Quercus montana, the chestnut oak, is a species of oak in the white oak group, Quercus sect. Quercus, it is native to the eastern United States, where it is one of the most important ridgetop trees from southern Maine southwest to central Mississippi, with an outlying northwestern population in southern Michigan. It is sometimes called rock oak because of its presence in montane and other rocky habitats; as a consequence of its dry habitat and ridgetop exposure, it is not a large tree 18–22 m tall. They tend to have a similar spread of 18–22 m. A 10-year-old sapling grown in full sun will stand about 5 m tall; this species is an important canopy species in an oak-heath forest. Extensive confusion between the chestnut oak and the swamp chestnut oak has occurred, some botanists have considered them to be the same species in the past; the name Quercus prinus was long used by many botanists and foresters for either the chestnut oak or the swamp chestnut oak, with the former otherwise called Q. montana or the latter otherwise called Q. michauxii.
The application of the name Q. montana to the chestnut oak is now accepted, since Q. prinus is of uncertain position, unassignable to either species. The Latin specific epithet montana refers to mountains or coming from mountains which refers to the tree's habitat and its ability to grow on rocks; the chestnut oak is identified by its massively-ridged dark gray-brown bark, the thickest of any eastern North American oak. The leaves are 12–20 cm long and 6–10 cm broad, shallowly lobed with 10–15 rounded lobes on each margin; the chinkapin oak has much smaller acorns than the chestnut oak. The chestnut oak is distinguished from the swamp white oak because that tree has whitened undersides on the leaves. Another important distinction between the chestnut oak and the swamp chestnut oak is by the habitat. Characteristics of the chestnut oak include: Bark: Dark, fissured into broad ridges, scaly. Branchlets stout, at first bronze green they become reddish brown dark gray or brown. Charged with tannic acid.
Wood: Dark brown, sapwood lighter. Used for fencing and railway ties. Sp. gr. 0.7499. Winter buds: Light chestnut brown, acute, one-fourth to one-half of an inch long. Leaves: Alternate, 5 to 9 in long, 3 to 4 1⁄2 in wide, obovate to oblong-lanceolate, wedge-shaped or rounded at base, coarsely crenately toothed, teeth rounded or acute, apex rounded or acute, they come out of the bud convolute, yellow green or bronze, shining above pubescent below. When full grown are thick, dark yellow green, somewhat shining above, pale green and pubescent below. In autumn they turn a dull yellow soon changing to a yellow brown. Petioles stout or slender, short. Stipules linear to lanceolate, caducous. Flowers: May, when leaves are one-third grown. Staminate flowers are borne in hairy catkins two to three inches long. Pistillate flowers in short spikes. Acorns: Annual, singly or in pairs. Scales small, much crowded toward the rim sometimes making a fringe. Kernel white, sweetish; the acorns of the chestnut oak are 1.5–3 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, among the largest of Native American oaks, surpassed in size only by the bur oak and swamp chestnut oak.
This species is a predominant ridge-top tree in eastern North American hardwood forests. Young chestnut oaks are capable of reproducing from stump sprouts if cut. A significant amount of chestnut oaks in the Appalachians are trees that regrew from stump sprouts after being logged, it is a long-lived tree, with high-quality timber. The acorns of the chestnut oak are a valuable wildlife food. Chestnut oak trees are not the best timber trees because they are branched low and not straight, but when they grow in better conditions, they are valuable for timber, marketed as'mixed white oak'; the bark of chestnut oak has a high tannin content and prior to the 20th century was used in the leather tanning industry, but the wood was discarded since it was considered inferior to that of Q. alba. By the late 19th century, as the population of mature white oaks in the eastern US was dwindling, loggers began exploiting chestnut oak wood more heavily, it serves many of the same applications as white oak wood and as it is rot-proof, has been used for fencing, railroad ties, other uses where the wood comes into contact with soil.
Due to a high density (47 pound
Emil Ermatinger was a Swiss professor for Germanic philology. Ermatinger studied classical philology in Zurich and Berlin. 1897 he wrote his Ph. D. thesis at the University of Zurich. His doctoral advisor was the classical archaeologist and philologist Hugo Blümner. 1909 Ermatinger became a professor for Germanic philology at ETH Zurich. 1912 till 1943 he was professor at the University of Zurich. 1939 he was visiting professor at the Columbia University in New York City. Gottfried Kellers Leben, Briefe und Tagebücher. Aufgrund der Biographie Jakob Baechtolds dargestellt, 3 vol. 1915–18. Die deutsche Lyrik in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung von Herder bis zur Gegenwart, 2 vol. 1921. Das dichterische Kunstwerk. Grundbegriffe der Urteilsbildung in der Literaturgeschichte, 1921. Weltdeutung in Grimmelshausens Simplicius Simplizissimus, 1925. Barock und Rokoko in der deutschen Dichtung, 1926. Dichtung und Geistesleben der deutschen Schweiz, 1933. Deutsche Kultur im Zeitalter der Aufklärung, 1935. Richte des Lebens und Jahre des Wirkens.
