Egg as food
Some eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, amphibians and fish, have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell and vitellus, contained within various thin membranes; the most consumed eggs are chicken eggs. Other poultry eggs including those of duck and quail are eaten. Fish eggs are called caviar. Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline, are used in cookery. Due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture categorized eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid. Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are some potential health issues arising from cholesterol content, salmonella contamination, allergy to egg proteins. Chickens and other egg-laying creatures are kept throughout the world and mass production of chicken eggs is a global industry. In 2009, an estimated 62.1 million metric tons of eggs were produced worldwide from a total laying flock of 6.4 billion hens.
There are issues of regional variation in demand and expectation, as well as current debates concerning methods of mass production. In 2012, the European Union banned battery husbandry of chickens. Bird eggs have been valuable foodstuffs since prehistory, in both hunting societies and more recent cultures where birds were domesticated; the chicken was domesticated for its eggs before 7500 BCE. Chickens were brought to Sumer and Egypt by 1500 BCE, arrived in Greece around 800 BCE, where the quail had been the primary source of eggs. In Thebes, the tomb of Haremhab, dating to 1420 BCE, shows a depiction of a man carrying bowls of ostrich eggs and other large eggs those of the pelican, as offerings. In ancient Rome, eggs were preserved using a number of methods and meals started with an egg course; the Romans crushed the shells in their plates to prevent evil spirits from hiding there. In the Middle Ages, eggs were forbidden during Lent because of their richness; the word mayonnaise was derived from moyeu, the medieval French word for the yolk, meaning center or hub.
Egg scrambled. The dried egg industry developed in the nineteenth century, before the rise of the frozen egg industry. In 1878, a company in St. Louis, Missouri started to transform egg yolk and egg white into a light-brown, meal-like substance by using a drying process; the production of dried eggs expanded during World War II, for use by the United States Armed Forces and its allies. In 1911, the egg carton was invented by Joseph Coyle in Smithers, British Columbia, to solve a dispute about broken eggs between a farmer in Bulkley Valley and the owner of the Aldermere Hotel. Early egg cartons were made of paper. Bird eggs are a common one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking, they are important in many branches of the modern food industry. The most used bird eggs are those from the chicken and goose eggs. Smaller eggs, such as quail eggs, are used as a gourmet ingredient in Western countries. Eggs are a common everyday food in many parts of Asia, such as China and Thailand, with Asian production providing 59 percent of the world total in 2013.
The largest bird eggs, from ostriches, tend to be used only as special luxury food. Gull eggs are considered a delicacy in England, as well as in some Scandinavian countries in Norway. In some African countries, guineafowl eggs are seen in marketplaces in the spring of each year. Pheasant eggs and emu eggs are edible, but less available, sometimes they are obtainable from farmers, poulterers, or luxury grocery stores. In many countries, wild bird eggs are protected by laws which prohibit the collecting or selling of them, or permit collection only during specific periods of the year. In 2013, world production of chicken eggs was 68.3 million tonnes. The largest four producers were China at 24.8 million of this total, the United States at 5.6 million, India at 3.8 million, Japan at 2.5 million. A typical large egg factory ships a million dozen eggs per week. For the month of January 2019, the United States produced 9.41 billion eggs, with 8.2 billion for table consumption and 1.2 billion for raising chicks.
Americans are projected to each consume 279 eggs in 2019, the highest since 1973, but less than the 405 eggs eaten per person in 1945. During production, eggs are candled to check their quality; the size of its air cell is determined, the examination reveals whether the egg was fertilized and thereby contains an embryo. Depending on local regulations, eggs may be washed before being placed in egg boxes, although washing may shorten their length of freshness; the shape of an egg resembles a prolate spheroid with one end larger than the other and has cylindrical symmetry along the long axis. An egg is surrounded by a hard shell. Thin membranes exist inside the shell; the egg yolk is suspended in the egg white by two spiral bands of tissue called the chalazae. The larger end of the egg contains an air cell that forms when the contents of the egg cool down and contract after it is laid. Chicken eggs are graded according to the size of this air cell, measured during candling. A fresh egg has a small air cell and receives a grade of AA.
