Montfort of Brittany
The House of Montfort was a French noble family, which reigned in the Duchy of Brittany from 1365 to 1514. It was a branch of the Breton House of Dreux, itself a branch of the House of Dreux. It should not be confused with the older House of Montfort which ruled as Counts of Montfort-lAmaury and it succeeded the Brittany branch of the House of Dreux, invoking already in 1341 a right to succeed John III, Duke of Brittany. A war ensued, ultimately won by Montforts in 1364, the dynasty was succeeded by Valois family, first Claude, the daughter of Montfortine duchess Anne, and Claudes sons. Already from the time of Duchess Annes marriage, the duchy was gradually subsumed to the French state, in practice, so it can be said that French central government succeeded the Montforts. Count John of Montfort was the surviving son of Yolande of Dreux, Countess of Montfort suo jure from her second marriage to Arthur II. John inherited in 1322 Montfort-lAmaury from his mother, however, he was only a younger son of the Duke, who had several older sons from his first marriage.
John only received some appanage in Brittany, and his maternal inheritance, his eldest half-brother, John III, Duke of Brittany, was childless in spite of his three marriages. Duke John III died in 1341, and his duchys nobles proclaimed Countess Joan of Dreux reigning duchess and she was the daughter of the late Guy de Bretagne, comte de Penthièvre, Duke John IIIs younger full brother, and thus John IIIs full niece. John of Montfort however invoked both the principle of Salic law and the principle of proximity of blood, having himself proclaimed Duke and this led to the Breton War of Succession, a part of the Hundred Years War. His patron in this quest was king Edward III of England, the rivals, Duchess Joanna and her husband Charles of Blois were supported by the Valois kings of France. In the midst of the conflict, in 1352, the Estates of Brittany were established and they would develop into the Duchys parlement. The Breton ducal house and many noble families had followed a semi-Salic tradition which permitted a daughter to inherit from her father.
The Blois-Penthièvre family received more estates in Brittany as partial compensation, Brittany retained its autonomy, or rather independence, although continuously giving lip service to French sovereignty. After the Breton War of Succession, Brittany still had links with the English through the Earldom of Richmond, John IV, Duke of Brittany was deserted by his nobles in 1373 and left for exile in England. The second Treaty of Guérande established Brittanys neutrality in the Anglo-French conflict, in 1420, John V, Duke of Brittany was kidnapped by Olivier de Blois, count of Penthièvre, son of Joanna of Penthièvre. Johns wife, Joan of France besieged the rebels and set free her husband, according to the succession order enacted, in 1457 Duke Peter II was succeeded by his elderly uncle Arthur de Richemont instead of his sister Isabelle de Bretagne-Montfort. In 1465, Francis II took the county of Penthièvre from its heiress, Nicole de Bretagne-Blois, in the last years of Francis II, war with France continued and he was defeated in 1488
Pont-Aven School encompasses works of art influenced by Pont-Aven and its surroundings. Originally the term applied to works created in the colony at Pont-Aven which started to emerge in the 1850s. Many of the artists were inspired by the works of Paul Gauguin who spent extended periods in the area in the late 1880s and their work is frequently characterised by the bold use of pure colour and their Symbolist choice of subject matter. Pont-Aven is a commune of the Finistère département, in Brittany, from the 1850s painters began to frequent the village of Pont-Aven, wanting to spend their summers away from the city, on a low budget in a picturesque place not yet spoilt by tourism. Gauguin first worked in Pont-Aven in 1886, Gauguin, accompanied by Meijer de Haan, Charles Filiger and for a while by Sérusier, spent the winter of 1889/1890 and several months afterwards. The opening of the line from Paris to Quimper in 1862 encouraged tourism in Brittany. The first group of artists to arrive in Pont-Aven during the summer of 1866 consisted of American art students from Philadelphia including Robert Wylie, Charles Way, Earl Shinn and Howard Roberts.
