in both the West and East, making it a global practice, although largely overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in America alone.
This number, in comparison to other kinds of art museums, throughout history and expensive works of art have generally been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as a form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects often donated their collections to temples and it is unclear how easy it was in practice for the public to view these items. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside
Customs House, Brisbane
Customs House is a heritage-listed customs house at 427 Queen Street, Brisbane CBD, City of Brisbane, Australia. It was designed by Charles H McLay and built from 1886 to 1889 at a cost of ₤38,346 by John Petrie & Son. It was originally used for the collection of duty and was opened in 1889. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 7 February 2005, the collection of custom duties on imported products was particularly important to Queensland where the manufacturing sector was slow to develop. Brisbane was declared a city in 1846. In 1908, seven years after federation, the building was acquired by the federal government, Customs House is within reach of the CityCat catamaran ferry service, as well as the Free Loop Bus. The 1880s building replaced an earlier and much smaller house on the site. The location had been chosen in 1849 following the declaration of Moreton Bay as a port of entry in 1846, a small building was erected for customs purposes in 1850 and in the following decades became increasingly inadequate as Brisbane emerged as the principal commercial centre and port of Queensland.
In 1884 the Queensland Government decided to construct a new customs house, in March 1886 a design by Charles McLay was selected from many proposals in the Colonial Architects Office for a new Brisbane Customs House. McLay completed the specification in May 1886 and construction commenced in September that year, Charles McLay was the major designer under the colonial architect George Connolly and was appointed Chief Draftsman in 1889. The contract was let to one of Brisbanes oldest and most respected contractors, John Petrie & Son, retaining walls, fencing, a double staircase down to the river and nearby earth closets were constructed. The completed building incorporated pedimented gables and a massive colonnade, heraldic scenes in the pediments were precursors to the official Queensland coat of arms, which was not granted until 1893. A curved iron balustrade to the balconies included the initials of the sovereign, Victoria Regina. Red cedar was used extensively for desks, counters and tables as well as for a massive, public pride in the new customs house was considerable.
In 1891 stables, additional retaining walls and fencing, and more earth closets were erected at a cost of £446, by the mid-1890s gardens and a driveway had been developed. The mature fig tree now at the site was planted about this time. Minor repairs were carried out throughout the 1890s, including work in 1895 after seven feet of water inundated the basement during the 1893 Brisbane River floods. As a consequence of the Federation of Australia, the Brisbane Customs House, in 1906 the inadequacies of the original flat roof were overcome by the installation of a new hipped roof
Government House, Brisbane
Government House is a heritage-listed mansion at 170 Fernberg Road, City of Brisbane, Australia. It is the residence of the Governor of Queensland, the representative of the Australian monarch in Queensland. It was originally designed by Benjamin Backhouse and built 1865, but has been extended and refurbished. It is known as Fernberg and it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. The Premier of Queensland must visit the Governor at Government to request the dissolution of the Queensland Legislative Assembly, following the outcome of such elections, the governor appoints the Premier and Ministry and the swearing-in of Members of the Legislative Assembly takes place at Government House. Government House is open to the public on certain open days, usually on Australia Day,26 January. The land on which the Government House stands was granted as two separate portions. Portion 223 was bought in May 1860 by Johann Christian Heussler, in 1864 Francksen died and the land passed to Heussler.
At that time the landscape in this suburb of Brisbane may have been close to undeveloped natural bushland. The Hon Johann Christian Heussler, 1820-1907, was a native of Germany who emigrated to Victoria, Australia in 1852, due to poor health he moved to Brisbane 1854 and established the mercantile firm Heussler and Co. Over two decades Heussler became a respected business man and citizen of Queensland. He was recognised as a member of the Queensland Club, Consul for the Netherlands, German Consul. In 1866 he was appointed to the Queensland Legislative Council, Heussler commissioned Brisbane architect Benjamin Backhouse to design a residence for Heussler, which was constructed in 1865. Heussler named his home Fernberg, giving it a name of German origin that meant distant mountain, Benjamin Backhouse was an architect responsible for several substantial commissions in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Local examples of his work include other villa residences such as Baroona, Cintra House, due to financial difficulties, Heussler was forced to leave the property by 1871 after which it was leased to Arthur Palmer, the Premier of Queensland.
