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Quercus alba

Quercus alba, the white oak, is one of the preeminent hardwoods of eastern and central North America. It is a long-lived oak, native to eastern and central North America and found from Minnesota, Ontario and southern Maine south as far as northern Florida and eastern Texas. Specimens have been documented to be over 450 years old. Although called a white oak, it is unusual to find an individual specimen with white bark; the name comes from the colour of the finished wood. In the forest it can reach a magnificent height and in the open it develops into a massive broad-topped tree with large branches striking out at wide angles. Q. alba reaches heights of 80 to 100 feet at maturity, its canopy can become quite massive as its lower branches are apt to extend far out laterally, parallel to the ground. Trees growing in a forest will become much taller than ones in an open area which develop to be short and massive; the tallest known white oak is 144 feet tall. It is not unusual for a white oak tree to be as wide as it is tall, but specimens growing at high altitudes may only become small shrubs.

White oak may live 200 to 300 years, with some older specimens known. The Wye Oak in Wye Mills, Maryland was estimated to be over 450 years old when it fell in a thunderstorm in 2002. Another noted white oak was the Great White Oak in Basking Ridge, New Jersey, estimated to have been over 600 years old when it died in 2016; the tree measured 25 feet in circumference at the base and 16 feet in circumference four feet above the ground. The tree was 75 feet tall, its branches spread over 125 feet from tip to tip; the oak, claimed to be the oldest in the United States, began showing signs of poor health in the mid-2010s. The tree was taken down in 2017. Sexual maturity begins at around 20 years, but the tree does not produce large crops of acorns until its 50th year and the amount varies from year to year. Acorns deteriorate after ripening, the germination rate being only 10% for six-month-old seeds; as the acorns are prime food for insects and other animals, all may be consumed in years of small crops, leaving none that would become new trees.

The bark peels somewhat from the top, bottom and/or sides. In spring the young leaves are of a delicate, silvery pink and covered with a soft, blanket-like down; the petioles are short, the leaves which cluster close to the ends of the shoots are pale green and downy with the result that the entire tree has a misty, frosty look. This condition continues for several days, passing through the opalescent changes of soft pink, silvery white and yellow green; the leaves grow to be 5 to 8.5 inches long and 2.75 to 4.5 inches wide and have a deep glossy green upper surface. They turn red or brown in autumn, but depending on climate and individual tree genetics, some trees are nearly always red, or purple in autumn; some brown, dead leaves may remain on the tree throughout winter until early spring. The lobes can be shallow and somewhat branching; the acorns are sessile, grow to 0.5 to 1 inch in length, falling in early October. Quercus alba is sometimes confused with the swamp white oak, a related species, the bur oak.

The white oak hybridizes with the bur oak, the post oak, the chestnut oak. Bark: Light gray, varying to dark gray and to white. Branchlets at first bright green reddish-green and light gray. A distinguishing feature of this tree is that a little over halfway up the trunk the bark tends to form overlapping scales that are noticed and aid in identification. Wood: Light brown with paler sapwood. Specific gravity, 0.7470. Winter buds: Reddish brown, one-eighth of an inch long. Leaves: Alternate, five to nine inches long, three to four inches wide. Obovate or oblong, seven to nine-lobed seven-lobed with rounded lobes and rounded sinuses. On young trees the leaves are repand, they come out of the bud conduplicate, are bright red above, pale below, covered with white tomentum. In late autumn the leaves turn a deep red and drop, or on young trees remain on the branches throughout the winter. Petioles are short, stout and flattened. Stipules are caducous. Flowers: appear in May. Staminate flowers are borne in hairy aments two and a half to three inches long.

Pistillate flowers are borne on short peduncles. Acorns: Annual, sessile or stalked. White oak acorns have no epigeal dormancy and germination begins without any treatment. In most cases, the oak root stem appearing the next spring; the acorns take only one growing season to dev

Bonavista, Newfoundland and Labrador

Bonavista is a town on the Bonavista Peninsula, Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Unlike many Newfoundland coastal settlements, Bonavista was built on an open plain, not in a steep cove, thus had room to expand to its current area of 31.5 km2. John Cabot, a freelance Italian explorer, was contracted by England's Henry VII to find new lands, a sea route to the Orient. Cabot set sail from Bristol, England in his ship the Matthew in 1497; when Cabot first saw land he reputedly said "O Buon Vista" giving rise to the name of the town and nearby Cape Bonavista. Cabot landed with "a crucifix and raised banners with the arms of the Holy Father and those of the King of England"; the land was inhabited, as the expedition found a trail leading inland, a site where a fire had been, "a stick half a yard long pierced at both ends and painted with brazil". The harbour was not ideal requiring the construction of several breakwaters. Despite this Bonavista became one of the most important towns in Newfoundland due to its proximity to the rich fishing and sealing grounds to the north of the peninsula.

