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Quetta is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan. It was destroyed in the 1935 Quetta earthquake, but was rebuilt and has a population of 4,678,932 according to the census of 2017. Quetta is at an average elevation of 1,680 metres above sea level, making it Pakistan's only high-altitude major city; the city is known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan," due to the numerous fruit orchards in and around it, the large variety of fruits and dried fruit products produced there. Located in northern Balochistan near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, Quetta is a trade and communication centre between the two countries; the city is near the Bolan Pass route, once one of the major gateways from Central Asia to South Asia. Quetta played an important role militarily for the Pakistani Armed Forces in the intermittent Afghanistan conflict. Quetta, a variation of Kōṭ, is a Pashto word meaning "fortress"; the immediate area has long been one of pastures and mountains, with varied plants and animals relative to the dry plains to the west.

The first record of Quetta is from 11th century CE and the land of Quetta was owned and ruled by the royal tribe of Pashtuns Kasi. It was captured by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi during his invasion of South Asia. In 1543, Mughal emperor Humayun came to Quetta en route to Safavid Persia, leaving his son and future Mughal emperor Akbar here. In 1709, the region was a part of Afghan Hotak dynasty and stayed a part until 1747 when Ahmed Shah Durrani conquered it and made it a part of Durrani Empire; the first European visited Quetta in 1828, describing it as mud-walled fort surrounded by three hundred mud houses. In 1876 Quetta subsequently incorporated into British India. In 1856, British General John Jacob had urged his government to occupy Quetta given its strategic position on the western frontier. British Troops constructed the infrastructure for their establishment. By the time of the earthquake on 31 May 1935, Quetta had developed into a bustling city with a number of multistorey buildings and so was known as "Little London".

The epicenter of the earthquake was close to the city and destroyed most of the city's infrastructure, killing an estimated 40,000 people. Quetta has a cold semi-arid climate with a significant variation between summer and winter temperatures. Summer starts about late May and goes on until early September with average temperatures ranging from 24–26 °C; the highest temperature in Quetta is 42 °C, recorded on 10 July 1998. Autumn starts in mid-September and continues until mid-November with average temperatures in the 12–18 °C range. Winter starts in late November and ends in late February, with average temperatures near 4–5 °C; the lowest temperature in Quetta is −18.3 °C, recorded on 8 January 1970. Spring starts in early March and ends in mid-May, with average temperatures close to 15 °C. Unlike more easterly parts of Pakistan, Quetta does not have a monsoon season of heavy rainfall. Highest rainfall during 24 hours in Quetta is 113 millimetres, recorded on 17 December 2000, Highest monthly rainfall of 232.4 millimetres was recorded in March 1982 the year of the highest annual rainfall, at 949.8 millimetres.

In the winter, snowfall has become quite erratic. The city saw a severe drought from 1999 to 2001, during which the city did not receive snowfall and below normal rains. In 2002 the city received snow after a gap of five years. In 2004 and 2005, the city received normal rains after three years without snowfall while in 2006, 2007 and 2009 the city received no snow. In 2008 Quetta received a snowfall of 10 centimetres in four hours on 29 January, followed on 2 February by 25.4 centimetres in 10 hours – the city's heaviest snowfall in a decade. During the winter of 2010 it received no snow and saw below normal rains due to the presence of El-Nino over Pakistan; the population of the city is around one million. In 2016, it was estimated at 1,140,000, but the 2017 Census revealed a total of 1,001,205; this makes it the largest city in Balochistan one of the major cities of Pakistan. The scholars disagree about the demographics of the city. According to some, the city has a Pashtun plurality followed by Baloch people, other indigenous people of Balochistan and lastly the settlers from other areas of Pakistan.

Others think the city has a Pashtun majority followed by Balochs Hazaras, Brahui and Muhajir people. Urdu being national language is used and understood by all the residents and serves as a lingua franca. According to Reuters and the BBC, there are as many as 500,000-600,000 shia Hazaras living in Quetta and its surrounding areas. At the local level, the city is governed by a municipal corporation consisting of 66 ward members which elects a mayor and a deputy mayor. Quetta is on the western side of Pakistan and is connected to the rest of the country by a network of roads and its international airport close to its center. At an altitude of 1,605 metres above sea level, Quetta Airport is the second highest airport in Pakistan. Pakistan International Airlines has regular flights to and from the other major cities of Pakistan including Islamabad, Karachi and Peshawar. Quetta Railway Station is one of the highest railway stations in Pakistan at 1,676 metres above sea level; the railway track was laid in the 1890s during the British era to link Quetta with rest of the country.