The roof is covered with slates, the verandahs and balconies being spacious, and presenting a delightful retreat for the enjoyment of pure air and widespread and charming view. The whole of the internal and external workmanship and materials are of the very best description, the stable contains a great many stalls. There is carriage-house, grooms room, harness-room, the grounds are all enclosed, the timber having been thinned so as to give the place a park-like appearance, and there is a shrubbery and garden round the house
Land Administration Building
Land Administration Building is a heritage-listed former government building at 142 George Street, Brisbane City, City of Brisbane, Australia. It was designed by Thomas Pye and built from 1899 to 1905 by Arthur Midson for the Queensland Government and it was known as the Executive Building or the Old Executive Building. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992, the building was originally occupied by the offices of the Lands and Survey Departments, the Premier of Queensland, the Executive Council, and the Queensland National Art Gallery. It contains a heritage-listed World War I Honour board, since 1995, the building has been used as the hotel of the Treasury Casino. This four-storeyed masonry government office building was erected between 1901 and 1905 and it is the most prominent Brisbane example of Queensland Government building activity associated with the economic recovery of the late 1890s and with the Federation of Australia. In 1898-1899 plans were prepared under the supervision of chief architect Thomas Pye of the Queensland Government Architects office, special provisions for the Lands Department included Ministers offices, drafting rooms and heliographic rooms, and a Land Court.
With the inclusion of offices for the Executive Council and Cabinet, a £2,900 contract for site preparation and foundations was commenced in 1899, and in 1901 the principal construction contract for £141,000 was let to Brisbane builder Arthur Midson. The use of expanded metal lathing as a re-enforcement to the floors and ceilings was amongst the earliest application of such technology in Australia. The building was symbolic of Queenslands pride and achievement, and was seen as a showcase for Queensland materials, granite used as the base course and plinth was obtained from Enoggera and Mount Crosby. Brown freestone from Helidon was used to face the outer walls, the decorative carving to the facades was completed during 1903-1904. In the north-western elevation an allegorical group representing Queensland mining and agriculture was carved by New South Wales sculptor William Priestly MacIntosh to a design by Thomas Pye, the mantelpieces were constructed of a variety of Queensland timbers representing the states timber resources.
Allegorical stained glass highlighted the nature of the Queensland economy. From 1901, the Queensland National Art Gallery occupied a room the length of the third floor above George Street. In 1930 the art gallery was relocated to the Exhibition Building Concert Hall, both Executive Council and Cabinet met in the building from 1905 until 1971, when new offices were constructed at 100 George Street, known as the Executive Building. Since this former Executive Building has been known as the Land Administration Building, the gas lamps on the pavements at the William and George Street entrances were erected by about 1911. Those delineating the George Street entrance appear to have moved further apart. They still function, lit by natural gas, the Lands Administration Building is a four-storeyed government office building occupying a site bounded by George Street, Stephens Lane, William Street and Queens Gardens. The form and scale of the building complement the Treasury Building and it forms the southeastern edge of the important group of government buildings surrounding Queens Gardens, which includes the Family Services Building and the William Street retaining wall
South Bank, Queensland
South Bank is a cultural and recreational precinct in Brisbane, Australia. The precinct is located in the suburb of South Brisbane, on the bank of the Brisbane River. The South Bank Parklands, which were established on the site of World Expo 88, are one of Brisbanes most popular tourist attractions. The parklands are home to restaurants and cafés as well as landmarks such as the Queensland Conservatorium, the Wheel of Brisbane, the Nepal Peace Pagoda, Streets Beach. Approximately 11,000,000 people visit the South Bank Parklands each year, a number of Brisbanes most popular restaurants and fashion boutiques are located on Grey Street, and Little Stanley Street which it runs parallel to. The South Bank Cinemas are located on Grey Street, along with two five star hotels, the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre contains 44 meeting and event spaces, including four exhibition halls with a combined area of 20,000 m² and three stand alone tiered auditora. The venue has received 126 major industry awards, making it the most awarded convention centre in Australia, the centre has been ranked among the top three convention centres world-wide by the Association Internationale des Palais de Congres on three separate occasions.
The centre was host to the G20 Leaders Summit in November 2014, the Queensland Maritime Museum is located next to the Goodwill Bridge at the southern end of the South Bank Parklands. It houses a two level building, a library, a dry dock, a lighthouse and several retired vessels. Public transport is located, with Brisbane Translinks Ferry, Bus
Parliament House, Brisbane
Parliament House in Brisbane is the meeting place of the Parliament of Queensland, housing its only chamber, the Legislative Assembly. It is located on the corner of George Street and Alice Street at Gardens Point in the CBD, the Parliament of Queensland first met on 22 May 1860 in the former convict barracks on Queen Street. In November 1863 a commission chose the site for the new building on the corner of Alice. The commission soon opened an Australia-wide competition for the new buildings design, in October 1864, a design by William Henry Ellerker was recommended by the Parliamentary Commissioners. However in November 1865, the commissioners withdrew their recommendation and resigned, in December 1864, Ellerker wrote a public complaint about the process, but ultimately plans by Charles Tiffin, the Queensland Colonial Architect, were selected. Amid controversy and allegations of influence on the outcome of the competition. On 14 July 1865 the foundation stone for the building was laid by Sir George Bowen and it was built by Joshua Jeays who used sandstone from his own quarries.
