Second Battle of Charleston Harbor
After being repulsed twice trying to take Fort Wagner by storm, Maj. Gen. Quincy Adams Gillmore decided on a less costly approach and began laying siege to the fort. In the days following the second battle of Fort Wagner. Union gunners made use of a new piece of artillery known as the Requa gun—25 rifle barrels mounted on a field carriage, while sappers dug zig-zag trenches toward Fort Wagner a second novelty was used—the calcium floodlight. The ground the Union sappers were digging through was shallow sand with a muddy base, the trenching efforts began to accidentally uncover Union dead from the previous assaults on Fort Wagner. Disease and bad water plagued soldiers on both sides, the Union army maintained a constant rotation of soldiers to man the forward trenches of the grand guard. During the evening of August 16 a Confederate artillery shell burst through the serving as the headquarters for Colonel Joshua B. Howell, commanding officer of the guard that evening. A shell fragment struck Colonel Howell wounding him severely in the head, despite Howells quick recovery the incident prompted the Union commander to exclusively use veteran troops in the forward trenches.
Confederates kept a constant rotation of soldiers through Fort Wagner, during the night rowboats would bring fresh troops from the mainland to replace the garrison. Even though they had won a victory at Fort Wagner the Confederates fully expected the campaign to continue. Having a large garrison to draw from Gen. P. G. T, Beauregard was prepared to continue the campaign. Immediately in command of Confederate forces surrounding Charleston was former army officer. Ripleys forces were spread throughout fortifications surrounding Charleston Harbor and included a division of local South Carolina militia and Admiral John A. Dahlgren requested reinforcements from General-in-Chief Henry Halleck. Halleck was reluctant but nevertheless a division from the Army of the Potomac was transferred to the south under George H. Gordon, despite the marshy conditions on Morris Island, Union forces had constructed powerful batteries to combat Fort Wagner. These batteries were often named in honor of leaders such as Batteries Strong, Kearny.
Others were named for high ranking officers such as Batteries Rosecrans. Inside Fort Wagner only one 10-inch Columbiad faced seaward and the few guns were in poor condition. During Colonel Lawrence M. Keitts tenure in command of the Confederate garrison he established stations on Fort Wagners west wall to coordinate with Confederate batteries on James Island
Thomas W. Sherman
Thomas West Sherman was a United States Army officer with service during the Mexican-American War and the American Civil War. While some contemporaries mistakenly identified him as the brother of the more famous General William T. Sherman, known to his friends as Tim, was born in Newport, Rhode Island. His desire to attend the United States Military Academy at West Point was so strong that he walked from Newport to Washington and he graduated from the Academy on July 1,1836. Upon graduation he was commissioned a lieutenant in the 3rd U. S. Sherman would serve the bulk of his career with the 3rd Artillery and his early career included service in the Florida War against the Seminoles from 1836‑38 and in the Cherokee Nation in 1838 while transferring the Native Americans to the West. He was promoted to first lieutenant on March 14,1838 and he served again in the Florida War from 1838 to 1842 and on recruiting service in 1842. He served at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina from 1842 to 1844 and was again on recruiting service from 1844 to 1846 and he was promoted to captain on May 28,1846.
He was assigned to Fort Trumbull in New London, Connecticut in 1848 and he was on frontier duty at Fort Snelling, Minnesota from 1853 to 1857 and was in command of expedition to Yellow Medicine, Minnesota in 1857. At the start of the Civil War, Sherman was serving as a major in the 3rd Artillery when he received a commission as brigadier general on May 17,1861. He assumed command of the forces in the Port Royal Expedition. Sherman and the force under Flag Officer Samuel F. du Pont captured Port Royal in a combined Army/Navy operation. After briefly commanding the Department of the South, Sherman was sent to the Western Theater and he took command of Major General George H. Thomass division during the Siege of Corinth when the latter assumed command of the Right Wing of Major General Henry W. Hallecks army group. After that he commanded the Defenses of New Orleans before taking command of a division in Major General Nathaniel P. Bankss army, during the May 27,1863 attack on Port Hudson, Sherman was severely wounded, which led to the amputation of his right leg.