They were soon joined by three other Americans, Benjamin Champney, Frederick Bridgeman and Moses Wright, by two English painters and Carraway, and by two Frenchmen. Over the next 15 years, the reputation of the colony spread far and wide, among the other foreigners to visit were Herman van den Anker from the Netherlands, Augustus Burke from Ireland and Paul Peel from Canada. The English illustrator Randolph Caldecott visited in 1880 and he illustrated Henry Blackburns Breton Folk, An Artistic Tour of Brittany, one of the most popular guide-books of the time. There were three hotels ready to accommodate visitors, the Hôtel de Voyageurs, the Hôtel du Lion dOr, the Pension Gloanec, where Gauguin and his circle lodged, was especially cheap. When Blackburn visited it offered demi-pension, i. e. board and evening meal with cider thrown in, the artists were attracted by the beauty of the surrounding countryside and the low cost of living. Many of them were looking for a new point of departure, hoping to break away from the Academic style of the École des Beaux-Arts and from Impressionism which was beginning to decline.
Brittany opened up new horizons with its language, traditional dress, fervant Catholic belief, an oral tradition, the two most innovative painters to arrive on the scene were Paul Gauguin and Émile Bernard. Gauguin had reached in Pont-Aven in July 1886 while Bernard came in the summer, when the two met again two years later, they consolidated their relationship. After his first voyage to Tahiti in 1891, Gauguin returned to Pont-Aven for the last time in 1894,1866 Herman van den Anker, Dutch,1868 William Bouguereau, French,1868 Louis Cabat, French, c. A memoir by his son, Studio Vista, London 1965, Breton Folk, An Artistic Tour in Brittany. London, Sampson Low, Searle & Rivington, new Haven, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-09109-5
Quimper faience is produced in a factory near Quimper, in Brittany, France. Since 1708, Quimper faience is painted by hand, and production continues to this day, the Faïenceries de Quimper were established in Locmaria, the historical faience quarter of the city of Quimper, near the center. The Faïencerie dArt Breton, newly created in 1994, was established in Quimper. Locmaria now houses a Quimper faience museum, the potterys design reflects a strong traditional Breton influence. One famous design which became typical for Quimper faience is the petit breton, the petit breton became popular around 1870 and is still today the main design bought by tourists. Older Quimper faience items are sought after by collectors worldwide
Rennes is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine. Rennes is the capital of the region of Brittany, as well as the Ille-et-Vilaine department, renness history goes back more than 2,000 years, at a time when it was a small Gallic village named Condate. Together with Vannes and Nantes, it was one of the cities of the historic province of Brittany. After the French Revolution, Rennes remained for most of its history a parliamentary, since the 1950s, Rennes has grown in importance through rural flight and its modern industrial development, partly automotive. The city developed extensive building plans to accommodate upwards of 200,000 inhabitants, during the 1980s, Rennes became one of the main centres in telecommunication and high technology industry. It is now a significant digital innovation centre in France, in 2015, the city is the tenth largest in France, with a metropolitan area of about 700,000 inhabitants. With more than 63,000 students in 2013, is the eighth-largest university campus of France, the inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais in French.
In 2012, lExpress named Rennes as the most liveable city in France, Rennes is the administrative capital of the French department of Ille-et-Vilaine. It has a long history due to its location at the confluence of two rivers and its proximity to the regions from which arose various challenges to the borders of Brittany. Without inscriptions, as the Celtic practice was, the Redones coinage features a charioteer whose pony has a human head, large hoards of their coins were unearthed in the treasure of Amanlis found in June 1835 and that of Saint-Jacques-de-la-Lande, discovered in February 1941. The museum at Rennes contains a representative collection. In 57 BC the Redones joined the Gaulish coalition against Rome which was suppressed by Crassus, in 52 BC, the Redones responded to the call of Vercingetorix to furnish a large contingent of warriors. The oldest known Rennais is Titus Flavius Postuminus, known to us from his steles found in Rennes in 1969. As indicated by his name, he would have been born under the Flavian dynasty, under the reign of Titus, one of the steles tells us, in Latin, that he took charge over all the public affairs in the Civitas Riedonum.