The Spanish, Portuguese and English fished off Cape Bonavista during the 16th century, but the Spanish and Portuguese presence soon declined, leaving the French and English as the dominant powers. Tension between the French and English sometimes resulted in military action, including an unsuccessful attempt in 1704 by the French to burn the town; the French Shore, which had Bonavista as its eastern terminus, was established by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Fishing rights in the area continued to be a source of tension between the English. Bonavista was a major commercial centre and the evidence for this is preserved at the Ryan Premises, a National Historic Site maintained by Parks Canada, it is a restored example of a large fish merchant's operation. Bonavista's status was further enhanced by the development of the Fishermen's Protective Union in the early 20th century, the creation of nearby Port Union. During the peak years of 1891-1901, the Bonavista Peninsula's population of about 20,000 was centred in Bonavista.

The Bonavista Cold Storage Co. fish plant, now a Fishery Products International operation, became the centre of fishery production after the decline of salt fish markets. In 1722 the first school in Newfoundland was built in Bonavista by Rev. Henry Jones. According to the 2016 census: Population in 2016 - 3,448 Total private dwellings 1,749 Population density per 109.4 km2 Land area 31.50 km2 2011 to 2016 population change -3.9% Bonavista has a subarctic climate due to its cold water temperatures surrounding the location, keeping June temperatures below 10 °C in terms of mean temperatures. Although winters are mild by Canadian standards, there is heavy snowfall and frequent cold days. Winter lasts from December through April. Bonavista is one of the windiest places in Canada with an average wind speed of 32.6 km/h. The Ryan Premises The Matthew Replica The Mockbeggar Plantation The Dungeon White Rock Murals Cape Bonavista Light Bonavista Archives Cabot Stadium Puffins and icebergs Adam Pardy, National Hockey League player Michael Ryder, National Hockey League player Upper Amherst Cove Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador List of municipalities in Newfoundland and Labrador Official Newfoundland and Labrador Tourism - Bonavista Bonavista - Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, vol.1, p. 213-214

Cedwyn Scott

Cedwyn Scott is an English semi-professional footballer who plays for Hebburn Town as a forward. After beginning his career with the youth team of Huddersfield Town, he played in Scotland for Dundee, Berwick Rangers, Forfar Athletic and Dunston UTS. Born in Hexham, Scott moved from Huddersfield Town to Scottish club Dundee in January 2018, he made his senior debut on 28 April 2018. Scott started the 2018–19 season on loan to Berwick Rangers, scoring four goals in eight games. In February 2019, it was announced that he had joined Forfar Athletic on loan until the end of the season. At the end of the 2018–19 season, Scott was released by Dundee. During summer 2019, he had a trial at Darlington, he signed for Dunston UTS. Scott signed for Hebburn Town on a free transfer in January 2020; as of 29 June 2019

Evans Peak

Evans Peak is a prominent rock peak, 3,950 metres high, standing 3 nautical miles east-northeast of Mount Ostenso in the Sentinel Range of the Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica. It overlooks Rumyana Glacier to Patton Glacier to the south; the peak was named by the University of Minnesota Geological Party to these mountains, 1963–64, for John Evans, a geologist with the party. Mountains in Antarctica Vinson Massif. Scale 1:250 000 topographic map. Reston, Virginia: US Geological Survey, 1988. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 updated. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Evans Peak"

Błażej Augustyn

Błażej Augustyn is a Polish footballer who plays for Lechia Gdańsk. Augustyn began his youth career with SK Strzelinianka Strzelin in the late 1990s and remained with the amateur club until he transferred to Śląsk Wrocław in 2003, he remained with the youth system for just one season before transferring to UKS SMS Łódź in 2004. Following an impressive spell with the club's youth team, Augustyn made a transfer to the Premier League with Bolton Wanderers. Augustyn signed for Bolton Wanderers midway through the 2005–06 season, signed his first professional contract on 3 August 2006. Augustyn made his only appearance for the first team on 6 January 2007 as a substitute in an FA Cup 3rd round tie against Doncaster Rovers, he was offered a contract extension by former Bolton manager Sammy Lee, but turned it down as his first team opportunities would be limited. In June 2007, Augustyn returned to Poland. On 29 July 2007, he made his Legia Warsaw debut, making his first start before coming off in the 88th minutes just two minutes from the end of the game, in a 1-0 win against the KS Cracovia.