His injuries were so severe that he was not expected to live, for the rest of the war he held administrative commands in Louisiana. In recognition of his heroism and services, Sherman was breveted to the rank of general at the end of the war. After the war, Sherman joined the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States and was issued insignia number 643. Sherman was mustered out of service on April 30,1866. He served in command of his regiment and the post of Fort Adams, in Newport from July 29,1866 and he was in temporary command of the Department of the East from January to July 16,1868
Glory (1989 film)
Glory is a 1989 American war film directed by Edward Zwick and starring Matthew Broderick, Denzel Washington, Cary Elwes and Morgan Freeman. The regiment is known for its heroic actions at Fort Wagner. The film was nominated for five Academy Awards and won three, including Denzel Washington for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of Private Tripp. It won many awards, including from the British Academy, the Golden Globe Awards, the Kansas City Film Critics Circle, Political Film Society. The film was co-produced by TriStar Pictures and Freddie Fields Productions and it premiered in limited release in the U. S. on December 14,1989, and in wide release on February 16,1990, making $26,828,365 on an $18 million budget. The soundtrack, composed by James Horner and performed in part by Boys Choir of Harlem, was released on January 23,1990, the home video was distributed by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. On June 2,2009, a widescreen Blu-ray version, featuring the directors commentary, during the American Civil War, Captain Robert Gould Shaw is injured in the Battle of Antietam and sent home to Boston on medical leave.
He visits his family there, where he meets the abolitionist Frederick Douglass, Shaw is offered a promotion to the rank of Colonel to command one of the first all-black regiments in the Union Army, the 54th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. He accepts and asks his friend, 2nd Lieutenant Cabot Forbes, to serve as his second in command. Their first volunteer is another friend, Thomas Searles, a bookish free African American, other recruits soon follow, including battlefield gravedigger John Rawlins, timid freeman Jupiter Sharts, cantankerous slave escapee Silas Tripp, and a teenage drummer boy who is mute. Tripp instantly clashes with Searles and Rawlins is forced to keep the peace between them, the black soldiers undergo a severe training regimen under Irish Sergeant-Major Mulcahy. When Shaw confronts Mulcahy about his methods he comes to realize that Mulcahy is in training them fairly and is trying to prepare the men for the extreme challenges that they will face. When Tripp goes AWOL and is caught, Shaw orders him flogged in front of the troops, the scars from his beatings as a slave are exposed, giving pause to the abolitionist Shaw.
While talking to Rawlins, Shaw discovers that Tripp had left to find shoes to replace his worn ones, Shaw learns that his men are being denied regular supplies and confronts the bases racist quartermaster on their behalf. He further supports them through a pay dispute, as the Federal government decided to pay black soldiers $10/month as opposed to the $13/month that white soldiers earn. Tripp encourages the men to go without pay in protest, and Shaw tears up his own pay stub in solidarity, earning the respect, in recognition for his leadership among the troops, Shaw promotes Rawlins. As black soldiers are forbidden from being commissioned as officers, Rawlins is invested with the rank of Sergeant-Major, once the 54th completes its training, they are transferred under the command of General Charles Garrison Harker. On the way to joining the war in South Carolina, the 54th is ordered, by Harkers second-in-command, Colonel James Montgomery, to sack a Georgia town, and burn it
Ormsby M. Mitchel
Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel was an American astronomer and major general in the American Civil War. A multi-talented man, he was an attorney, professor and he is notable for publishing the first magazine in the United States devoted to astronomy. Known in the Union Army as Old Stars, he is best known for ordering the raid that became famous as the Great Locomotive Chase during the American Civil War, Mitchel was born in Union County, but grew up in Lebanon, Ohio. He was educated in Lebanon and afterward at West Point in 1825 and he graduated in 1829, placing 15th out of 46 graduates. Mitchel stayed at West Point as assistant professor of mathematics for three years, after holding several military positions while studying law, he went to Cincinnati, passed the bar and became an attorney. He filled the office of Chief Engineer of the Little Miami Railroad, conceiving a desire to possess a fine telescope, he began by striving to awaken interest in the subject of astronomy through a series of lectures.
The first was heard by 16 people, but the last was listened to by an audience of 2,000. Availing himself of the enthusiasm thus generated, he organized the Cincinnati Astronomical Society with 300 members at $25 each and his search was long, but successful and, returning, he plunged into the struggle to secure a suitable observatory. In the person of the eccentric but immensely capable Nicholas Longworth he found a helpful coadjutor, upon the land which was donated by Longworth. Mitchel began the foundation of his building and John Quincy Adams, more than 77 years of age, at this period of undertaking, the plucky little professor had collected $3,000, and $6,500 necessary to complete his work. The times were hard and the came in so slowly that he determined to collect them in person. Where money could not be procured, he took provisions or anything in the world that had negotiable value and this potpourri of valuables he marketed and turned into cash as best he could. Nor was this all that the professor had to do.
