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Quintana Roo

Quintana Roo the Free and Sovereign State of Quintana Roo, is one of the 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 11 municipalities and its capital city is Chetumal. Quintana Roo is located on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula and is bordered by the states of Campeche to the west and Yucatán to the northwest, by the Orange Walk and Corozal districts of Belize, along with an offshore borderline with Belize District to the south; as Mexico's easternmost state, Quintana Roo has a coastline to the east with the Caribbean Sea and to the north with the Gulf of Mexico. The state covered 44,705 square kilometers and shared a small border with Guatemala in the southwest of the state. However, in 2013, Mexico's Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation resolved the boundary dispute between Quintana Roo and Yucatán stemming from the creation of the Calakmul municipality by Campeche in 1997, siding with Campeche and thereby benefiting Yucatán. Quintana Roo is the home of the city of Cancún, the islands of Cozumel and Isla Mujeres, the towns of Bacalar, Playa del Carmen and Akumal, as well as the ancient Maya ruins of Chacchoben, Cobá, Muyil, Xel-Há, Xcaret.

The Sian Ka'an biosphere reserve is located in the state. The statewide population is expanding at a rapid rate due to the construction of hotels and the demand for workers. Many migrants come from Yucatán, Campeche and Veracruz; the state is hit by severe hurricanes due to its exposed location, the most recent and severe being Hurricane Dean in 2007, which made landfall with sustained winds of 280 km/h, with gusts up to 320 km/h. The area that makes up modern Quintana Roo was long part of Yucatán, sharing its history. With the Caste War of Yucatán, which started in the 1840s, all non-natives were driven from the region; the independent Maya nation of Chan Santa Cruz was based on what is now the town of Felipe Carrillo Puerto. For decades it maintained considerable independence, having separate trade and treaty relationships with British Honduras, now Belize. Quintana Roo was made a territory of Mexico by decree of President Porfirio Díaz on November 24, 1902, it was named after an early patriot of Andrés Quintana Roo.

The Mexican army succeeded in defeating most of the Maya population of the region during the 1910s. In 1915 the area was again declared to be part of the state of Yucatán. Quintana Roo was granted statehood within the United Mexican States on October 8, 1974. According to the Köppen climate classification, much of the state has a tropical wet and dry climate while the island of Cozumel has a tropical monsoon climate; the mean annual temperature is 26 °C. The hottest months are April and August where the average high is 33 °C while January is coldest month with an average low of 17 °C. Extreme temperatures can range from low of 10 °C in the coldest months to 36 °C in the hottest months. Quintana Roo averages 1,300 mm of precipitation per year, which falls throughout the year, though June to October are the wetter months. Hurricanes can hit the coastal areas during the hurricane season from September to November; the State of Quintana Roo is divided into 11 municipalities, each headed by a municipal president: Quintana Roo's tourist boom began in the 1970s.

Tourism resulted in the development of coastal hotels and resorts, in addition to ecotourism inland and in coastal regions, which have increased the development of the region as well as the gross domestic product. Quintana Roo ranks sixth among Mexican states according to the United Nations Human Development index; the Riviera Maya is located along the Caribbean coastline, including Cancún, Playa del Carmen, Puerto Morelos and Cozumel. There are a number of Mayan archeological sites in Quintana Roo, including Chacchoben, Kohunlich, San Gervasio, Xcaret, Yo'okop; the Yucatán Peninsula is one of the most forested areas of the world in terms of biotic mass per hectare. However, anthropological and governmental experts have determined that Quintana Roo is'facing a faunal crisis'. Many medium to large game animals are disappearing due to habitat loss. While its population is small, Quintana Roo is experiencing both a population influx and an increase in tourism; this only increases the pressure on the animals native to the area.

There are four generalized ecosystems in Quintana Roo -- jungle. One of the byproducts of traditional and large-scale agriculture is the creation of additional habitats, such as second growth forests and fields/pastures. Tourism has caused Quintana Roo to become famous around the world in the last thirty or so years for its beaches and cenote sinkholes. Biological experts consider the coastline of Quintana Roo one of the best manatee habitats worldwide. Queen conchs are noted for their inhabitation of coastal territory; the wide variety of biotic organisms such as these has decreased drastically in the last fifteen years. Affected by the loss of habitat due to both agriculture and development, birds are one of the region's most varied animal assets. Hundreds of species reside in Quintana Roo permanently, with hundreds of others either wintering there or using it as a stopover on the long journey into South America; as a result, many birders come to the area annually in search of the unexpected.

