Quiapo is a district of Manila, Philippines. It derives its name from the water cabbage, named quiapo or kiapo in the Tagalog language. Referred to as the "Old Downtown of Manila", Quiapo is home to the Quiapo Church, where the feast of the Black Nazarene is held with millions of people attending annually. Quiapo has made a name for itself as a place for marketplace bargain hunting. Plaza Miranda, in the heart of the Quiapo district, is a town square named after Jose Sandino y Miranda, who served as secretary of the treasury of the Philippines from 1853 to 1863, it is located in front of the Quiapo Church, has become a popular site for political rallies. On August 21, 1971, while the Liberal Party held its miting de avance in the plaza, a bomb exploded, killing nine and injuring 100 civilians; the Quiapo district is home to a sizable Muslim population. The Golden Mosque and Green Mosque are located here. Stores offering herbal products, a large population of self-described fortune tellers, surround the Quiapo church.
Thievery and sales of illegally copied media are prevalent in the district. In recent years, the local government of Manila, spearheaded by then-Mayor Lito Atienza, launched the Buhayin ang Maynila project which rehabilitated Quiapo and its vicinities, most Plaza Miranda, Quinta Market, the Arsenio Lacson Underpass and the University Belt. Parts of Rizal Avenue, starting from Carriedo Street to Recto Avenue, were converted into pedestrian shopping arcades. Quiapo is geographically located at the center of the city of Manila, it is bounded by the Pasig River and Estero de San Miguel to the south, San Miguel to the east, Recto Avenue to the north and Rizal Avenue to the west. Since the American insular government and commonwealth periods through to the late 1970s, Quiapo shared its status as the center of the activities of Manila's social elites as well as trade, fashion and higher learning with its surrounding vicinity. However, with the construction of the Manila Light Rail Transit System's LRT-1 spanning over Rizal Avenue, the occlusion of light, the trapping of smog and vehicle emissions left the streets beneath dark and with an increase in crime and transients.
Many long-time establishments vacated the area. Following the People Power Revolution in 1986, the vibrancy of Quiapo further diminished, with the void filled by makeshift markets to accommodate visitors to the Quiapo Church. Quiapo contains 16 barangays: Barangay 306 to 309 and 383 to 394. Hidalgo Street Media related to Quiapo, Manila at Wikimedia Commons
The Baroque is a ornate and extravagant style of architecture, painting and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles, it was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, exuberant detail, deep colour and surprise to achieve a sense of awe; the style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome spread to France, northern Italy and Portugal to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century; the English word baroque comes directly from the French, may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco, a flawed pearl. Both words are related to the Spanish term berruca; the term did not describe a style of music or art.
Prior to the 18th century, the French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms related to jewelry, An example from 1531 uses the term to describe pearls in an inventory of Charles V's treasures. The word appears in a 1694 edition of Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, which describes baroque as "only used for pearls that are imperfectly round." A 1728 Portuguese dictionary describes barroco as relating to a "coarse and uneven pearl."The French term for the artistic style may have had roots in the medieval Latin word baroco, a philosophical term, invented in the 13th century by scholastics to describe a complicated type of syllogism, or logical argument. In the 16th century the philosopher Michel de Montaigne associated the term'baroco' with "Bizarre and uselessly complicated." In the 18th century, the term was used to describe music, was not flattering. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device.
In 1762, Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française wrote that the term could be used figuratively to describe something "irregular, bizarre or unequal."Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited, it appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians."In 1788, the term was defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the Encyclopédie Méthodique as "an architectural style, adorned and tormented". The terms "style baroque" and "musique baroque" appeared in Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française in 1835. By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art; this was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burkhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition."Alternatively, a derivation from the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci has been suggested.
In 1888, the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation; the first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The Council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below.
The dome was one of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real; the interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, an
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa and the Philippines; the conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, the Swedish Empire on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal; the war's extent has led some historians to describe it as World War Zero, similar in scale to other world wars. Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side.
Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power. Conflict between Great Britain and France broke out in 1754–1756 when the British attacked disputed French positions in North America. Hostilities were heightened when a British unit led by a 22 year old Lt. Colonel George Washington ambushed a small French force at the Battle of Jumonville Glen on 28 May 1754; the conflict exploded across the colonial boundaries and extended to the seizure of hundreds of French merchant ships at sea. Meanwhile, rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. In 1756, the major powers "switched partners". Realising that war was imminent, Prussia pre-emptively struck Saxony and overran it.
The result caused uproar across Europe. Because of Austria's alliance with France to recapture Silesia, lost in the War of the Austrian Succession, Prussia formed an alliance with Britain. Reluctantly, by following the imperial diet, which declared war on Prussia on 17 January 1757, most of the states of the empire joined Austria's cause; the Anglo-Prussian alliance was joined by smaller German states. Sweden, seeking to regain Pomerania joined the coalition, seeing its chance when all the major powers of Europe opposed Prussia. Spain, bound by the Pacte de Famille, intervened on behalf of France and together they launched an utterly unsuccessful invasion of Portugal in 1762; the Russian Empire was aligned with Austria, fearing Prussia's ambition on the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but switched sides upon the succession of Tsar Peter III in 1762. Many middle and small powers in Europe, as in the previous wars, tried to steer clear away from the escalating conflict though they had interests in the conflict or with the belligerents.
Denmark–Norway, for instance, was close to being dragged into the war on France's side when Peter III became Russian emperor and switched sides. The Dutch Republic, a long-time British ally, kept its neutrality intact, fearing the odds against Britain and Prussia fighting the great powers of Europe, tried to prevent Britain's domination in India. Naples-Sicily, Savoy, although sided with the Franco-Spanish alliance, declined to join the coalition under fear of British naval power; the taxation needed for war caused the Russian people considerable hardship, being added to the taxation of salt and alcohol begun by Empress Elizabeth in 1759 to complete her addition to the Winter Palace. Like Sweden, Russia concluded a separate peace with Prussia; the war ended with the Treaty of Paris between France and Great Britain and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Saxony and Prussia, in 1763. The war was successful for Great Britain, which gained the bulk of New France in North America, Spanish Florida, some individual Caribbean islands in the West Indies, the colony of Senegal on the West African coast, superiority over the French trading outposts on the Indian subcontinent.
The Native American tribes were excluded from the settlement. In Europe, the war began disastrously for Prussia, but with a combination of good luck and successful strategy, King Frederick the Great managed to retrieve the Prussian position and retain the status quo ante bellum. Prussia emerged as a new European great power. Although Austria failed to retrieve the territory of Silesia from Prussia, its military prowess was noted by the other powers; the involvement of Portugal and Sweden did not return them to their former status as great powers. France was deprived of many of it
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila is the archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Metro Manila, encompassing the cities of Manila, San Juan and Pasay. The current Archbishop is Luis Antonio Gokim Cardinal Tagle, D. D. S. Th. D, the 32nd to hold the office and the fifth native Filipino following centuries of Spanish and Irish predecessors; the cathedral church is a minor basilica located in Intramuros, which comprises the old city of Manila. The Blessed Virgin Mary, under the title Immaculate Conception, is the principal patroness; the archdiocese owns and manages the following institutions located outside its own territorial jurisdiction: Mount Peace Retreat House, Saint Michael Retreat House, Radio Veritas (in Barangay Philam, Quezon City. Per the efforts of conquistador Martín de Goiti—who founded the City of Manila by uniting the dominions of Sulayman III of Namayan, Sabag, Rajah Ache Matanda of Maynila, a vassal to the Sultan of Brunei, Lakan Dula of Tondo, a tributary to Ming Dynasty China — the Diocese of Manila was established on February 6, 1579 through the Papal bull Illius Fulti Præsidio by Pope Gregory XIII, encompassing all Spanish colonies in Asia as a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Mexico.
