The follis was a type of coin in the Roman and Byzantine traditions. The Roman follis was a bronze coin introduced in about 294 with the coinage reform of Diocletian. It weighed about 10 grams and was about 4% silver, mostly as a layer on the surface. The word follis means bag in Latin, and there is evidence that this term was used in antiquity for a bag containing a specific amount of coins. The follis of Diocletian, despite efforts to enforce prices with the Edict on Maximum Prices, was revalued and reduced, by the time of Constantine, the follis was smaller and barely contained any silver. A series of Constantinian bronzes was introduced in the century, although the specific denominations are unclear and debated by historians. They are referred to as AE1, AE2, AE3 and AE4, with the former being the largest, Fourth century folles represent the largest category of coin finds in the United Kingdom. The follis was reintroduced as a bronze coin in 498, with the coinage reform of Anastasius. A40 nummi coin of Anastasius is depicted on the obverse of the Macedonian 50 denars banknote, the fals was a bronze coin issued by the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates beginning in the late 8th century, initially as imitations of the Byzantine follis.
Trifollaro, a coin worth 3 folles Grierson, Byzantine coinage, Dumbarton Oaks, ISBN 978-0-88402-274-9, archived from the original on 13 June 2010 Hendy
Edict on Maximum Prices
The Edict on Maximum Prices was issued in 301 by Roman Emperor Diocletian. The Edict was probably issued from Antioch or Alexandria and was set up in inscriptions in Greek and it now exists only in fragments found mainly in the eastern part of the empire, where Diocletian ruled. However, the fragments have been sufficient to estimate many prices for goods. The Edict on Maximum Prices is still the longest surviving piece of legislation from the period of the Tetrarchy, the Edict was criticized by Lactantius, a rhetorician from Nicomedia, who blamed the emperors for the inflation and told of fighting and bloodshed that erupted from price tampering. By the end of Diocletians reign in 305, the Edict was for all practical purposes ignored, the Roman economy as a whole was not substantively stabilized until Constantines coinage reforms in the 310s. Earlier in his reign, as well as in 301 around the time as the Edict on Prices, Diocletian issued Currency Decrees. It is difficult to exactly how the coinage was changed, as the values.
The Roman Empire was awash with other coins from outside of the Empire – especially in the Mediterranean, the implied coinage changeover time was at least a decade. Although the decree was successful for a short time after it was imposed. The full mechanics of the decree have been lost, no full decree has been found, as it exists only in fragments. However, enough of the text is known for the following to be understood to be true. All coins in the Decrees and the Edict were valued according to the denarius, the argenteus seems to have been set at 100 denarii, the silver-washed nummus at 25 denarii, and the bronze radiate at 4 or 5 denarii. The copper laureate was raised from 1 denarius to 2 denarii, the gold aureus, was revalued at at least 1,200 denarii. During the previous decades the amount of silver in the billon coins had fuelled inflation. This inflation is understood to be the reason the decree was issued, issues of economic system feedback were not well understood at the time. Merchants were forbidden to take their goods elsewhere and charge a higher price, the last third of the Edict, divided into 32 sections, imposed a price ceiling – a list of maxima – for well over a thousand products.
These products included various food items, freight charges for sea travel, the highest limit was on one pound of purple-dyed silk, which was set at 150,000 denarii. The Edict did not solve all of the problems in the economy, Diocletians mass minting of coins of low metallic value continued to increase inflation, and the maximum prices in the Edict were apparently too low
As (Roman coin)
The as, assarius was a bronze, and copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. The Romans replaced the usage of Greek coins, first by bronze ingots, the system thus named as was introduced in ca.280 BC as a large cast bronze coin during the Roman Republic. The following fractions of the as were produced, the bes, quincunx, quadrans, sextans and semuncia, as well as multiples of the as. After the as had issued as a cast coin for about seventy years, and its weight had been reduced in several stages. At about the time a silver coin, the denarius, was introduced. Earlier Roman silver coins had been struck on the Greek weight standards that facilitated their use in southern Italy and across the Adriatic, but all Roman coins were now on a Roman weight standard. The denarius, or tenner, was at first tariffed at ten asses and this is said to have been a result of financing the Punic Wars. During the Republic, the as featured the bust of Janus on the obverse, the as was originally produced on the libral and the reduced libral weight standard.