As the size of the air cell increases and the quality of the egg decreases, the grade moves from AA to A to B. This provides a way of t
Spinach is a leafy green flowering plant native to central and western Asia. It is of family Amaranthaceae, subfamily Chenopodioideae, its leaves are a common edible vegetable consumed either fresh, or after storage using preservation techniques by canning, freezing, or dehydration. It may be eaten cooked or raw, the taste differs considerably, it is an annual plant. Spinach may overwinter in temperate regions; the leaves are alternate, ovate to triangular, variable in size: 2–30 cm long and 1–15 cm broad, with larger leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3–4 mm in diameter, mature into a small, dry, lumpy fruit cluster 5–10 mm across containing several seeds. In 2016, world production of spinach was 26.7 million tonnes, with China alone accounting for 92% of the total. The English word "spinach" dates to the late 14th century from espinache of uncertain origin. Common spinach, S. oleracea, was long considered to be in the family Chenopodiaceae, but in 2003 that family was merged into the Amaranthaceae in the order Caryophyllales.
Within the family Amaranthaceae sensu lato, Spinach belongs to the subfamily Chenopodioideae. Spinach is an annual plant growing as tall as 30 cm. Spinach may overwinter in temperate regions; the leaves are alternate, ovate to triangular, variable in size: 2–30 cm long and 1–15 cm broad, with larger leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3–4 mm in diameter, mature into a small, dry, lumpy fruit cluster 5–10 mm across containing several seeds. Raw spinach is 91% water, 4% carbohydrates, 3% protein, contains negligible fat. In a 100 g serving providing only 23 calories, spinach has a high nutritional value when fresh, steamed, or boiled, it is a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K, manganese and folate. Spinach is a good source of the B vitamins riboflavin and vitamin B6, vitamin E, calcium and dietary fiber. Spinach, along with other green, leafy vegetables, contains an appreciable amount of iron attaining 21% of the Daily Value in a 100 g amount of raw spinach.
For example, the United States Department of Agriculture states that a 100 g serving of cooked spinach contains 3.57 mg of iron, whereas a 100 g ground hamburger patty contains 2.49 mg. However, spinach contains iron absorption-inhibiting substances, including high levels of oxalate, which can bind to the iron to form ferrous oxalate and render much of the iron in spinach unusable by the body. In addition to preventing absorption and use, high levels of oxalates remove iron from the body. Spinach has a moderate calcium content which can be affected by oxalates, decreasing its absorption; the calcium in spinach is among the least bioavailable of food calcium sources. By way of comparison, the human body can absorb about half of the calcium present in broccoli, yet only around 5% of the calcium in spinach. A quantity of 3.5 ounces of spinach contains over four times the recommended daily intake of vitamin K. For this reason, individuals taking the anticoagulant warfarin, which acts by inhibiting vitamin K, are instructed not to eat spinach to avoid blunting the effect of warfarin.
In 2016, world production of spinach was 26.7 million tonnes, with China alone accounting for 92% of the total. Fresh spinach is bunched, or packaged fresh in bags. Fresh spinach loses much of its nutritional value with storage of more than a few days. Fresh spinach is packaged in nitrogen gas to extend shelf life. While refrigeration slows this effect to about eight days, fresh spinach loses most of its folate and carotenoid content over this period of time. For longer storage, it is canned, or cooked and frozen. Frozen spinach can be stored for up to eight months; some packaged spinach is exposed to radiation to kill any harmful bacteria. The Food and Drug Administration approves of irradiation of spinach leaves up to 4.0 kilograys. Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service experimentally tested the concentrations of vitamins C, E, K, B9, four carotenoids in packaged spinach following irradiation, they found with increasing level of irradiation, four nutrients showed no change. Those nutrients include vitamins B9, E, K, the carotenoid neoxanthin.