Fray Domingo de Salazar, a Dominican from the Convent of San Sebastian in Salamanca, was selected by King Philip II of Spain to be bishop of the new diocese and was presented to the pope. Over the course of history and growth of Catholicism in the Philippines, the diocese was elevated and new dioceses had been carved from its territory. On August 14, 1595, Pope Clement VIII raised the diocese to the status of an archdiocese with Bishop Ignacio Santibáñez elevated as its first archbishop. Three new dioceses were created as suffragans to Manila: Nueva Cáceres, Nueva Segovia, Cebu. With the creation of these new dioceses, the territory of the archdiocese was reduced to the city of Manila and the adjoining civil provinces in proximity including Mindoro Island, it was bounded to the north by the Diocese of Nueva Segovia, to the south by the Diocese of Cebu, to the southeast by the Diocese of Nueva Cáceres. During the Hispanic period, the Archdiocese was ruled by a succession of Spanish and Latino archbishops.
The British occupation of Manila during the Seven Years' War saw the temporary conversion of Sultan Azim ud-Din I of Sulu to Catholicism, the massive looting and destruction of ecclesiastical treasures, as well as the burning of churches by British soldiers, Sepoy mercenaries and rebellious Chinese residents in Binondo. This episode was damaging to Philippine scholarship due to the fact that the monasteries holding the archives and artifacts about the precolonial Philippine Rajahnates, Sultanates and Wangdoms and their conversion to Catholicism. An example of which would be the Boxer Codex, whose earliest owner Lord Giles of Ilchester, had inherited it from an ancestor who stole it from Manila during the British Occupation. Peace was subsequently restored after the Protestant British occupation. In the time after this, the Catholic religious orders became the powerful driving force in the Archdiocese of Manila; the local diocesan clergy resented the foreign religious orders due to their near monopoly of ecclesiastical positions.
The opposition of the religious orders against an autonomous diocesan clergy independent of them lead to the martyrdom of priests Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, Jacinto Zamora collectively known as Gomburza. This inspired the Jesuit educated Jose Rizal to form the La Liga Filipina, to ask for reforms from Spain and recognition of local clergy. Rizal was executed and the La Liga Filipina dissolved; the 1896 Philippine revolution was triggered when the Spanish discovered the anti-colonial secret organisation Katipunan, ended Spanish rule. The United States took the Philippines from Spain in the 1898 Spanish–American War. S. in the 1899–1902 Philippine–American War, followed by victory for the U. S. and disestablishment of the Roman Catholic Church as the state church of the Philippines. In the period after the war, Philippine churches were restored in the Art-Deco architectural motif. There was a looming threat of apostasy and schism with the rise of anti-clerical Philippine Freemasonry and the establishment of the Philippine Independent Church due to Filipino anger against Spanish ecclesiastical corruption.
In response, the Vatican supported Philippine independence and applied a policy of reinforcing orthodoxy and reconciliation which resulted in the majority of the Filipinos remaining faithful to the Roman Catholic Church and having a good number of those separated from the Church, grafted back. The province of Mindoro was established as an independent diocese on April 10, 1910 by virtue of a Decretum Consistoriale signed by Pope Pius X, implementing the Bull Quae Mari Sinico of Pope Leo XIII. On the same date, the Diocese of Lipa was created, with jurisdiction over the provinces of Batangas, Tayabas and some parts of Masbate. In May 1928, Pope Pius XI established the Diocese of L
The Black Nazarene is a life-sized image of a dark-skinned, kneeling Jesus Christ carrying the Cross enshrined in the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene in the Quiapo district of the City of Manila, Philippines. The Black Nazarene was carved by an unknown Mexican from a dark wood in the 16th century in Mexico and transported to the Philippines in 1606, it depicts Jesus en route to his crucifixion. Pope Innocent X granted recognition to the lay Confraternity of Santo Cristo Jesús Nazareno in 1650 for the promotion of the devotion to Jesus through the icon, it was housed in several churches near Manila in the early decades, arriving in Quiapo Church in 1787 where it has been enshrined since. The icon is renowned in the Philippines and is considered by many Filipino Catholics to be miraculous, it attracts homage by major processions every year. The image is brought out of its shrine in procession three times a year: January 9, Good Friday, December 31; the January 9 procession re-enacts the image's Traslación in 1787, or "solemn transfer" to the Minor Basilica from its original shrine inside Intramuros.