The bronze coinage of the Republic switched from being cast to being struck as the weight decreased, during certain periods, no asses were produced at all. The as continued to be produced until the 3rd century AD and it was the lowest valued coin regularly issued during the Roman Empire, with semis and quadrans being produced infrequently, and not at all by the time of Marcus Aurelius. The last as seems to have produced by Aurelian between 270 and 275 and at the beginning of the reign of Diocletian. The as, under its Greek name assarion, was re-established by the Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos and it was a low-quality flat copper coin, weighing ca. 3–4 grams and forming the lowest denomination of contemporary Byzantine coinage and it appears that the designs on the assarion changed annually, hence they display great variations. The assarion was replaced in 1367 by two other denominations, the tournesion and the follaro
The siliqua is the modern name given to small, Roman silver coins produced in the 4th century A. D. and later. When the coins were in circulation, the Latin word siliqua was a unit of weight defined as one twenty-fourth of the weight of a Roman solidus, siliqua vicesima quarta pars solidi est, ab arbore, cuius semen est, vocabulum tenens. A siliqua is one-twentyfourth of a solidus and the name is taken from the seed of a tree, the term siliqua comes from the siliqua graeca, the seed of the carob tree, which in the Roman weight system is equivalent to 1/6 of a scruple. The term has been applied in modern times to various silver coins on the premise that the coins were valued at 1/24 of the gold solidus and therefore represented a siliqua of gold in value. Since gold was worth about 14 times as much as silver in ancient Rome, there is little historical evidence to support this premise. The term is one of convenience, as no name for these coins is indicated by contemporary sources, thin silver coins to the 7th century which weigh about 2 to 3 grams are known as siliquae by numismatic convention.
The majority of examples suffer striking cracks or extensive clipping, Roman currency Hoxne Hoard, a hoard of 14,212 silver siliquae dating from the early 5th century
Aes rude was a nugget of bronze used as a sort of proto-currency in ancient Italy during the gradual transition from bartering to the use of round coinage made from precious metals. The Italian economy of the time was based on a bronze standard, the earliest surviving piece of aes rude dates from the early 8th century BC and as late as the late 4th century BC, and was cast in central Italy. It is, bronze, shaped vaguely like a lumpy ingot, only on did it become usual to mark these lumps and, make them into a standard shape. A History of Ancient Greece, Oxford,1999, Blackwell Publishers, Spink,1926 Head Barclay V. Historia Nummorum, a Manual of Greek Numismatic, London,1911 Gaius Plinius Secundus, Naturalis Historia, XXXIII, XIII,43. A descriptive catalogue of the cast coinage of Rome and Italy, Hard bound in quarto format,84 pages,92 plates. ISBN 978-0-9575784-0-1 Hard bound in quarto format,72 pages,87 plates, ISBN 978-0-9575784-0-1 A new edition of Italian Cast Coinage compiled by Italo Vecchi which summarises the research into Italy’s cast bronze coinage since 1885.