The ascent to the place of construction was steep, therefore, he built an kiln and burned the lime, he purchased a sand pit and often shoveled its contents into the wagon with his own hands. These herculean laborers, arduous as they were, constituted but the advocation of the man for, all the time, he carried on his classes. Each Saturday exhausted his funds and on Monday he had to begin collecting again, nothing daunted or discouraged the invincible enthusiast, he stuck resolutely to his task until it was done, and in March 1845 he had the satisfaction of hoisting his telescope into place. At the time, it was the second-largest refracting telescope in the world, for a time, Cincinnati lost his inspirational presence. Although, he did not wholly relinquish a connection with the one he had built in Cincinnati, Mitchel helped establish observatories for the United States Navy and Harvard University
United States Army
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
Siege of Fort Pulaski
The Siege of Fort Pulaski concluded with the Battle of Fort Pulaski fought April 10–11,1862, during the American Civil War. Union forces on Tybee Island and naval operations conducted a 112-day siege, the siege and battle are important for innovative use of rifled guns which made existing coastal defenses obsolete. The Union initiated large scale amphibious operations under fire, the forts surrender strategically closed Savannah as a port. The Union extended its blockade and aids to navigation down the Atlantic coast, the Confederate army-navy defense blocked Federal advance for over three months, secured the city, and prevented any subsequent Union advance from seaward during the war. Coastal rail connections were extended to blockaded Charleston, South Carolina, Fort Pulaski is located on Cockspur Island, near the mouth of the Savannah River. The fort commanded seaward approaches to the City of Savannah and it was commercially and industrially important as a cotton exporting port, railroad center and the largest manufacturing center in the state, including a state arsenal and private shipyards.
Two southerly estuaries led to the Savannah River behind the fort, immediately east of Pulaski, and in sight of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, lay Tybee Island with a lighthouse station. Fort Pulaski was built as a Third System fort in the United States system of defense on land ceded to the United States by the State of Georgia. Authorized by appropriations begun by Congress under the James Madison administration, construction of Third System forts was directed under U. S, Secretaries of War including James Monroe of Virginia, William H. Crawford of Georgia, and John Calhoun of South Carolina. The new construction replaced two earlier forts on Tybee Island, a British colonial fort was torn down in the American Revolution. The first U. S. fort, authorized in the Washington Administration, was away in an 1804 hurricane. Construction began on Fort Pulaski during 1830, and was completed in 1845 in the administration of John Tyler by a successor of U. S. Secretary of War John Bell of Tennessee.
The new fort was named to honor Casimir Pulaski, the Polish hero of the American Revolution, a young Lieutenant Robert E. Lee served as an engineer during the construction of the fort, at which time he resided in Savannah, Georgia. The Third System fort expanded Savannahs defenses downriver from Old Fort Jackson, in the campaigns for national elections in 1860, Southern secessionists threatened civil war, were their opponent to be elected President. Following the policy of President James Buchanan and his Secretary of War John B, floyd of Virginia, the newly inaugurated Lincoln Administration at first did not garrison and defend forts, arsenals or U. S. Treasury Mints in the South. The policy was continued until April 12,1861, at Fort Sumter, South Carolina, in late 1861, the commander, Department of Georgia, General Alexander Robert Lawton would transfer to Richmond. On November 5, General Robert E. Lee assumed command of the newly created Department of South Carolina, lawtons October report for his Department listed 2,753 men and officers in the environs of Savannah, almost half of the command.
First Georgia Regulars had been assigned to Tybee Island and they built a battery on Tybee Island and manned it, along with lookouts along the beach
John A. Dahlgren
John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren was a United States Navy officer who founded his services Ordnance Department and launched major advances in gunnery. Dahlgren devised a smoothbore howitzer, adaptable for many sizes of craft as well as shore installations and he introduced a cast-iron muzzle-loading cannon with vastly increased range and accuracy, known as the Dahlgren gun, that became the Navys standard armament. In the Civil War, Dahlgren was made Commander of the Washington Navy Yard, in 1863, he took command of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron at the rank of Rear Admiral, and helped William Tecumseh Sherman secure Savannah, Georgia. Dahlgren was born on November 13,1809, in Philadelphia, the son of Bernhard Ulrik Dahlgren, Dahlgren joined the United States Navy in 1826 as a midshipman and was promoted to the coastal survey in 1834. By 1847, he was an officer, and at the Washington Navy Yard began to improve and systematize the procurement. He was assigned to the Washington Navy Yard in 1847, while there, Dahlgren established the U. S.