Stained glass windows depicting royalty were imported from Birmingham, the first section was completed in 1867. The George Street frontage was completed in 1868 in French Renaissance Revival style, the archways and colonnades facing George Street were built in 1878, and construction on the Alice Street frontage commenced in 1887. The Alice Street wing was completed in 1889, in 1886 Parliament House was connected to the Government Printing Office via an underground cable which provided it with electricity. The building was the first Parliament House in Australia to be electrified, in 1969 the Government began to investigate the feasibility and cost of an extension to Parliament House. Three years the State Works Department and Parliamentary Buildings Committee began planning the building, tenders for the Annexe were called in August 1975, and construction began soon after. The Annexe was completed in March 1979 at a cost of $20,000,000, the building is linked to Parliament House, forming a square like the one in Tiffins original 1864 plan.
The square has become known as Speakers Green and is used for ceremonial purposes, the Annexe was refurbished in 2000. The George Street face of Parliament House has a porte-cochère, with a terrace above. The original zinc roof was replaced in the 1980s with one constructed from Mount Isa copper, art exhibitions and other displays are frequently staged in the spacious ground floor areas of the Annexe. Free public guided tours of the Parliament are available each week day, also, a gift shop, selling souvenirs and memorabilia, is located in the main foyer. Parliament House was used as one of the locations for the 1980s Australian series of Mission
Museum of Brisbane
The Museum of Brisbane is a museum which displays exhibits relating to the history of Brisbane, Australia. It is owned and operated by the Brisbane City Council and is located in Brisbane City Hall in the citys CBD, the museum was opened in 2003 and has since had more than 3,000,000 visitors. The Museum of Brisbane was opened in October 2003 and occupied a space on the floor of City Hall. The museum replaced the Brisbane City Gallery which opened in 1977, in 2010, when City Hall closed for restoration, the museum was relocated to Ann Street. On 6 April 2013 the museum was reopened after returning to City Hall where it now occupies a space on the buildings third floor. Since its reopening the museum has been overseen by a board chaired by Sallyanne Atkinson, the museum manages the City of Brisbane Collection. The collection was created in 1859 when the Town of Brisbane was founded and it has grown to have more than 5,000 items including works by local artists, and historical ceramics. Entry to the museum is free, the nearest bus station to the museum is King George Square, while Central and Roma Street are the nearest train stations.
Paid parking is available in the King George Square Car Park, media related to Museum of Brisbane at Wikimedia Commons Official site
Brisbane City Hall
Brisbane City Hall, in Brisbane, Australia, is the seat of the Brisbane City Council. It is located adjacent to King George Square, where the rectangular City Hall has its main entrance, the City Hall has frontages and entrances in both Ann Street and Adelaide Street. The building is considered one of Brisbanes finest and is registered on the Register of the National Estate since 1978, the building has been used for royal receptions, orchestral concerts, civic greetings, flower shows, school graduations and political meetings. In 2009, it was discovered that the building suffered severe structural problems. After a three-year restoration, the building was re-opened on 6 April 2013, the City Hall was once the tallest building in Brisbane. The building was designed by the firm Hall and Prentice, in association with four young New South Wales Architects, Bruce Dellit, Peter Kaad, Emil Sodersten and Noel Wilson. Although there was a desire to construct a new city hall. The first foundation stone was laid on Saturday 3 February 1917 by Queensland Governor in advance of the buildings construction, the stone was placed facing Albert Square.
At the time there were no plans for the new building, the stone was hollowed to allow a time capsule to be placed within it. In 1935, it was claimed that the stone was in a Brisbane City Council depot in Macrossan Street, however, in 1954, it was claimed that the original foundation stone was lost as it was believed to have been used as part of a buildings foundations. The second foundation stone was laid on 29 July 1920 by Edward, Prince of Wales, with an opal encrusted 18ct gold and trowel, the site was swampy and contained a creek. Pumping was needed to keep the site dry, one man died as he was inspecting the construction site. Although not complete, the building was occupied from 3 January 1928, the lord mayor William Jolly presented a cheque, paying for his electricity bill, as the first official transaction in the new building. Brisbane City Hall was opened in 1930 by Queensland Governor, the building was officially opened on 8 April 1930 by Lord Mayor of Brisbane William Jolly. However it had been occupied since 1927.