This study showed the irradiation of packaged spinach to have little or no change to the nutritional value of the crop, the health benefits of irradiating packed spinach to reduce harmful bacteria seem to outweigh the loss of nutrients. Spinach may be high in cadmium contamination depending on the soil and location where the spinach is grown; the comics and cartoon character Popeye the Sailor Man has been portrayed since 1931 as having a strong affinity for spinach the canned variety. He becomes physically stronger after consuming it. Spinach is thought to have originated in ancient Persia, it is not known by whom, or when, spinach was introduced to India The plant was subsequently introduced to ancient China, where it was known as "Persian vegetable". The earliest available record
A lardon called lardoon or larding, is a small strip or cube of fatty bacon, or pork fat used in a wide variety of cuisines to flavor savory foods and salads. In French cuisine, lardons are used for larding, by threading them with a needle into meats that are to be braised or roasted. Lardons are not smoked, they are made from pork, cured with salt. In French cuisine, lardons are served hot in salads and salad dressings, as well as on some tartes flambées, stews such as beef bourguignon, quiches such as quiche Lorraine, in omelettes, with potatoes, for other dishes such as coq au vin; the Oxford English Dictionary defines "lardon" as "one of the pieces of bacon or pork which are inserted in meat in the process of larding", giving primacy to that process. According to the Middle English Dictionary, the earliest occurrence of the word is in 1381, in the work Pegge Cook. Lardons may be prepared from different cuts of pork, including pork belly and fatback, or from cured cuts such as bacon or salt pork.
Since the true French lardon is salt-cured but not smoked, "the flavor comes through cleanly, more like ham but richer because the meat is from the belly of the pig, not the leg". One food writer takes this as evidence that the French "do bacon right"; the meat is cut into small strips or cubes about one centimeter wide blanched or fried. Some chefs recommend using pancetta as a substitute, it is common for the lardons to be used for two distinct purposes in the same dish. The fat rendered from the cubed pork is good for sautéing vegetables or meat during the early stages of a recipe, the crisp browned pork cubes can be added as a garnish or ingredient just before serving: "the crispy bits are used to add a smoky, salty flavor and a pleasant crunch to all kinds of dishes"; the rich flavor pairs well with cheeses and sturdy leaf vegetables like spinach and frisée, for which the hot rendered fat can be used as part of the salad dressing. Lardons are used in French cuisine to flavor salads, quiches, potatoes and other dishes.
A particular Parisian use of lardons is in the salade aux lardons, a wilted salad in which the lettuce leaves are wilted by the addition of still-hot lardons and hot vinaigrette. A nineteenth-century recipe for a pie à la chasse calls for beef to be larded with lardons made of ham and bacon. A traditional dish from the Alsace region is the tarte flambée, a thin pizza-like bread covered with crème fraiche and lardons. A regional specialty from the Savoie is tartiflette, made with potatoes, reblochon cheese and lardons. A traditional use for lardons is in a technique called "larding", in which long strips of chilled pork fat are threaded into meats that are to be braised or roasted, such as beef filets or veal and lean fish such as salmon; these lardons are to be cut in strips about 3 mm thick and 3 mm wide, it is essential that the fat be chilled before cutting and threading. The technique is explained at length in the classic book of French cuisine La bonne cuisine de Madame E. Saint-Ange, which details two techniques: surface larding, or "studding", in which the lardons are threaded onto the surface, interior larding, in which the lardons are left in a channel inside the meat.
Madame St. Ange recommends larding for braised calf's sweetbreads and for a specific style of cooking hare. American food writer James Peterson recommends using fatback for larding. Julia Child recommends using lard or porkbellies; the origin of larding is in the Middle Ages, when edible meat was sourced from hunting game and was too lean and tough because of the animal's natural physical activity. The needle used is a larding needle. There are two basic kinds of larding needle, U-shaped. Hollow larding needles are about 5 mm in diameter with some sort of teeth or hook to keep the lard strip attached. U-shaped larding needles called by the French name lardoir, are long needles with a "U" cross-section. Four larding needles, accompanied by two crossed turning spits, are found in the coat of arms of the Confrérie de la Chaîne des Rôtisseurs, a French gastronomic society. In many cuisines around the world, pork fat is used as a flavoring, lardons are found in various other cultures. In Puerto Rico, they are added to dishes such as arroz con gandules.