It lists 327 types from the aes rude and currency bars of early 1st millennium Italy to the issues during the Second Punic War. The book includes an account of the cast coinages of Rome, Umbria, North-East and Central Italy, at the end of the book there are 87 plates illustrating almost all the types in the catalogue. The book is indexed for ease of reference
The semis literally meaning half was a small Roman bronze coin that was valued at half an as. During the Roman Republic, the semis was distinguished by an S or 6 dots, some of the coins featured a bust of Saturn on the obverse, and the prow of a ship on the reverse. Initially a cast coin, like the rest of Roman Republican bronzes, the coin was issued infrequently during the Roman Empire, and ceased to be issued by the time of Hadrian 117-138 AD. Roman currency
When exactly they were first made is uncertain. Popular tradition ascribes them to Servius Tullius, but due to the quality of art found on even the earliest specimens. A date in the midst of the 5th century BC is generally agreed on, designs featured are that of a bull, an eagle, and other religious symbols. The earliest asses signata were not cast in Rome proper, but in central Italy, Etruria and they bore the image of a branch with side branches radiating from it, and were called Ramos Seccos. They did not equate to a set standard, varying from about 600 to 2500 grams when complete. They were usually broken into subdivisions, and there are very few specimens surviving today. The surviving ramo secco bars are usually quarter, half or three bars, or minor smaller pieces which could be classified as asses rudes. The same fragmentation into smaller change applies to asses signata issued by the city of Rome and they weighed approximately 5 as when whole. They could technically be termed a quincussis, although they are not marked with any value, Ramos seccos were not issued by governing bodies, and could have been made at any foundry facility.
Italo Vecchi, Italian Cast Coinage, A descriptive catalogue of the cast coinage of Rome and Italy, London 2013
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
The Antoninianus, or radiate, was a coin used during the Roman Empire thought to have been valued at 2 denarii. It was initially silver, but was slowly debased to bronze with a silver content. Antoniniani depicting females, usually the wife, featured the bust resting upon a crescent moon. Even at its introduction the silver content was only equal to 1.5 denarii and this helped to create inflation, people rapidly hoarded the denarii, while both buyers and sellers recognised the new coin had a lower intrinsic value and elevated their prices to compensate. Each new issue of the Antoninianus thus had less silver in it than the last, in 271 Aurelian increased the average weight of the Antoninianus. This was carried out for a short time and this period was when the enigmatic XXI was first marked on the reverse of the Antoninianus. The true meaning of this series of numbers is still a topic of debate, by the late 3rd century the coins were almost entirely made of bronze from melted down old issues like the sestertius.
Vast quantities were being minted, with a proportion of the stocks being contemporary forgeries, often with blundered legends. Individual coins were by practically worthless and were lost or discarded by the millions, today most of these coins are extremely common finds, with a few more scarce examples including Aemilianus, Marcus Aurelius Marius and Regalianus. The situation was not unlike the hyperinflation of the Weimar Republic in 1920s Germany, the coin ceased to be used by the end of the 3rd century when a series of coinage reforms attempted to arrest the decline by issuing new types. Modern numismatists use this name for the coin because it is not known what it was called in antiquity, an ancient Roman document called the Historia Augusta refers to silver coins named after an Antoninus on several occasions
The uncia was a Roman currency worth 1/12 of an as. By derivation, it was the name of a coin valued at one-twelfth of an as produced during the Roman Republic. Obverse types of the include a knucklebone, a barleycorn. In imperial times the uncia was briefly revived under Trajan and Hadrian and this coin was about 11–14 mm in diameter and weighed about 0. 8–1.2 grams. It featured the bust of the emperor on the obverse with no inscription, if this issue belonged to the imperial system, meaning it was not a provincial piece, it would be an uncia. This issue may have made only for circulation in the East. Duella Roman currency Roman Republican coinage
The argenteus was a silver coin produced by the Roman Empire from the time of Diocletians coinage reform in AD294 to ca. It was of similar weight and fineness as the denarius of the time of Nero, the coin was produced at a theoretical weight of 1/96th of a Roman pound, as indicated by the Roman numeral XCVI on the coins reverse. Argenteus, meaning of silver in Latin, was first used in Plinys Natural History in the phrase argenteus nummus, the 4th-century historian Ammianus uses the same phrase, however there is no indication that this is the official name for a denomination. The Historia Augusta uses the phrase to refer to several fictitious coins, the coin has been continuously in use by Caesars Legion in their quest to destroy the profligates. Numismatics Roman currency Edict on Maximum Prices