In 1969 the council commenced the acquisition of the properties to the south of the City Hall, and in 1975 opened the Brisbane Administration Centre, most of the Councils offices moved from the City hall to the BAC. The Council Chambers, Lord Mayor and Deputy Lord Mayors offices remain however in City Hall, in the 1980s work commenced on the full-scale restoration of the building, opening up the side entrance vestibules and restoring a number of the reception rooms to their original design. These reception rooms are named for local government areas subsumed into Greater Brisbane in 1925, such as the Sherwood Room
Queensland Cultural Centre
The Queensland Cultural Centre is a multi-venue centre located at South Bank, capital city of Queensland. It consists of the Queensland Performing Arts Centre, the Queensland Museum, the State Library of Queensland, the Queensland Art Gallery, the cultural centre was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 12 June 2015. The original part was designed by Brisbane architects Robin Gibson and Partners, in 2010, Robin Gibson and Partners were granted a 25 Year Award for Enduring Architecture by the Queensland Chapter of the Australian Institute of Architects. The GOMA building designed by Kerry and Lindsay Clare, directors of the Australasian firm Architectus, was added to the complex in 2006. In 2007, the building received three awards, a Brisbane Commendation and a Public Architecture Award from the Queensland Chapter of AIA, in 2010, the Clares received the AIAs Gold Medal for their work. In the same year, an extension of the SLQ building designed by the Brisbane architects Donovan Hill, for their design, the architects were awarded the prestigious Sir Zelman Cowen Award for Public Architecture by AIA in 2007.
The centre is surrounded by sub-tropical gardens which are maintained and developed by The Plant Management Company and are open to the public. There are several cafés, restaurants and other facilities located throughout the site. In 2009, a pedestrian and bicycle bridge called the Kurilpa Bridge was opened and it connects the Roma Street Railway Station area of Brisbane City with the centre, reaching South Bank next to GOMA and close to SLQ, QAG and the Museum. The Queensland Cultural Centre is situated on the site of one of Queenslands historical theatres, by mid-1952, the building had been converted for use as offices and storage facilities for film distribution companies. It burnt down in 1954 and was never rebuilt, the present Cremorne Theatre, in the QPAC building, was named in honour of the historic Cremorne Theatre. During 1972, a decision to build a new Queensland Art Gallery on its present location at South Bank was made by the Queensland Government, the Queensland Art Gallery, was established in 1895.
The gallery has had homes, and moved to its present location at the Queensland Cultural Centre at South Bank during 1982. The gallery provides 4,700 m2 of viewing space and includes a mall, water sculptures. In addition to the areas, it contains the Australian Cinémathèque which has two cinemas and the Childrens Art Centre in which children are able to interact with the galleries collection. The instrument is now being used regularly for the presentation of silent movies, the Queensland Performing Arts Centre, which is located at South Bank, and is part of the Queensland Cultural Centre, was opened in 1985. QPAC contains some of Brisbanes main theatres, and the Tony Gould Gallery which is operated by the Queensland Museum, in 2008, the Queensland Government closed QPAC and allocated A$34. 7m for the complete refurbishment of the building under the direction of Cox Rayner Architects. The Queensland Museum moved to the Queensland Cultural Centre at South Bank during 1986 and includes 6, in addition to the main museum area, the building houses the Queensland Sciencentre, a permanent interactive science exhibition suited for people of all ages
Cultural Centre busway station
Cultural Centre Busway Station is located in Brisbane, Australia serving the South Bank precinct. It is located south of Victoria Bridge and close to South Brisbane railway station. It opened on 23 October 2000 when the South East Busway opened to Woolloongabba, the station takes its name from its location within the Queensland Cultural Centre precinct. The platforms are accessible from the bridge linking the Queensland Performing Arts Centre to the Queensland Museum. The station is close to the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre, Queensland Conservatorium Griffith University, Courier Mail Piazza. Many CityXpress and most BUZ routes pass through the station, providing convenient transfer to and it is served by 41 routes operated by Brisbane Transport and Clarks Logan City Bus Service as part of the TransLink network. No Northern Busway services directly connect King George Square busway station with the Queen Street busway station, the elevated pedestrian bridge has three lifts. There is a model of a cicada right outside Platform 2 of the station.