Barding Lard Lardo How to cut bacon strips into lardons, video
Lorraine is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est. Lorraine's name stems from the medieval kingdom of Lotharingia, which in turn was named for either Emperor Lothair I or King Lothair II, it was ruled as the Duchy of Lorraine before the Kingdom of France annexed it in 1766. From 1982 until January 2016, Lorraine was an administrative region of France. In 2016, under a reorganization, it became part of the new region Grand Est; as a region in modern France, Lorraine consisted of the four departments Meurthe-et-Moselle, Meuse and Vosges, containing 2,337 communes. Metz is the regional prefecture; the largest metropolitan area of Lorraine is Nancy, which had developed for centuries as the seat of the duchy. Lorraine borders Germany and Luxembourg, its inhabitants are called "Lorrains" in French and number about 2,356,000. Lorraine's borders have changed in its long history; the location of Lorraine led to it being a paramount strategic asset as the crossroads of four nations.
This, along with its political alliances, marriage alliances, the ability of rulers over the centuries to choose sides between East and West, gave it a tremendously powerful and important role in transforming all of European history. Its rulers intermarried with royal families over all of Europe, played kingmaker, seated rulers on the thrones of the Holy Roman Empire and Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, others. In 840, Charlemagne's son Louis; the Carolingian Empire was divided among Louis' three sons by the Treaty of Verdun of 843. The middle realm, known as Middle Francia, went to Lothair I, reaching from Frisia in Northern Germany through the Low Countries, Eastern France, Provence, Northern Italy, down to Rome. On the death of Lothair I, Middle Francia was divided in three by the Treaty of Prüm in 855, with the northern third called Lotharingia and going to Lothair II. Due to Lotharingia being sandwiched between East and West Francia, the rulers identified as a duchy from 870 onward, enabling the duchy to ally and align itself nominally with either eastern or western Carolingian kingdoms in order to survive and maintain its independence.
Thus it operated as an independent kingdom. In 870, Lorraine allied with East Francia. In 962, when Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, restored the Empire, Lorraine was designated as the autonomous Duchy of Lorraine within the Holy Roman Empire, it maintained this status until 1766, after which it was annexed under succession law by the Kingdom of France, via derivative aristocratic house alliances. The succession within these houses, in tandem with other historical events, would have restored Lorraine's status as its own duchy, but a vacuum in leadership occurred, its duke François Stephen de Lorraine took the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine became governor of the Austrian Netherlands. For political reasons, he decided to hide those heirs who were not born by his first wife, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, deceased when he took office; the vacuum in leadership, the French Revolution, the political results and changes issuing from the many nationalistic wars that followed in the next 130 years resulted in Lorraine becoming a permanent part of the modern Republic of France.
Because of wars, it came under control of Germany several times as the border between the nations shifted. While Lorrainian separatists do exist in the 21st century, their political power and influence is negligible. Lorraine separatism today consists more of preserving its cultural identity rather than seeking genuine political independence. With enlightened leadership and at a crossroads between French and German cultures, Lotharingia experienced tremendous economic and cultural prosperity during the 12th and 13th centuries under the Hohenstaufen emperors. Along with the rest of Europe, this prosperity was terminated in Lorraine in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death. During the Renaissance, a flourishing prosperity returned to Lotharingia until the Thirty Years' War. France annexed Lorraine by force in 1766, it retains control in the early 21st century. Due to the region's location, the population has been mixed; the north is Germanic, speaking Lorraine Franconian and other Germanic dialects.
Strong centralized nationalism had only begun to replace the feudalist system which had formed the multilingual borders, insurrection against the French occupation influenced much of the area's early identity. In 1871, the German Empire regained a part of Lorraine Bezirk Lothringen, corresponding to the current department of Moselle); the department formed part of the new Imperial German State of Alsace-Lorraine. In France, the revanchist movement developed to recover this territory; the Imperial German administration discouraged the French language and culture in favor of High German, which became the administrative language It required the use of German in schools in areas which it considered or designated as German-speaking, an arbitrary categorisation. French was allowed to remain in use only in primary and secondary schools in municipalities considered Francophone, such as Château-Salins and the surrounding arrondissement, as well and in their local administration, but after 1877, higher education, including state-run colleges, universities an
Early English Text Society
The Early English Text Society is a text publication society founded in 1864, dedicated to the editing and publication of early English texts those only available in manuscript. Most of its volumes contain editions of Old English texts, it is known for being the first to print many important English manuscripts, including Cotton Nero A.x, which contains Pearl, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, other poems. The Society was founded in England in 1864 by Frederick James Furnivall, its stated goal was "on the one hand, to print all, most valuable of the yet unprinted MSS. in English, and, on the other, to re-edit and reprint all, most valuable in printed English books, which from their scarcity or price are not within the reach of the student of moderate means."As of 2016, the Society had published 347 volumes in its Original Series. The Society keeps the majority of its older publications in print, except those which have been superseded by subsequent editions. Volumes are now published on behalf of the Society by Oxford University Press.
