France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Auxais is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. The inhabitants are called Auxerons. Communes of the Manche department INSEE statistics
Azeville is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. Some of the first German fortifications built on the French coast were started at Azeville battery in 1941; the Germans installed four First World War 105mm guns in concrete casements. The guns at the battery fired upon Utah Beach on D-Day and the battery fell into American hands on the morning of 9 June 1944; the battery is now a museum. After the liberation of the area by Allied Forces in early June 1944, engineers of the Ninth Air Force IX Engineering Command began construction of a combat Advanced Landing Ground to the south of the town. Declared operational on 24 June, the airfield was designated as "A-7", it was used by the 365th Fighter Group which flew P-47 Thunderbolts until mid-August when the unit moved into Central France. Afterward, the airfield was used by the 363d Fighter Group with P-51 Mustangs until mid-September when it was closed. Communes of the Manche department INSEE statistics Remnants of the German Gun Battery Azeville
Auvers is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. Communes of the Manche department INSEE statistics
The Cotentin Peninsula known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy that forms part of the northwest coast of France. It extends north-westward into the English Channel, towards Great Britain. To its west lie the Channel Islands and to the southwest lies the Brittany Peninsula; the peninsula lies wholly in the region of Normandy. The Cotentin peninsula is part of the Armorican Massif and lies between the estuary of the Vire river and Mont Saint-Michel Bay, it is divided into three areas: the headland of Cap de la Hague, the Cotentin Pass, the valley of the Saire River. It forms the bulk of the department of Manche, its southern part, known as "le Marais", crosses from east to west from just north west of Saint Lo and east of Lessay and marks a natural border with the rest of Manche. The largest town in the peninsula is Cherbourg on a major cross-channel port; the western coast of the peninsula, known as the Côte des Îles, faces the Channel Islands. Ferry links serve Carteret and the islands of Jersey and Alderney from Dielette.
Off the east coast of the peninsula lies the island of Tatihou and the Îles Saint-Marcouf. The oldest stone in France is found in outcroppings on the coast of Cap de la Hague, at the tip of the peninsula. Cotentin was an island at one time. Only a small strip of land in the heath of Lessay connected the peninsula with the mainland. Thanks to the so-called portes à flot, which close at flood and open at ebb and which were built in the west coast and in the Baie des Veys, on the east coast, the Cotentin has become a peninsula; the Côte des Havres lies between the Cape of Granville. To the northwest, there are two sand dune systems: one stretching between Siouville-Hague and Vauville, the other one stretching between Cap of Carteret and Baubigny; the peninsula formed part of the Roman geographical area of Armorica. The town known today as Coutances, capital of the Unelli, a Gaulish tribe, acquired the name of Constantia in 298 during the reign of Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus; the base of the peninsula, called in Latin the pagus Constantinus, joined together with the pagus Coriovallensis centred upon Cherbourg to the north, subsequently became known as the Cotentin.
Under the Carolingians it was administered by viscounts drawn successively from members of the Saint-Sauveur family, at their seat Saint-Sauveur on the Douve. King Alan the Great of Brittany waged war on the Norsemen; as the result of his conquests, the Cotentin Peninsula was included theoretically in the territory of the Duchy of Brittany, after the Treaty of Compiègne with the king of the Franks. The Dukes of Brittany suffered continuing Norse invasions and Norman raids, Brittany lost the Cotentin Peninsula after only 70 years of political domination. Meanwhile, Vikings settled on the Cotentin in the tenth centuries. There are indications of a whaling industry there dating to the ninth century introduced by Norsemen, they were followed by Anglo-Danish people, who established themselves as farmers. The Cotentin became part of Normandy in the early tenth century. Many placenames there are derived from the Norse language. Examples include La Hague, from hagi, La Hougue, from haugr. Other names are typical: all those ending with -tot from topt "site of a house", -bec from bekkr "brook", "stream", etc.
In 1088 Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, enfeoffed the Cotentin to his brother Henry, who became king of England. Henry, as count of the Cotentin, established his first power base there and in the adjoining Avranchin, which lay to the south, beyond the River Thar. During the Hundred Years War, King Edward III of England landed in the bay of La Hogue, came to the Church of Quettehou in Val de Saire, it was there that Edward III knighted the Black Prince. A remembrance plaque can be seen next to the altar; the naval Battle of La Hogue in 1692 was fought off Saint-Vaast-la-Hougue near Barfleur. The town of Valognes was, until the French Revolution, a provincial social resort for the aristocracy, nicknamed the Versailles of Normandy; the social scene was described in the novels of Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly. Little now remains of the grand houses and châteaux. During World War II, part of the 1944 Battle of Normandy was fought in the Cotentin; the westernmost part of the D-Day landings was at Utah Beach, on the southeastern coast of the peninsula, was followed by a campaign to occupy the peninsula and take Cherbourg.