Media related to Cultural Centre busway station at Wikimedia Commons Cultural Centre station TransLink
Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbanes metropolitan area has a population of 2.35 million, the Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The demonym of Brisbane is Brisbanite, one of the oldest cities in Australia, Brisbane was founded upon the ancient homelands of the indigenous Turrbal and Jagera peoples. A penal settlement was founded in 1824 at Redcliffe,28 kilometres north of the business district. The city was marred by the Australian frontier wars between 1843 and 1855, and development was set back by the Great Fire of Brisbane. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland was proclaimed a colony from New South Wales in 1859. During World War II, Brisbane played a role in the Allied campaign. Today, Brisbane is well known for its distinct Queenslander architecture which forms much of the built heritage.
It receives attention for its damaging flood events, most notably in 1974 and 2011. Several large cultural and sporting events have held at Brisbane, including the 1982 Commonwealth Games, World Expo 88, the final Goodwill Games in 2001. Prior to white settlement, the Brisbane area was inhabited by the Turrbal and they knew the area that is now the central business district as Mian-jin, meaning place shaped as a spike. The Moreton Bay area was explored by Matthew Flinders. On 17 July 1799, Flinders landed at what is now known as Woody Point, in 1823 Governor of New South Wales Sir Thomas Brisbane instructed that a new northern penal settlement be developed, and an exploration party led by John Oxley further explored Moreton Bay. Oxley discovered and explored the Brisbane River as far as Goodna,20 kilometres upstream from the Brisbane central business district, Oxley recommended Red Cliff Point for the new colony, reporting that ships could land at any tide and easily get close to the shore.
The party settled in Redcliffe on 13 September 1824, under the command of Lieutenant Henry Miller with 14 soldiers and 29 convicts. However, this settlement was abandoned after a year and the colony was moved to a site on the Brisbane River now known as North Quay,28 km south, chief Justice Forbes gave the new settlement the name of Edenglassie before it was named Brisbane. Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838, German missionaries settled at Zions Hill, Nundah as early as 1837, five years before Brisbane was officially declared a free settlement. The band consisted of ministers Christopher Eipper and Carl Wilhelm Schmidt and lay missionaries Haussmann, Johann Gottried Wagner, Hartenstein, Franz, Rode and they were allocated 260 hectares and set about establishing the mission, which became known as the German Station
Government of Queensland
The Government of Queensland, referred to as the Queensland Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of Queensland. The Government of Queensland, a constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1859 as prescribed in its Constitution. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, Queensland has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, under the Australian Constitution, Queensland ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Key state government offices are located at 1 William Street in the Brisbane central business district, the Government of Queensland operates under the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. The Governor of Queensland, as the representative of the Monarch, holds nominal power, the Parliament of Queensland holds legislative power, while executive power lies with the Premier and Cabinet, and judicial power is exercised by a system of courts and tribunals.
The Parliament of Queensland is the states legislature and it consists of the Monarch, and a single chamber, the Legislative Assembly. Queensland is the only Australian state with a unicameral parliament after a second chamber, the Legislative Assembly has 89 members, one representing each electoral district in Queensland. Elections for the Legislative Assembly are held every three years. The Cabinet of Queensland is the governments chief policy-making organ, and consists of the Premier, the Queensland Government delivers services, determines policy and regulations, including legal interpretation, by a number of agencies grouped under areas of portfolio responsibility. Each portfolio is led by a government minister who is a member of the Parliament, the judiciary of Queensland consists of the Magistrates Court, the District Court, and the Supreme Court, as well as a number of smaller courts and tribunals. The Chief Justice of Queensland is the states most senior judicial officer, the Magistrates Court is the lowest tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland.
The courts civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is less than or equal to $150,000, Appeals against decisions by the Magistrates Court are heard by the District Court. The District Court is the tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland. The court has jurisdiction to all appeals from decisions made in the Magistrates Court. Its criminal jurisdiction covers serious indictable offences, the courts civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is more than $150,000 but less than or equal to $750,000. Appeals against decisions by the District Court are heard by the Court of Appeal, the Supreme Court is the highest tier of the judicial hierarchy Queensland. The court has two divisions, the Trial Division and the Court of Appeal, the Trial Divisions jurisdiction covers serious criminal offences, and civil matters involving claims of more than $750,000. The Court of Appeals jurisdiction allows it to hear cases on appeal from the Trial Division, the District Court, Appeals against decisions by the Court of Appeal are heard by the High Court of Australia