The Society emblem is a modified representation of the Anglo-Saxon Alfred Jewel, incorporating a scroll bearing the name of the Society. Notable members of the society when it was formed in 1864 included Furnivall himself, Alfred Tennyson, Warren de la Rue, Richard Chenevix Trench, the Rev. Richard Morris, others. Anne Hudson was the director from 2006 to 2013; the current director is Vincent Gillespie. Aelfric Society, London publisher of Anglo-Saxon texts, 1842–1856 Official website EETS texts at Project Gutenberg List of Early English Text Society publications with brief descriptions
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Milk is a nutrient-rich, white liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases, it contains many other nutrients including lactose. Interspecies consumption of milk is not uncommon among humans, many of whom consume the milk of other mammals; as an agricultural product, milk called dairy milk, is extracted from farm animals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk from 260 million dairy cows. India is the world's largest producer of milk, is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products; the increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future. The United States, India and Brazil are the world's largest exporters of milk and milk products.
China and Russia were the world's largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient, contributing to a worldwide glut of milk. Throughout the world, more than six billion people consume milk products. Over 750 million people live in dairy farming households; the term "milk" comes from "Old English meoluc, from Proto-Germanic *meluks "milk"". Milk consumption occurs in two distinct overall types: a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals and a food product obtained from other mammals for consumption by humans of all ages. In all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later; the early milk from mammals is called colostrum. Colostrum contains antibodies that provide protection to the newborn baby as well as nutrients and growth factors; the makeup of the colostrum and the period of secretion varies from species to species. For humans, the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months and breastfeeding in addition to other food for up to two years of age or more.
In some cultures it is common to breastfeed children for three to five years, the period may be longer. Fresh goats' milk is sometimes substituted for breast milk, which introduces the risk of the child developing electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, a host of allergic reactions. In many cultures in the West, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other mammals as a food product; the ability to digest milk was limited to children as adults did not produce lactase, an enzyme necessary for digesting the lactose in milk. People therefore converted milk to curd and other products to reduce the levels of lactose. Thousands of years ago, a chance mutation spread in human populations in Europe that enabled the production of lactase in adulthood; this mutation allowed milk to be used as a new source of nutrition which could sustain populations when other food sources failed. Milk is processed into a variety of products such as cream, yogurt, ice cream, cheese.
Modern industrial processes use milk to produce casein, whey protein, condensed milk, powdered milk, many other food-additives and industrial products. Whole milk and cream have high levels of saturated fat; the sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, a few tropical shrubs. The enzyme needed to digest lactose, reaches its highest levels in the human small intestine after birth and begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularly; those groups who do continue to tolerate milk, however have exercised great creativity in using the milk of domesticated ungulates, not only of cattle, but sheep, yaks, water buffalo, horses and camels. India is buffalo milk in the world. In food use, from 1961, the term milk has been defined under Codex Alimentarius standards as: "the normal mammary secretion of milking animals obtained from one or more milkings without either addition to it or extraction from it, intended for consumption as liquid milk or for further processing." The term dairy relates to animal milk production.
A substance secreted by pigeons to feed their young is called "crop milk" and bears some resemblance to mammalian milk, although it is not consumed as a milk substitute. The definition above precludes non-animal products which resemble dairy milk in color and texture, such as almond milk, coconut milk, rice milk, soy milk. In English, the word "milk" has been used to refer to "milk-like plant juices" since 1200 AD. In the USA, milk alternatives now command 13% of the "milk" market, leading the US dairy industry to attempt, multiple times, to sue producers of dairy milk alternatives, to have the name "milk" limited to animal milk, so far without success; the mammary gland is thought to have derived from apocrine skin glands. It has been suggested. Much of the argument is based on monotremes; the original adaptive significance of milk secretions may have been nutrition or immunological protection. This secretion became more copious and accrued nutritional complexity over evolutionary time. Tritylodontid cynodonts seem to have displayed lactation, based on