The extensive network of Pakistan Railways connects Quetta to Karachi in the south

Sexy Hot Award

The Sexy Hot Awards are pornographic film awards in Brazil. The Sexy Hot Awards are sponsored and presented by the Brazilian adult cable channel Sexy Hot, are meant to "encourage and recognize the work" of actors, actresses and directors in Brazil's pornographic industry. Called PIP, the ceremony came to be called the Prêmio Sexy Hot from its 2nd edition. In order to ensure impartiality, some winners are named by popular vote on the internet, whole others by a technical jury. On the 3rd edition Xico Sá, Clara Aguillar and David Cardoso won Best Director, Best Title, Best Lesbian, Best Trans Scene for their films. On the 4th edition, the jury was composed by Stanlay Miranda, Mariana Baltar, Rafinha Bastos, Paulo Cursino. AVN Award Official website

Ruben Rivers

Ruben Rivers was a United States Army staff sergeant, killed in action while serving as a tank company platoon sergeant during World War II. In 1997, he was awarded the Medal of Honor, the nation's highest military decoration for valor, for his actions on November 16–19, 1944, near Bourgaltroff, France. Rivers and six other Black Americans who served in World War II, were awarded the Medal of Honor on January 12, 1997; the Medal of Honor was posthumously presented to Rivers by President Bill Clinton on January 13, 1997 during a Medals of Honor ceremony for the seven recipients at the White House in Washington, D. C; the seven recipients are the first and only Black Americans to be awarded the Medal of Honor for World War II. Rivers was born to Lillian Rivers in 1921 in Tecumseh, Oklahoma, he grew up in nearby Hotulka, where he and his eleven brothers and sisters worked on the family farm. In 1930, the family moved to Earlsboro. After graduating from high school, Rivers worked on the railroad for a time.

With the United States' entry into World War II on behalf of the Allied cause and two of his brothers joined the armed forces. Ruben would be the only one assigned to a combat unit however, training with the 761st Tank Battalion at Camp Hood in Texas; the 761st Tank Battalion, nicknamed the "Black Panthers", was assigned to General George S. Patton's U. S. Third Army. Despite Patton's racism, the battalion was implemented and performed with distinction in a number of important battles, although Patton did not recognize their accomplishments. Rivers, a tank platoon sergeant in Able Company, 761st Tank Battalion, would play a critical role in some of the earliest action the 761st would see, becoming the battalion's initial hero, but one of its first casualties. Shortly after arriving in Europe in the fall of 1944, the 761st was chosen by General Patton to be part of his Saar Campaign in the Allied drive to the Siegfried Line. On November 8, 1944, Able Company, 761st Tank Battalion, attached to the 26th Infantry Division, joined with the 104th Infantry, 26th infantry Division, in an attack on German positions near Vic-sur-Seille in northeastern France.

As they approached the town via a narrow road, a roadblock improvised by the Germans using a fallen tree and several mines stopped the progress of the tanks and infantry. The Germans soon trained their mortar and rifle fire on infantrymen stranded in the roadside ditches, the situation threatened to produce heavy casualties quickly. Rivers, positioned in "A" Company's lead tank, realized that following protocol would fail to alleviate the situation. Instead he took action, his heroic efforts are recounted below in the official medal citation: During the daylight attack... Staff Sergeant Rivers, a tank platoon sergeant, was in the lead tank when a road block was encountered which held up the advance. With utter disregard for his personal safety, Staff Sergeant Rivers courageously dismounted from his tank in the face of directed enemy small arms fire, attached a cable to the road block and moved it off the road, thus permitting the combat team to proceed, his prompt action thus prevented a serious delay in the offensive action and was instrumental in the successful assault and capture of the town.

His brilliant display of initiative and devotion to duty reflect the highest credit upon Staff Sergeant Rivers and the armed forces of the United States. The medal would have to be awarded posthumously. A little more than a week Rivers would again distinguish himself leading the platoon, but this time he himself would not be so fortunate. On November 16, Able Company, with Rivers in the lead tank, would lead another assault; this time the target was German positions in Guebling. On the way into the town, Rivers' tank hit a mine, disabling it and leaving Rivers with a significant injury. Shrapnel had as deep as the bone, his company commander, Captain David J. Williams remembered what happened when he and the rest of "A" Company came to aid Rivers: With the morphine needle in my right hand about a half inch from Sergeant Rivers' leg, I could have told my sergeant to hold him down. I said, "Ruben, you're going back. You've got a million-dollar wound. You're going back to Tecumseh. You're getting out of this.