The January 9 Traslación is the largest procession, drawing thousands of devotees thronging to touch the icon and lasting 20 hours at the most. The Black Nazarene is venerated by Filipino devotees every Friday. Along with the Santo Niño, it is the most popular object of devotion in the Philippines. A similar image called Cristo Negro is venerated in Panama; the image derives its name from "Nazarene", a title of Christ identifying him as a native of Nazareth in Galilee and from its dark complexion – something uncommon amongst Philippine depictions of Jesus. The Traslación procession is taken from the Spanish term for translation, referring to "passage" or "movement"; the image's wooden base is referred to as the peana while its carriage or carroza used in processions is called the Ándas. The term ándas refers to the shoulder-borne palanquins of religious images and was retained for the icon’s carriage which replaces the palanquins used in processions up until the late 20th century; the image was made by an anonymous Mexican sculptor, the image arrived in Manila via galleon from Acapulco, Mexico, on May 31, 1606.
Traditional accounts attribute the colour to votive candles burning before the image, although the most widespread belief is that it was charred by a fire on the galleon that brought it from Mexico. Monsignor Sabino A. Vengco Jr. from Loyola School of Theology meanwhile noted that the image was not charred but in fact dark through to its core, as it was carved from mesquite wood. Vengco based this claim on personal research in Mexico, where he said the wood was a popular medium in the period the image was carved, he likened it to Our Lady of Antipolo, another popular image of similar provenance and appearance. The image was first enshrined in the Church of San Juan Bautista of the Augustinian Recollects at Bagumbayan, Luneta. In 1608, the image was transferred to the Church of San Nicolas de Tolentino inside Intramuros, where it was enshrined in the retablo mayor, until both church and image perished during the bombardment and the flames of the Liberation of Manila in 1945. A still-persistent common misconception is that the icon in Quiapo Church is the "lost" original image.
On January 9, 1787, the Augustinian Recollects donated a copy of the image to the Church of the Camisa, which on was celebrated by the faithful every January 9 by means of a procession from Intramuros to Quiapo. While the "lost" original image was always in the main altar away from the crowds, leaving only for a procession on Palm Sunday, the image enshrined in Quiapo, which has withstood four centuries of fires and the Second World War, was available for physical veneration by its devotees who have attested to its miraculous powers; the image presently enshrined above the main altar of Quiapo Church is a composite of the surviving copy's head and a replica sculpted by renowned Filipino santero Gener Maglaqui, commissioned by the Archdiocese of Manila. The other composite comprises the head of the Maglaqui replica. Enshrined in a different part of the Basilica, it is the second composite, used in the three major processions; this arrangement began in the 1990s because of security concerns. The Black Nazarene's head wears a braided wig made of dyed abaca, along with a golden crown of thorns.
Attached to the crown are the traditional "Tres Potencias" halo, symbolising the three powers of the Holy Trinity. These three rayos, an angular variant of the cruciform halo, are used for images of Jesus Christ in traditional Filipino and Hispanic iconography to signify his divinity; the original image has lost several fingers over the centuries. The barefoot image is shown in a genuflecting p
Dedication is the act of consecrating an altar, church, or other sacred building. It refers to the inscription of books or other artifacts when these are addressed or presented to a particular person; this practice, which once was used to gain the patronage and support of the person so addressed, is now only a mark of affection or regard. In law, the word is used of the setting apart by a private owner of a road to public use; the Feast of Dedication, today Hanukkah, once called "Feast of the Maccabees," was a Jewish festival observed for eight days from the 25th of Kislev. It was instituted in the year 165 B. C. by Judas Maccabeus, his brothers, the elders of the congregation of Israel in commemoration of the reconsecration of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, of the altar of burnt offerings, after they had been desecrated during the persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes. The significant happenings of the festival were the illumination of houses and synagogues, a custom taken over from the Feast of Tabernacles, the recitation of Psalm 30:1-12.