He was twice duumvir and flamen for life for Mars Mullo, during the Roman era, the strategic position of the town contributed to its importance. To the west the principal Roman route, via Osismii, stretched from Condate Riedonum to Vorgium, in 275, the threat of barbarians led to the erection of a robust brick wall around Rennes. The Holy See of Rennes had been established by 453, with a church having occupied the site of the current Rennes Cathedral since the start of the 6th century. One of the earliest bishops of Rennes, Melaine - who would become the patron saint - played an important role in the peace treaty between the Franks and the Armoricans in 497
Regions of France
France is divided into 18 administrative regions, including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions. The current legal concept of region was adopted in 1982, the term région was officially created by the Law of Decentralisation, which gave regions their legal status. The first direct elections for representatives took place on 16 March 1986. In 2016, the number of regions was reduced from 27 to 18 through amalgamation, in 2014, the French parliament passed a law reducing the number of metropolitan regions from 22 to 13 with effect from 1 January 2016. However, the region of Upper and Lower Normandy is simply called Normandy. Permanent names were to be proposed by the new regional councils by 1 July 2016, the legislation defining the new regions allowed the Centre region to officially change its name to Centre-Val de Loire with effect from January 2015. Two regions, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, opted to retain their interim names, between 1982 and 2015, there were 22 regions in Metropolitan France.
Before 2011, there were four regions, in 2011 Mayotte became the fifth. Regions lack separate legislative authority and therefore cannot write their own statutory law and they levy their own taxes and, in return, receive a decreasing part of their budget from the central government, which gives them a portion of the taxes it levies. They have considerable budgets managed by a council made up of representatives voted into office in regional elections. A regions primary responsibility is to build and furnish high schools, in March 2004, the French central government unveiled a controversial plan to transfer regulation of certain categories of non-teaching school staff to the regional authorities. Critics of this plan contended that tax revenue was insufficient to pay for the costs. In addition, regions have considerable power over infrastructural spending, e. g. education, public transit and research. This has meant that the heads of regions such as Île-de-France or Rhône-Alpes can be high-profile positions.
Number of regions controlled by each coalition since 1986, Overseas region is a recent designation, given to the overseas departments that have similar powers to those of the regions of metropolitan France. Radio France Internationale in English Overseas regions Ministère de lOutre-Mer some explanations about the past and current developments of DOMs and TOMs
The history of pre-Celtic Europe remains very uncertain. According to one theory, the root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe. Thus this area is called the Celtic homeland. The earliest undisputed examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested almost exclusively through inscriptions and place-names, Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although it was clearly being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century, coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th century recensions. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a cohesive cultural entity. They had a linguistic and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities.
By the 6th century, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use, Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain, today, Scottish Gaelic and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, and Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival. The first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to a group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC. In the fifth century BC Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube, the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel ‘to hide’, IE *kʲel ‘to heat’ or *kel ‘to impel’, several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks. Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the group. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, and uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani, pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed.
Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name originally and its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning “power, strength”, hence Old Irish gal “boldness, ferocity” and Welsh gallu “to be able, power”. The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most probably have the same origin, the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Proto-Germanic *walha is derived ultimately from the name of the Volcae and this means that English Gaul, despite its superficial similarity, is not actually derived from Latin Gallia, though it does refer to the same ancient region
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Vernacular architecture is an architectural style that is designed based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions. At least originally, vernacular architecture did not use formally-schooled architects, since the late 19th century many professional architects have worked in versions of this style. It tends to evolve over time to reflect the environmental, technological and this article covers the term traditional architecture, which exists somewhere between the two extremes yet still is based upon authentic themes. The term vernacular is derived from the Latin vernaculus, meaning domestic, indigenous, from verna, the word probably derives from an older Etruscan word. In linguistics, vernacular refers to use particular to a time. In architecture, it refers to type of architecture which is indigenous to a specific time or place. It is most often applied to residential buildings, the terms vernacular, folk and popular architecture are sometimes used synonymously.