You got a Silver Star and a Purple Heart." He says, "Captain, you're going to need me." I said, "I'm giving you a direct order! You're going back!" I said, "Medics, get the stretcher." He got up. He said, "This is one order, the only order I'll disobey." Allowing the medics to only clean and dress the wound, Rivers took command of another tank and, as the Germans had begun to mark the area for heavy artillery fire, moved to take cover with the rest of "A" Company. It would not be until the morning of November 19 that the 761st would again push forward, but by now Rivers' condition had deteriorated. A dangerous infection had developed, threatening the loss of life and limb, the wound was visibly causing a great deal of pain. Rivers had been urged to evacuate the night before; as usual his tank led the way, but while advancing toward German positions near the town of Bougaltroff, "A" Company "came under extraordinarily heavy fire. Williams ordered the remaining tanks to pull back, but Rivers had located the German anti-tank unit and, with one other tank, moved to fire on the area and cover the withdrawal.

In the process, Rivers was exposed, the Germans trained their fire on his tank, landing two direct hits with high-explosive shells. R


In chemistry, an alkali is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element. An alkali can be defined as a base that dissolves in water. A solution of a soluble base has a pH greater than 7.0. The adjective alkaline is and alkalescent less used in English as a synonym for basic for bases soluble in water; this broad use of the term is to have come about because alkalis were the first bases known to obey the Arrhenius definition of a base, they are still among the most common bases. The word "alkali" is derived from Arabic al qalīy, meaning the calcined ashes, referring to the original source of alkaline substances. A water-extract of burned plant ashes, called potash and composed of potassium carbonate, was mildly basic. After heating this substance with calcium hydroxide, a far more basic substance known as caustic potash was produced. Caustic potash was traditionally used in conjunction with animal fats to produce soft soaps, one of the caustic processes that rendered soaps from fats in the process of saponification, one known since antiquity.

Plant potash lent the name to the element potassium, first derived from caustic potash, gave potassium its chemical symbol K, which derived from alkali. Alkalis are ones which form hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Common properties of alkaline aqueous solutions include: Moderately concentrated solutions have a pH of 7.1 or greater. This means. Concentrated solutions are caustic. Alkaline solutions are slippery or soapy to the touch, due to the saponification of the fatty substances on the surface of the skin. Alkalis are water-soluble, although some like barium carbonate are only soluble when reacting with an acidic aqueous solution; the terms "base" and "alkali" are used interchangeably outside the context of chemistry and chemical engineering. There are various more specific definitions for the concept of an alkali. Alkalis are defined as a subset of the bases. One of two subsets is chosen. A basic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal Any base, soluble in water and forms hydroxide ions or the solution of a base in water.

The second subset of bases is called an "Arrhenius base". Alkali salts are soluble hydroxides of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, of which common examples are: Sodium hydroxide – called "caustic soda" Potassium hydroxide – called "caustic potash" Lye – generic term for either of two previous salts or their mixture Calcium hydroxide – saturated solution known as "limewater" Magnesium hydroxide – an atypical alkali since it has low solubility in water Soils with pH values that are higher than 7.3 are defined as being alkaline. These soils can occur due to the presence of alkali salts. Although many plants do prefer basic soil, most plants prefer a mildly acidic soil, alkaline soils can cause problems. In alkali lakes, evaporation concentrates the occurring carbonate salts, giving rise to an alkalic and saline lake. Examples of alkali lakes: Alkali Lake, Lake County, Oregon Baldwin Lake, San Bernardino County, California Bear Lake on the Utah–Idaho border Lake Magadi in Kenya Lake Turkana in Kenya Mono Lake, near Owens Valley in California Redberry Lake, Saskatchewan Summer Lake, Lake County, Oregon Tramping Lake, Saskatchewan Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Base

Joah Bates

Joah Bates was an English musician. Joah Bates was baptized at the parish church in Halifax on 8 March 1740 O. S.. He was the son of an innkeeper and parish clerk, he received his early education at Dr. Ogden's school and learned music from Hartley, organist of Rochdale, he went afterwards to Manchester to Dr. Parnell's school, while there he was much struck by the organ-playing of Robert Wainwright, organist of the collegiate church, he was subsequently sent to Eton College. While he was at Eton he was deprived of music altogether, but he kept up his practice by playing on imaginary keys on the table. One of the masters, Mr. G. Graham, discovered his passion for music, being himself an enthusiastic amateur, gave him much encouragement. On 31 July 1758 he was nominated for a scholarship at Cambridge, but he was not admitted to the college till 4 May 1760. About this time he obtained a university scholarship, he graduated B. A. in 1764 and M. A. in 1767. During his term of residence in Cambridge he got up and himself conducted a performance of the ‘Messiah’ in his native town, that occasion being the first on which an oratorio had been performed north of the River Trent.

