Quilting is the process of sewing two or more layers of fabric together to make a thicker padded material to create a quilt or quilted garment. Quilting is done with three layers: the top fabric or quilt top, batting or insulating material and backing material, but many different styles are adopted; the process of quilting uses a needle and thread to join two or more layers of material to make a quilt. The quilter's hand or sewing machine passes the needle and thread through all layers and brings the needle back up; the process is repeated across the entire area. Rocking, straight or running stitches are used with these stitches being functional and/or decorative. Quilting is done to create bed coverings, art quilt wall hangings, a variety of textile products. Quilting can produce different effects depending on the chosen pattern, such as a uniform effect across the material, or with dense quilting, can flatten one area so that another stands out; the whole process of creating a quilt or quilted garment involves other steps such as designing, piecing, appliqué, binding.
A person who works at quilting is termed a quilter. Quilting can be done by a specialized longarm quilting system. Quilt stores sell fabric, thread and other goods that are used for quilting, they have group sewing and quilting classes where one can learn how to sew or quilt. The origins of quilting remain unknown but sewing techniques of piecing, appliqué, quilting have been used for clothing and furnishings in diverse parts of the world for several millennia; the earliest known quilted garment is depicted on the carved ivory figure of a Pharaoh dating from the ancient Egyptian First Dynasty. In 1924 archaeologists discovered a quilted floor covering in Mongolia, estimated to date between 100 BC and 200 AD. In Europe, quilting has been part of the needlework tradition from about the fifth century, with early objects containing Egyptian cotton, which may indicate that Egyptian and Mediterranean trade provided a conduit for the technique. However, quilted objects were rare in Europe until the twelfth century, when quilted bedding and other items appeared after the return of the Crusaders from the Middle East.
The medieval quilted gambeson and arming doublet were garments worn under or instead of armor of maille or plate armor. These developed into the quilted doublet worn as part of fashionable European male clothing from the fourteenth to seventeenth century; the earliest known surviving European bed quilt is from late-fourteenth-century Sicily: the Tristan quilt made of linen and padded with wool. The blocks across the center are scenes from the legend of Tristan; the quilt is in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The word quilt comes from the Latin culcita meaning a stuffed sack, but it came into the English language from the French word cuilte. In American Colonial times, quilts were predominantly whole-cloth quilts–a single piece of fabric layered with batting and backing held together with fine needlework quilting. Broderie perse quilts were popular during this time and the majority of pierced or appliqued quilts made during the 1170-1800 period were medallion-style quilts ). Patchwork quilting in America dates to the 1770s, the decade the United States gained its independence from England.
These late-eighteenth- and nineteenth-century patchwork quilts mixed wool, silk and cotton in the same piece, as well as mixing large-scale and small-scale patterns. Some antique quilts made in North America have worn-out blankets or older quilts as the internal batting layer, quilted between new layers of fabric and thereby extending the usefulness of old material. During American pioneer days, foundation piecing became popular. Paper was used as a pattern. Paper was a scarce commodity in the early American west so women would save letters from home, newspaper clippings, catalogs to use as patterns; the paper not only served as a pattern but as an insulator. The paper found between the old quilts has become a primary source of information about pioneer life. Quilts made without any insulation or batting were referred to as summer quilts, they were not made for warmth. There is a long tradition of African-American quilting beginning with quilts made by slaves, both for themselves and for their owners.
The style of these quilts was determined by time period and region, rather than race, the documented slave-made quilts resemble those made by white women in their region. After 1865 and the end of slavery in the United States, African-Americans began to develop their own distinctive style of quilting. Harriet Powers, a slave-born African American woman, made two famous story quilts, she was just one of the many African-American quilters. The first nationwide recognition of African-American quilt-making came when the Gee's Bend quilting community was celebrated in an exhibition that opened in 2002 and traveled to many museums, including the Smithsonian. Gee's Bend is a small, isolated community of African-Americans in southern Alabama with a quilt-making tradition that goes back several generations and is characterized by pattern improvisation, multiple patterning and contrasting colors, visual motion, a lack of rules; the contributions made by Harriet Powers and other quilters of Gee's Bend, Alabama have been recognized by the US Post
The Green Bay Bombers was an indoor football team that played in the Professional Indoor Football League in 1998, in the Indoor Football League in 1999 and 2000. The Bombers franchise was owned by Keary Ecklund; the team office was based in Neenah and played their games at the Brown County Veterans Memorial Arena. The Bombers were coached by Mario Russo for the 1998 PIFL season and part of the 1999 IFL season and by Bud Keyes for the remainder of the 1999 and 2000 IFL seasons; the Bombers played four preseason Professional Indoor Football League games in 1998. Losing only once: February 18 – Madison Mad Dogs 22 at Green Bay Bombers 64 February 23 – Green Bay Bombers 45 at Madison Mad Dogs 39 March 7 – Green Bay Bombers 32 at Minnesota Monsters 35 March 25 – Colorado Wildcats 39 at Green Bay Bombers 53The Green Bay Bombers tied with their sister team, Madison Mad Dogs, for the second best record in the PIFL with a 10–4 record. In the playoffs, the Bombers had to travel to Madison in the first round.