Traditional architecture is architecture is passed down from person to person, generation to generation, particularly orally, noble discourages use of the term primitive architecture as having a negative connotation. The term popular architecture is used more in eastern Europe and is synonymous with folk or vernacular architecture, ronald Brunskill has defined the ultimate in vernacular architecture as. The function of the building would be the dominant factor, aesthetic considerations, though present to some small degree, local materials would be used as a matter of course, other materials being chosen and imported quite exceptionally. The vernacular architecture is not to be confused with so-called traditional architecture, Traditional architecture includes buildings which bear elements of polite design and palaces, for example, which normally would not be included under the rubric of vernacular. The Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World defines vernacular architecture as. comprising the dwellings, related to their environmental contexts and available resources they are customarily owner- or community-built, utilizing traditional technologies.
All forms of architecture are built to meet specific needs, accommodating the values, economies. Architecture designed by professional architects is not considered to be vernacular. Indeed, it can be argued that the process of consciously designing a building makes it not vernacular. Oliver offers the simple definition of vernacular architecture, the architecture of the people, and by the people. Frank Lloyd Wright described vernacular architecture as Folk building growing in response to actual needs, since at least the Arts and Crafts Movement, many modern architects have studied vernacular buildings and claimed to draw inspiration from them, including aspects of the vernacular in their designs. In 1946, the Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy was appointed to design the town of New Gourna near Luxor, having studied traditional Nubian settlements and technologies, he incorporated the traditional mud brick vaults of the Nubian settlements in his designs
It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, and thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is usually expressed in hours per year, or in hours per day, the first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration, an important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites, especially of health resorts. This takes account the psychological effect of strong solar light on human well-being. It is often used to promote tourist destinations, if the Sun were to be above the horizon 50% of the time for a standard year consisting of 8,760 hours, apparent maximal daytime duration would be 4,380 hours for any point on Earth. However, there are physical and astronomical effects that change that picture, atmospheric refraction allows the Sun to be still visible even when it physically sets below the horizon.
For that reason, average daytime is longest in polar areas, places on the Arctic Circle have the longest total annual daytime,4,647 hours, while the North Pole receives 4,575. Because of elliptic nature of the Earths orbit, the Southern Hemisphere is not symmetrical, the Equator has a total daytime of 4,422 hours per year. Given the theoretical maximum of daytime duration for a given location, bright sunshine hours represent the total hours when the sunlight is stronger than a specified threshold, as opposed to just visible hours. Visible sunshine, for example, occurs around sunrise and sunset, measurement is performed by instruments called sunshine recorders. For the specific purpose of sunshine duration recording, Campbell–Stokes recorders are used, when the intensity exceeds a pre-determined threshold, the tape burns. The total length of the trace is proportional to the number of bright hours. Another type of recorder is the Jordan sunshine recorder, electronic recorders have more stable sensitivity than that of the paper tape.
In 2003, the duration was finally defined as the period during which direct solar irradiance exceeds a threshold value of 120 W/m². The sky is clear in these regions, and fair weather is virtually perpetual, the descending branch of the Hadley cell and the long-term lack of atmospheric disturbances helps to explain the seemingly endless supply of sunny, cloud-free days in the deserts. Low clouding conditions are associated with rainfall shortage, as seen in these dry regions. In the belt encompassing northern Chad and the Tibesti Mountains, northern Sudan, southern Libya, some places in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula receive 3, 600–3,800 hours of bright sunshine annually. The largest sun-baked region in the world is North Africa, the sunniest month in the world is December in Eastern Antarctica, with almost 23 hours of bright sun daily