Autobiography in two volumes, 1943/45. Deutsche Dichter 1700–1900. Eine Geistesgeschichte in Lebensbildern, 2 vol. 1948/49. Emil Ermatinger, Literarhistoriker und Schriftsteller
This is a list of properties and historic districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Old Louisville, Kentucky. Latitude and longitude coordinates of the 33 sites listed on this page may be displayed in a map or exported in several formats by clicking on one of the links in the adjacent box. National Register sites elsewhere in Jefferson County are listed separately; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted February 28, 2020. National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Kentucky List of National Historic Landmarks in Kentucky List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area
Bad Rodach is a town in the district of Coburg, in Upper Franconia, a north Bavarian Regierungsbezirk, Germany. It is situated 10 km southeast of Hildburghausen, 17 km northwest of Coburg. Since 1999 the city has been a spa-resort and is reported to have the warmest thermal spring in the North of Bavaria. Bad Rodach is in Upper Franconia, in the District of Coburg 17 km northwest of Coburg, it is situated between the Lange Berge Gleichberge mountains. The river Rodach crosses through the town; the town is composed of the following boroughs: Within the Holy Roman Empire, Rodach was part of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Within the German Empire, Rodach was part of the Duchy of Gotha. Francis Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, sovereign of the duchy, died in Rodach. 1814 the poet Friedrich Rückert, wrote his poem Idyllic Rodach. Helmut Markwort, journalist and former editor in chief of the news magazine Focus, spent part of his youth and attended elementary school in Bad Rodach
Moreno Merenda is a former Swiss footballer and the current assistant manager of SC Cham. Merenda was born in Baar, began his football career at home town club FC Baar, he made the transition to professional football in 1995. After signing for Liechtenstein-based FC Vaduz in 2001, Merenda enjoyed two successful seasons, where he managed to earn the interest of his next club FC St. Gallen. Although unable to secure a regular place in the lineup, he scored for his side, he was thus held in high regard by the press. Being unhappy with the personal situation in St. Gallen, the club made the striker available for loan in December 2005. On January 1, 2006, Merenda joined FC Schaffhausen on loan until June 30, 2006. On August 1, 2006 Merenda was released from FC St. Gallen and rejoined his former club Neuchâtel Xamax on a free transfer; the 2006–2007 season saw Merenda on top form again as he hit 22 goals in 34 appearances upon returning to his former club Neuchâtel Xamax, helping them earn promotion to the Swiss Super League.
Having made 65 appearances for Xamax over two seasons, he rejoined his former club St. Gallen for the 2008-2009 season. On July 1, 2015 Merenda decided not to renew his contract with SC Cham and retired from football, starting his coaching career as assistant manager of the team. In his youth, Merenda won Swiss U-21 honours. Football.ch profile
James Davenport was an American clergyman and itinerant preacher noted for his controversial actions during the First Great Awakening. Davenport was born in Connecticut, to an old Puritan family. Graduating from Yale College, he was ordained as a minister by the Congregational Council of Southold, Long Island in October 1738, it was around this time that he met Presbyterian revivalist Gilbert Tennent and English evangelical George Whitefield. The success of Whitefield's style of revival preaching convinced Davenport that God was calling him, in 1741 - having by chance opened his Bible to 1 Samuel 14, where Jonathan and his armor-bearer attack the Philistine camp, taken this as a sign - he left his congregation to become an itinerant, his actions during this time caused him to run afoul of both ecclesiastical and civil authorities. Davenport denounced fellow clergymen for their conduct, such as when he labeled Joseph Noyes, the pastor of New Haven, a "wolf in sheep's clothing." Davenport is noted for his "Bonfires of the Vanities", the public burnings he organized in New London.
As with those of Girolamo Savonarola, Davenport urged his followers to destroy immoral books and luxury items with fire. He said that he could distinguish people who were saved versus people who were damned just by looking at them. In June 1742, Davenport and fellow preacher Benjamin Pomeroy were arraigned before the Colonial Assembly at Hartford, charged with disorderly conduct. Pomeroy's case was dismissed, but Davenport was declared to be under "enthusiastical impressions and impulses, thereby disturbed in the rational faculties of his mind." No punishment was meted out. On March 7, 1743, Davenport exhibited his most bizarre behavior yet, in an incident which garnished him lasting fame—or infamy; the day before, he had led a crowd to burn a large pile of books. Davenport -- leading by example -- cast them into the bonfire. One woman in the crowd grabbed his pants out of the blaze, handed them back to Davenport, entreating him to get a hold of himself. "This act broke Davenport's spell," wrote historian Thomas Kidd.
Davenport had gone too far, charisma or no, the crowd dispersed. In July 1744 Davenport published a retraction claiming that he had been possessed by "demonic spirits." According to the Boston Weekly Post Boy of 28 March 1743, Davenport had exhibited signs of physical distress along with his unorthodox behavior, symptoms that at the time would have been interpreted as evidence of demonic possession. On 27 October 1754, Davenport became pastor of Maidenhead and Hopewell, New Jersey, an office he held until his death in 1757, he was buried in the Old Cemetery lot of the Pennington Presbyterian Church