They lost 19–46. Keary Ecklund took his Bombers and Mad Dogs teams and defected from the PIFL to form the Indoor Football League. In 1999, the team finished with the second best record in the league at 9–3; the start of the season was not pretty, as the team lost two of their first three games, both loses to Peoria. The week before the playoffs, the Bombers beat Duluth, 52–15. Despite the great regular season record, the team was forced to travel to Lincoln in the playoffs; the Bombers brought back a 44 -- a trip to Peoria for the IFL Gold Cup Championship. The Bombers won, 63–60; the following year was similar. After a mediocre 6-4 start, the Bombers won their final four games by large margins. After being routed 40–16 by Peoria, the Bombers took their frustrations out on LaCrosse to get the four game streak started, 62–26; the Bombers' got a home playoff game this time around and they took advantage of it, crushing Dayton, 64–23. Their bid for a repeat championship ended the following week, with a 21–10 loss at Steel Valley.
When the IFL was sold, the Bombers disappeared. In 2003, Green Bay got the Green Bay Blizzard. Rick's Sports Photos
Philanthaxia is a genus of beetles in the family Buprestidae, containing the following species: Philanthaxia acuminata Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia acuticollis Bílý, 2001 Philanthaxia aenea Philanthaxia akiyamai Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia andamana Kerremans, 1888 Philanthaxia aureoviridis Saunders, 1867 Philanthaxia auricollis Kerremans, 1912 Philanthaxia azurea Bílý, 2004 Philanthaxia binhensis Bílý, 1997 Philanthaxia cavifrons Bílý, 2004 Philanthaxia ceylonica Tôyama in Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia convexifrons Kurosawa, 1954 Philanthaxia cumingii Philanthaxia cupricauda Kerremans, 1895 Philanthaxia cupricollis Tôyama in Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia curta Deyrolle, 1864 Philanthaxia cyanescens Fisher, 1922 Philanthaxia dorsalis Waterhouse, 1887 Philanthaxia frontalis Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia hirtifrons Bílý, 2004 Philanthaxia immaculata Philanthaxia indica Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia iriei Kurosawa, 1985 Philanthaxia iris Obenberger, 1938 Philanthaxia jakli Bílý & Nakládal, 2011 Philanthaxia jendeki Bílý, 2001 Philanthaxia kinabaluana Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia kubani Bílý, 2001 Philanthaxia kwai Bílý, 1997 Philanthaxia laosensis Baudon, 1966 Philanthaxia lata Kerremans, 1914 Philanthaxia lumawigi Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia merocratoides Bílý, 2004 Philanthaxia nelsoni Bílý, 0006 Philanthaxia nigra Théry, 1911 Philanthaxia ohmomoi Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia ovata Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia parafrontalis Bílý, 1997 Philanthaxia planifrons Bílý, 2004 Philanthaxia pseudoaenea Bílý & Nakládal, 2011 Philanthaxia pseudocupricauda Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia pseudofrontalis Bílý, 2004 Philanthaxia purpuriceps Philanthaxia reticulata Bílý, 1997 Philanthaxia robusta Bílý, 2004 Philanthaxia rolciki Bílý, 2001 Philanthaxia romblonica Bílý, 1997 Philanthaxia rufimarginata Philanthaxia sadahiroi Bílý, 2004 Philanthaxia sarawakensis Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia sauteri Kerremans, 1913 Philanthaxia similis Bílý, 2001 Philanthaxia simonae Bílý, 1983 Philanthaxia splendida van de Poll, 1892 Philanthaxia sumatrensis Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia tassii Baudon, 1968 Philanthaxia thailandica Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia tonkinea Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia transwallacea Bílý, 2001 Philanthaxia tricolor Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia vietnamica Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia viridiaurea Bílý, 1993 Philanthaxia viridifrons Kerremans, 1912