In his orchestra William Herschel, the astronomer, played first violin. Shortly afterwards he was appointed college tutor; the attention of Lord Sandwich, the first lord of the admiralty, whose second son was a pupil of Bates, was at this time attracted to his wonderful musical and general talents, he made him his private secretary, procured for him a small post in the post-office worth 100 pounds a year. He was a commissioner of the Sixpenny Office, 1772–6, of Greenwich Hospital from 1775 till his death. In March 1776 he obtained the more lucrative post of commissioner of the Victualling Office through the same interest, in the same year became conductor to the Concerts of Ancient Music, which had just been started. By this time he had written a ‘Treatise on Harmony,’, translated into German. On 21 December 1780 he married Sarah Harrop. In 1783, in conjunction with Lord Fitzwilliam and Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, he set on foot the Handel Commemoration, which took place in Westminster Abbey in May and June 1784.

At these performances he held the post of conductor. In 1785 the king appointed him a commissioner of the customs, about the same time his name appears as vice-president of Westminster Hospital, he subsequently invested all his own and his wife's fortune in the unfortunate project of the Albion Mills, when these were burnt in 1791, he was nearly ruined. The vexation and trouble resulting from this mischance brought on a complaint in his chest which proved fatal. In 1793 he resigned the conductorship of the Ancient Concerts, on 8 June 1799 he died. A portrait of Joah Bates and his wife, by F. Coates, R. A. is in the possession of Esq.. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Bates, Joah". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900

Can't Keep Johnny Down

"Can't Keep Johnny Down" is a song by American alternative rock band They Might Be Giants. The song was released as Join Us. Like all the artwork surrounding the Join Us album, the cover art and labels for the disc were designed by the Office of Paul Sahre. "Can't Keep Johnny Down" was written by John Linnell. Linnell claims that the song is not a biographical song about himself or fellow band member John Flansburgh, though the character's name was selected intentionally, in order to create a contrast between his personality and that of the two Johns. John Flansburgh describes the song as "...a song of defiance. It's an catchy song. That's a nice, bittersweet concoction of a bitchy lyric with an sunny arrangement. It's sort of Brit-pop." He adds that he found the song to be a strong track. Flansburgh said, of the titular character, "The lyric is about a guy who seems like he's got some mixed emotions about the world. He's sort of reading everything in a hostile way." Rated as one of the best songs of 2011, PopMatters said the song was Smiths-like, as the, "song's malcontent narrator, singing about imagined triumphs over imagined slights, hits a sweet-and-sour tone.

Again, marrying catchy melodies to dark lyrics has always been their specialty. The A. V. Club noted the song kicks off Join Us, "in winning fashion, showcasing Linnell’s surprising late-career ability to craft a slick pop tune." The music video for "Can't Keep Johnny Down" was released by the band via YouTube on October 4, 2011. It was the band's first live action music video since 2004; the video stars Rip Torn. John Linnell and John Flansburgh are not featured in the music video, they Might Be Giants held a contest for fans to create an unofficial music video for the song. About 100 amateur videos were submitted; the winner and several runners-up were selected by John Hodgman, who wrote up his favourite videos on his website. The winning video was created by Mohit Jaswal, Eduardo Urueana, Justin Dean, who received a prize of $1,000. Runners-up received free pizzas. Both the official video and the winning music video were included as a video downloads with purchases of the They Might Be Giants rarities compilation, Album Raises New And Troubling Questions, from the band's website.

The videos were collected for the band's 2013 music video compilation, Them Ain't Big Eye Ants. They Might Be GiantsJohn Flansburgh - vocals, electric guitar John Linnell - vocals, keyboardsBacking bandMarty Beller - drums Dan Miller - acoustic guitar Danny Weinkauf - bassProductionThey Might Be Giants and Pat Dillett - producers Jon Altschuler and Greg Thompson - engineers Pat Dillett - mixing "Can't Keep Johnny Down" single on This Might Be A Wiki "Can't Keep Johnny Down" on This Might Be A Wiki