Under his command, the Navy established its own foundry to new equipment. His most famous contribution was the Dahlgren gun, a muzzle loading cannon. His shell gun design was an improvement on the shell-gun invented by the French Admiral Henri-Joseph Paixhans. The difference between the system of Paixhans and my own was simply that Paixhans guns were strictly shell guns and they were, auxiliary to, or associates of, the shot-guns. This made a mixed armament, was objectionable as such, and my idea was, to have a gun that should generally throw shells far and accurately, with the capacity to fire solid shot when needed. Also to compose the whole battery entirely of such guns, the United States Navy had equipped several ships with 8-inch Paixhans guns of 63 and 55 cwt. in 1845, and a 10-inch shell gun of 86 cwt. In 1854, the six Merrimack-class warships were equipped with 9-inch Dahlgren shell guns, by 1856, the Dahlgren gun had become the standard armament of the United States Navy. The boat howitzer derived from a requirement realized during the Mexican–American War, during that war, naval landing parties were armed with a variety of army ordnance, often too heavy and cumbersome for use with the landing boats.
Dahlgren first experimented with standard army-issue 12-pounder mountain howitzers before devising his own system of guns, the boat howitzers came in four basic types, small and heavy versions of the 12-pounder and a larger 24-pounder. All conformed to the basic shape, straight gun tubes with no adorning bands or clefts. Elevation was made via a screw threaded into the knob at the breech, instead of by traditional trunnions, the guns were attached to the carriage by a loop under the barrel. The Dahlgren system included mounting carriages that facilitated various employments of the guns, a single-axle metal carriage was designed for shore use
The Parrott rifle was a type of muzzle-loading rifled artillery weapon used extensively in the American Civil War. The gun was invented by Captain Robert Parker Parrott, a West Point graduate and he resigned from the service in 1836 and became the superintendent of the West Point Foundry in Cold Spring, New York. He created the first Parrott Rifle in 1860 and patented it in 1861, Parrotts were manufactured with a combination of cast and wrought iron. The cast iron made for a gun, but was brittle enough to suffer fractures. Hence, a wrought iron reinforcing band was overlaid on the breech to give it additional strength. There were prior cannons designed this way, but the method of securing this band was the innovation that allowed the Parrott to overcome the deficiencies of these earlier models. It was applied to the gun red-hot and the gun was turned while pouring water down the muzzle, by the end of the Civil War, both sides were using this type of gun extensively. Parrott rifles were manufactured in different sizes, from 10-pounders up to the rare 300-pounder, in the field, the 10- and 20-pounders were used by both armies.
The 20-pounder was the largest field gun used during the war, the smaller size was much more prevalent, it came in two bore sizes,2.9 inch and 3. 0-in. Confederate forces used both bore sizes during the war, which added to the complication of supplying the appropriate ammunition to its batteries, until 1864, Union batteries used only the 2. 9-in. The M1863, with a 3-in bore, had firing characteristics similar to the model, it can be recognized by its straight barrel. Its range was up to 2,000 yards with a trained crew, naval versions of the 20-, 30-, 60-, and 100-pound Parrotts were used by the Union navy. The 100-pound naval Parrott could achieve a range of 6900 yards at an elevation of 25 degrees, although accurate, as well as being cheaper and easier to make than most rifled artillery guns, the Parrott had a poor reputation for safety and they were shunned by many artillerists. At the end of 1862, Henry J. Hunt attempted to get the Parrott eliminated from the Army of the Potomacs inventory, during battles when the Parrott gun would burst, artillerists would chip out the jagged parts and continue firing.