However, in his third appearance against Korona Kielce on 21 September 2007, Augustyn made a mistake in the 2nd minutes to the start to the game, allowing Grzegorz Bonin to score the only goal in the game. After the game, Augustyn took the blame for his mistake. Between 2007 and 2008, the 19-year-old Augustyn made just 4 first team appearances, but spent time within the youth team as well. Augustyn spoke about his time at Legia Warsaw, saying the club accused him of "hypertrophy ambitions". In August 2008, he joined Rimini on loan in the Italian Serie B, he suffered a knee injury during his second appearance for the club which saw him miss most of the season, but he made four appearances in regular league matches and two in the playouts. Following Rimini's relegation, Augustyn returned to Legia Warsaw, but was sold back to Italy, joining Serie A side, Catania in June 2009. On 22 June 2009, Augustyn signed a four-year contract with Serie A side Catania. During pre-season, he won the inaugural Dahlia Cup with Catania, playing half-matches against Serie A rivals Cagliari and Fiorentina.

On 15 August 2009, he made his official debut starting for Catania against Cremonese in the 2009–10 Coppa Italia. Meanwhile, he made his Serie A debut on 23 August 2009, in a match where Augustyn was sent off after receiving a second yellow in the 78th minute, he made ten league appearances, including six in the starting 11, before his season was cut short by a knee injury in April 2010. Augustyn made his return to action, coming on as a substitute for Giuseppe Bellusci, in a 1–1 draw against Chievo on 16 January 2011. Augustyn was sent-off in the 75th minutes, in a 1–1 draw against Genoa on 27 February 2011. Augustyn played under manager Diego Simeone and described him as a "madman", though he did praised Simeone's tactics. On 31 August 2011, he was loaned to Vicenza Calcio in Serie B, with an option to purchase half of his contract. Augustyn made his Vicenza debut on 4 September 2011, playing 90 minutes in a 1–1 draw against Ascoli. Augustyn scored his first Vincenza goal on 15 October 2011, in a 2–1 win over Hellas Verona.

Though making 26 appearance for the club, Vicenza did not execute their purchase option, therefore, the player returned to Sicily on 30 June 2012. After returning to Catania, the club tried to sell Augustyn by the end of the summer transfer window. However, the club's attempted to sell Augustyn never happened and he failed to make a single appearance for the club until a substitute appearance on the final match-day of the 2012–13 campaign in a 2–2 away draw versus Torino. With his contract at Catania expiring, Augustyn returned to Poland by signing for Górnik Zabrze on a one-year contract after playing in Italy for five-years. Augustyn was linked with a move to Sassuolo before his move to Górnik Zabrze. Augustyn made his Górnik Zabrze debut in the opening game of the season, in a 2–1 win over Zagłębie Lubin. Augustyn started four matches until he was replaced by Antoni Łukasiewicz in half-time, in a 3–2 win over Zawisza Bydgoszcz on 30 September 2013, it revealed Augustyn wouldn't be able to train for the month.

After months on the sidelined, Augustyn made his return, making his first start, against Zagłębie Lubin on 16 February 2014 before being substituted in the 26th minutes by Boris Pandža, which saw Górnik Zabrze lose 3–0. Augustyn thought he suffered an ankle injury, but after underwent surgery, it was announced that Augustyn would be out of the 2013–14 season. At the end of the season, Augustyn had his contract extended for another season. Ahead of the 2014–15 season, Augustyn aimed to make his return to the first team by getting back to shape. Augustyn made his return in the first team, in the opening game of the season, scoring a header in the early minutes, in a 2–0 win over KS Cracovia, his progress from his return led foreign clubs keen to sign him. Augustyn was soon injured after he tore his quadriceps that kept him out for three to six weeks. After two months on the sidelined, Augustyn made his return on 24 October 2014, in a 1–0 loss against GKS Bełchatów, his return was short-lived when he was sent-off in the 73rd minutes for professional foul on Rafał Murawski, in a 1–1 draw against Pogoń Szczecin on 2 November 2014.