Many blame the environmental damage in Quintana Roo on either the regional

Elkview, West Virginia

Elkview is a census-designated place in Kanawha County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 1,222 at the 2010 census, it is named after the Elk River. Interstate 79, the "Jennings Randolph Expressway", provides highway access to Elkview from exit 9. U. S. Route 119 reaches Elkview. A shopping center was built off I-79, which includes a new La Quinta Inns and Suites, Kroger, K-Mart,and several fast food restaurants. Hundreds of people were stranded at this shopping center during the 2016 West Virginia flood, as the bridge leading to it from the interstate was washed away; this small town is nestled between the larger town of Clendenin, the municipality of Kanawha County, Charleston. Elkview is located at 38°26′16″N 81°28′55″W, twelve miles east of Charleston. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Elkview CDP has a total area of 1.8 square miles, of which 1.7 square miles is land and 0.1 square mile is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,182 people, 507 households, 370 families residing in the community.

The population density was 697.4 people per square mile. There were 552 housing units at an average density of 325.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the community was 98.82% White, 0.25% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.51% of the population. There were 507 households out of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.2% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.0% were non-families. 24.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.74. The community's age distribution is 20.0% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 27.9% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males.

The median income for a household in the community was $35,033, the median income for a family was $37,467. Males had a median income of $31,462 versus $21,136 for females; the per capita income for the community was $15,057. About 11.5% of families and 13.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.8% of those under age 18 and 21.3% of those age 65 or over. Herbert Hoover High School, named in honor of former U. S. President Herbert Hoover, is located in Clendenin, a few miles north of Elkview

Kim Suk-won (general)

Kim Suk-won was a Officer in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. He was the third-highest ranking ethnic Korean in the Japanese Army behind Lt. General Hong Sa-ik and Korean Crown Prince Euimin. Born in Seoul, Kim was sent to Japan for studies in 1909 just before the Empire of Korea was annexed by Japan. Kim entered the 27th class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1913. At that time, there were several students from Korea enrolled at the military academy. Many of those who opposed the annexation had left to join in the movements for Korean independence. However, Kim saw the annexation of Korea as an opportunity for advancement, a chance to prove his loyalty to Japan. Following his 1915 graduation, Kim was assigned based in Osaka. In 1917, Kim was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant. During the 1931 invasion of Manchuria, Kim was captain of a mechanised artillery division, which had a distinguished combat record. After the 1937 outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Kim was further promoted to major, assigned to the IJA 20th Division based outside of Seoul, a singular indication of the trust that he had attained within the Japanese military.

In May 1937, Kim led the 74th Infantry Regiment on a mission to eradicate Kim Il Sung's bandits in the border area around Baekdu Mountain. However, his force of about 2,000 men walked into a trap set by Kim Il Sung at Chiensan Pass, some distance north of Hyesanjin and Kim Il Sung's ten heavy machine guns mowed down Kim Suk Won's Japanese troops. Kim escaped the encounter with only 200 survivors. Kim was dispatched to mainland China in July 1937. Prior to departing, he announced that he intended to die for the Emperor in battle and asked that a school be established in his memory, to be financed by the 700 won reward money he had received from Emperor Hirohito for his previous victories in Manchuria. However, this request alarmed the officials in the Japanese administration in Korea, who felt that such a school in honor of an ethnic Korean that might foster Korean nationalism. Kim distinguished himself again at the Battle of Dingwon on 28 July 1937, where he led two companies of Japanese soldiers in a seven-hour hand-to-hand combat that smashed a Chinese division.

He was awarded several medals and the Governor-General of Korea gave his permission for a school, the "Won Suk Academy" to be founded in 1938. This academy is known today as Senior High Schools. Following the 1939 implementation of the sōshi-kaimei policy, Kim adopted the Japanese style name Kaneyama Shakugen, by adding the character for "mountain" to his Korean surname Kim. In March 1939, Kim was promoted to lieutenant colonel soon after returning Seoul, reassigned to the 78th Infantry Regiment of the IJA 20th Division, located in Yongsan, he awarded the Order of 3rd class. In 1944, Kim was further promoted to colonel, he was instrumental in the implementation of the draft on the Korean peninsula, which began from January 20, 1944. After the surrender of Japan ended World War II, Kim joined the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea's military affairs commission, the Republic of Korea Army, where he held the rank of brigadier general. In 1948, Korean President Syngman Rhee put Kim in charge of the South Korean border units, attempted to name him commander of the South Korean Army, but was overridden by General Walton H. Walker of the United States Eighth Army, who distrusted Kim's background.

Kim retired from active duty, but was recalled in early July 1950 due to the outbreak of the Korean War. He was promoted to Major General and retired again in 1956. Kim published his memoirs in 1977. After his death in 1978, he was buried next to Seongnam High School, of which he was one of the founders. A bronze bust of him remains standing on the school ground.