In 1889, The New York Times called on the Ordnance Bureau of the War Department to discontinue use of the Parrott gun altogether, several hundred Parrott gun tubes remain today, many adorning battlefield parks, county courthouses, etc. The gun tubes made by Parrotts foundry are identifiable by the letters WPF, a list of many of the surviving tubes can be found at the National Register of Surviving Civil War Artillery. By summer 1863, Union forces became frustrated by the heavily fortified Confederate position at Fort Sumter, in all, two 80-pounder Whitworths, nine 100-pounder Parrotts, six 200-pounder Parrotts, and a 300-pounder Parrott were deployed. It was manned by the 11th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment, on August 21,1863 Gillmore sent Confederate general P. G. T
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston had an estimated population of 132,609 in 2015. Charleston was founded as Charles Town—honoring King Charles II of England—in 1670 and its initial location at Albemarle Point on the west bank of the Ashley River was abandoned in 1680 for its present site, which became the 5th-largest city in North America within 10 years. Despite its size, it remained unincorporated throughout the period, its government was handled directly by the state legislature and by its Anglican parish wardens. It adopted its present spelling with its incorporation as a city in 1783 at the close of the Revolutionary War. The Confederates burned the town prior to its evacuation but continued demand for the cotton and rice, along with growing industry. In 2016, Charleston was ranked the Worlds Best City by Travel + Leisure, the city proper consists of six distinct areas, the Peninsula or Downtown, West Ashley, Johns Island, James Island, Daniel Island, and the Cainhoy Peninsula. The old town fit into 4–5 square miles as late as the First World War, the city limits have expanded across the Cooper River, encompassing Daniel Island and the Cainhoy area.
The present city has an area of 127.5 square miles. North Charleston blocks any expansion up the peninsula, and Mount Pleasant occupies the land directly east of the Cooper River, Charleston Harbor runs about 7 miles southeast to the Atlantic with an average width of about 2 miles, surrounded on all sides except its entrance. Sullivans Island lies to the north of the entrance and Morris Island to itself south, the entrance itself is about 1 mile wide, it was originally only 18 feet deep, but began to be enlarged in the 1870s. The tidal rivers are evidence of a submergent or drowned coastline, there is a submerged river delta off the mouth of the harbor and the Cooper River is deep. Charleston has a subtropical climate, with mild winters, humid summers. Summer is the wettest season, almost half of the rainfall occurs from June to September in the form of thundershowers. Fall remains relatively warm through November, winter is short and mild, and is characterized by occasional rain. Measurable snow only occurs several times per decade at the most, however,6.0 in fell at the airport on December 23,1989, the largest single-day fall on record, contributing to a single-storm and seasonal record of 8.0 in snowfall.
The highest temperature recorded within city limits was 104 °F on June 2,1985, and June 24,1944, and the lowest was 7 °F on February 14,1899. At the airport, where records are kept, the historical range is 105 °F on August 1,1999. Hurricanes are a threat to the area during the summer and early fall
Virginia is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, as well as in the historic Southeast. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond, Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealths estimated population as of 2014 is over 8.3 million, the areas history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony, slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colonys early politics and plantation economy. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008 and it is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms.
Virginias economy changed from agricultural to industrial during the 1960s and 1970s. Virginia has an area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water. Virginias boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court. The Chesapeake Bay separates the portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginias Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the river valleys of the Susquehanna River. Many of Virginias rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay, the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era.
The region, known for its clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state. The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley, the region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, in this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War,1861 to 1865. It included the permanent regular army of the United States, which was augmented by numbers of temporary units consisting of volunteers as well as conscripts. The Union Army fought and eventually defeated the Confederate Army during the war, at least two and a half million men served in the Union Army, almost all were volunteers. About 360,000 Union soldiers died from all causes,280,000 were wounded and 200,000 deserted. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,000 men in the U. S. Army, and of these many Southern officers resigned and joined the Confederate army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, Lincolns call forced the border states to choose sides, and four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. The war proved to be longer and more extensive than anyone North or South had expected, the call for volunteers initially was easily met by patriotic Northerners and even immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals.
Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania immediately responded to Lincolns call, as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Nevertheless, between April 1861 and April 1865, at least two and a million men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers. It is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army. At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S, Military Academy on the active list, of these,296 resigned or were dismissed, and 184 of those became Confederate officers. Of the approximately 900 West Point graduates who were civilians,400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283, the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers.
The Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were generally organized geographically, Military Division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the modern term Theater, and were modeled close to, though not synonymous with. Department An organization that covered a region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein. Those named for states usually referred to Southern states that had been occupied and it was more common to name departments for rivers or regions. District A subdivision of a Department, there were Subdistricts for smaller regions