As a result, Augustyn would have to serve four match ban. After making his return, Augustyn scored his second goal of the season on 6 April 2015, in a 2–2 draw against Ruch Chorzów. In the 2014–15 season, Augustyn was sent-off for the second time this season after a second bookable offense against Pogoń Szczecin and

Myron Pottios

Myron Joseph Pottios is a former American football linebacker in the National Football League for the Washington Redskins, Los Angeles Rams, the Pittsburgh Steelers. He was elected to play in 3 Pro Bowls. Pottios played college football at the University of Notre Dame and was drafted in the second round of the 1961 NFL Draft by the Pittsburgh Steelers in the third round of the 1961 AFL Draft by the Oakland Raiders, he chose to play in Pittsburgh. Pottios became the starting middle linebacker of the Pittsburgh Steelers from his rookie year, 1961, up to 1965. In his rookie year, he played in all 14 games, intercepting 2 passes and recovering 1 fumble for a defense, 7th among 14 NFL teams in points allowed, he did not play in 1962. In 1963, he played in all 14 games, intercepting 4 passes for a defense that finished 8th among 14 NFL teams in points allowed, playing alongside rookie outside linebacker Andy Russell. In 1964, he played in only 7 of 14 games, intercepting 1 pass and recovering 1 fumble for a defense that finished 9th among 14 NFL teams in points allowed.

In 1965, he played in only 6 games, intercepting no pass and with no fumble recovery for a defense that finished 12th among 14 NFL teams in points allowed and a team that ended the season at 2-12. In contrast, when Pottios joined the Rams from 1966 to 1970, with George Allen as head coach, they were above the.500 mark throughout the period and made the playoffs twice, in 1967 and 1969, with won-lost records of 11-1-2 and 11-3, respectively. Pottios was the starting middle linebacker from 1967 to 1970, playing between outside linebackers Jack Pardee and Maxie Baughan throughout. In 1966, Pottios played in 12 games, but was the backup middle linebacker to the 37-year-old Bill George who played in all 14 games. In 1967, he played 11 of 14 games, intercepting 1 pass and recovering 1 fumble for the best defense in the league among 16 NFL teams in points allowed; that team lost to the Green Bay Packers in the divisional round, in which Pottios started at middle linebacker. In 1968, he played all 14 games, recovering 4 fumbles for a defense that finished 3rd among 16 NFL teams in points allowed.

But, in 1969, he played in only 5 of 14 games, replaced by Doug Woodlief. That team lost to the Minnesota Vikings in the divisional round with Woodlief as the starter. In 1970, his final year with the Rams, he regained his starting middle linebacker position, playing in all 14 games, with 2 interceptions and 2 fumbles recovered for a defense that finished 4th among 26 NFL teams in points allowed. Pottios followed his fired head coach, George Allen, along with Jack Pardee, to the Redskins in 1971, playing up to 1973, where his team reached the playoffs all three years, inserted between outside linebackers Pardee or Dave Robinson and Chris Hanburger. In 1971, Pottios played in all 14 games and had one interception for a defense that finished 4th of 26 teams in the NFL in points allowed; that team lost a divisional round game to the San Francisco 49ers. In 1972, he played in only 7 games of 14 games, replaced by Harold McLinton, recovered 1 fumble for a defense that finished 3rd of 26 teams in the NFL in points allowed.

However, Pottios was the starting middle linebacker in all 3 playoff games the Redskins played that year, when they won a divisional round game against the Green Bay Packers and the NFC championship game against the Dallas Cowboys, in which the Roger Staubach-led Cowboys were limited to a miserable 169 yards of total offense and 3 points. However, Washington lost Super Bowl VII to the Miami Dolphins 14 to 7, din which they could not handle the running attack led by Larry Csonka. In 1973, his final year in the NFL, he played in only 6 of 14 games, but started a divisional round match against the Minnesota Vikings, losing his final game. Https://www.pro-football-reference.com/players/P/PottMy00.htm