The peninsula's main economic resource is agriculture. Dairy and vegetable farming are prominent activities. Along the coast, aquaculture of oysters is a growing industry. Cider and calvados are produced from pears; the region hosts two important nuclear power facilities. At Flamanville there is a nuclear power plant, where the second European Pressurized Reactor in the world is being constructed, with commissioning delayed to 2016 or later. COGEMA La Hague site, a large nuclear waste reprocessing and storage complex operated by Areva NC, is located a few miles to the north, at Beaumont-Hague; the facility stores all high level waste from the French nuclear power program in one large vault. Nuclear industry provides a substantial portion of jobs in the region; the roads used for transport of nuclear waste have been blocked many times in the past by environmental a
Edward the Black Prince
Edward of Woodstock, known to history as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England, thus the heir to the English throne. He died before his father and so his son, Richard II, succeeded to the throne instead. Edward still earned distinction as one of the most successful English commanders during the Hundred Years' War, being regarded by his contemporaries as a model of chivalry and one of the greatest knights of his age. Edward was created Duke of Cornwall in 1337, he was guardian of the kingdom in his father's absence in 1338, 1340, 1342. He was created Prince of Wales in 1343 and knighted by his father at La Hogne in 1346. In 1346 Prince Edward commanded the vanguard at the Battle of Crécy, his father intentionally leaving him to win the battle, he took part in Edward III's 1349 Calais expedition. In 1355 he was appointed the king's lieutenant in Gascony, ordered to lead an army into Aquitaine on a chevauchée, during which he pillaged Avignonet and Castelnaudary, sacked Carcassonne, plundered Narbonne.
The next year on another chevauchée he ravaged Auvergne and Berry but failed to take Bourges. He offered terms of peace to King John II of France, who had outflanked him near Poitiers, but refused to surrender himself as the price of their acceptance; this led to the Battle of Poitiers where his army took King John prisoner. The year after Poitiers, the Black Prince returned to England. In 1360 he negotiated the treaty of Bretigny, he was created Prince of Aquitaine and Gascony in 1362, but his suzerainty was not recognised by the lord of Albret or other Gascon nobles. He was directed by his father to forbid the marauding raids of the English and Gascon free companies in 1364, he entered into an agreement with don Pedro of Castile and Charles II of Navarre, by which Pedro covenanted to mortgage Castro de Urdiales and the province of Biscay to him as security for a loan. In 1367 he received a letter of defiance from Henry of Trastámara, Don Pedro's half-brother and rival; the same year, after an obstinate conflict, he defeated Henry at the Battle of Nájera.
However, after a wait of several months, during which he failed to obtain either the province of Biscay or liquidation of the debt from Don Pedro, he returned to Aquitaine. Prince Edward persuaded the estates of Aquitaine to allow him a hearth tax of ten sous for five years in 1368, thereby alienating the lord of Albret and other nobles. Drawn into open war with Charles V of France in 1369, he took Limoges, where in 1370 he gave orders for an indiscriminate massacre in revenge for the voluntary surrender of that town to the French by its bishop, his private friend; the Black Prince returned to England in 1371 and the next year resigned the principality of Aquitaine and Gascony. He led the commons in their attack upon the Lancastrian administration in 1376, he died in 1376 of dysentery and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral, where his surcoat, helmet and gauntlets are still preserved. Edward, the eldest son of Edward III and Queen Philippa, was born at Woodstock on 15 June 1330, his father on 10 September allowed five hundred marks a year from the profits of the county of Chester for his maintenance.
In the July of that year the king proposed to marry him to a daughter of Philip VI of France. On 18 March 1333, Edward was invested with the earldom and county of Chester, in the parliament of 9 February 1337 he was created Duke of Cornwall and received the duchy by charter dated 17 March; this is the earliest instance of the creation of a duke in England. By the terms of the charter the duchy was to be held by the eldest sons of kings of England, his tutor was Dr. Walter Burley of Oxford, his revenues were placed at the disposal of his mother in March 1334 for the expenses she incurred in bringing up him and his two sisters and Joan. Rumours of an impending French invasion led the king in August 1335 to order that he and his household should remove to Nottingham Castle as a place of safety; when two cardinals came to England at the end of 1337 to make peace between Edward III and Philip VI, the Duke of Cornwall is said to have met the cardinals outside the City of London, in company with many nobles to have conducted them to the King Edward.
On 11 July 1338 his father, on the point of leaving England for Flanders, appointed him guardian of the kingdom during his absence, he was appointed to the same office on 27 May 1340 and 6 October 1342. In order to attach John, Duke of Brabant, to his cause, the king in 1339 proposed a marriage between the young Duke of Cornwall and John's daughter Margaret, in the spring of 1345 wrote urgently to Pope Clement VI for a dispensation for this marriage. On 12 May 1343, Edward created the duke Prince of Wales, in a parliament held at Westminster, investing him with a circlet, gold ring, silver rod; the prince accompanied his father to Sluys on 3 July 1345, Edward tried to persuade the burgomasters of Ghent and Ypres to accept his son as their lord, but the murder of Jacob van Artevelde put an end to this project. Both in September and in the following April the prince was called on to furnish troops from his principality and earldom for the impending campaign in France, as he incurred heavy debts in the king's service his father authorised him to make his will, provided that in case he fell in the war his executors should have all his revenue for a year.
Edward, Prince of Wales sailed with K
Agon-Coutainville is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. Berthe Dagmar This is the village of radio personality Madame Leprieur. Communes of the Manche department INSEE statistics