J. Wellhausen suggests that the feast was connected with the winter solstice, only afterwards with the events narrated in Maccabees; the Feast of Dedication is mentioned in John 10:22 where it mentions Jesus being at the Jerusalem Temple during "the Feast of Dedication" and further notes "and it was winter." The Greek term used in John is "the renewals". Josephus refers to the festival in Greek as "lights." Churches under the authority of a bishop are dedicated by the bishop in a ceremony that used to be called that of consecration, but is now called that of dedication. For the Catholic Church, the rite of dedication is described in the Caeremoniale Episcoporum, chapters IX-X, in the Roman Missal's Ritual Masses for the Dedication of a Church and an Altar. In the Church of England, a consecrated church may only be closed for worship after a legal process; the custom of solemnly dedicating or consecrating buildings as churches or chapels set apart for Christian worship must be as old as Christianity itself.
When we come to the earlier part of the 4th century allusions to and descriptions of the consecration of churches become plentiful. This service is of Jewish origin; the hallowing of the tabernacle and of its furniture and ornaments. All these point to the probability of the Christians deriving their custom from a Jewish origin. Eusebius of Caesarea speaks of the dedication of churches rebuilt after the Diocletian persecution, including the church at Tyre in 314 AD; the consecrations of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem in 335, built by Constantine I, of other churches after his time, are described both by Eusebius and by other ecclesiastical historians. From them we gather that every consecration was accompanied by a celebration of the Holy Eucharist and a sermon, special prayers of a dedicatory character, but there is no trace of the elaborate ritual of the medieval pontificals dating from the 8th century onwards; the separate consecration of altars is provided for by Canon 14 of the Council of Agde in 506, by Canon 26 of the Council of Epaone in 517, the latter containing the first known reference to the usage of anointing the altar with chrism.
The use of both holy water and of unction is attributed to St. Columbanus, who died in 615. There was an annual commemoration of the original dedication of the church, a feast with its octave extending over eight days, during which Gregory the Great encouraged the erection of booths and general feasting on the part of the populace, to compensate them for, in some way to take the place of, abolished pagan festivities. At an early date the right to consecrate churches was reserved to bishops, as by a canon of the First Council of Bracara in 563, by the 23rd of the Irish collections of canons, once attributed to St Patrick, but hardly to be put earlier than the 8th century; the manuscripts and printed service-books of the medieval church contain a lengthy and elaborate service for the consecration of churches in the pontifical. The earliest known pontifical is that of Egbert, Archbishop of York, however, only survives in a 10th-century manuscript copy. Pontificals are numerous and somewhat varied.
A good idea of the general character of the service can be obtained from a skeleton of it as performed in England after the Reformation according to the use of Sarum. The service is taken from an early 15th-century pontifical in the Cambridge University Library as printed by W. Makell in Monumenta ritualia ecclesiae Anglicanae. There is a preliminary office for laying a foundation-stone. On the day of consecration the bishop is to vest in a tent outside the church proceed to the door of the church on the outside, a single deacon being inside the church. There he blesses holy water, twelve lighted candles being placed outside, twelve inside the church, he sprinkles the walls all round outside and knocks at the door. He sprinkles the walls all round outside a second time a third time, knocking at the door each time, he may enter, all laity being excluded. The bishop fixes a cross in the centre of the church, after which the litany is said, including a special clause for the consecration of the church and altar.
Next the bishop inscribes the alp