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Quintilian

Marcus Fabius Quintilianus was a Roman educator and rhetorician from Hispania referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing. In English translation, he is referred to as Quintilian, although the alternate spellings of Quintillian and Quinctilian are seen, the latter in older texts. Quintilian was born c. 35 in Calagurris in Hispania. His father, a well-educated man, sent him to Rome to study rhetoric early in the reign of Nero. While there, he cultivated a relationship with Domitius Afer, who died in 59. "It had always been the custom … for young men with ambitions in public life to fix upon some older model of their ambition … and regard him as a mentor". Quintilian evidently adopted Afer as his model and listened to him speak and plead cases in the law courts. Afer has been characterized as a more austere, Ciceronian speaker than those common at the time of Seneca the Younger, he may have inspired Quintilian’s love of Cicero. Sometime after Afer's death, Quintilian returned to Hispania to practice law in the courts of his own province.

However, in 68, he returned to Rome as part of the retinue of Emperor Galba, Nero's short-lived successor. Quintilian does not appear to have been a close advisor of the Emperor, which ensured his survival after the assassination of Galba in 69. After Galba's death, during the chaotic Year of the Four Emperors which followed, Quintilian opened a public school of rhetoric. Among his students were Pliny the Younger, Tacitus; the Emperor Vespasian made him a consul. The emperor "in general was not interested in the arts, but … was interested in education as a means of creating an intelligent and responsible ruling class"; this subsidy enabled Quintilian to devote more time to the school, since it freed him of pressing monetary concerns. In addition, he appeared in the courts of law. Of his personal life, little is known. In the Institutio Oratoria, he mentions a wife who died young, as well as two sons who predeceased him. Quintilian retired during the reign of Domitian, his retirement may have been prompted by his achievement of financial security and his desire to become a gentleman of leisure.

Quintilian survived several emperors. Domitian’s cruelty and paranoia may have prompted the rhetorician to distance himself quietly; the emperor does not appear to have taken offence as he made Quintilian tutor of his two grand-nephews in 90 AD. He is believed to have died sometime around 100, not having long survived Domitian, assassinated in 96; the only extant work of Quintilian is a twelve-volume textbook on rhetoric entitled Institutio Oratoria, published around AD 95. This work deals not only with the theory and practice of rhetoric, but with the foundational education and development of the orator himself, providing advice that ran from the cradle to the grave. An earlier text, De Causis Corruptae Eloquentiae has been lost, but is believed to have been "a preliminary exposition of some of the views set forth in ". In addition, there are two sets of declamations, Declamationes Maiores and Declamationes Minores, which have been attributed to Quintilian. However, there is some dispute over the real writer of these texts: "Some modern scholars believe that the declamations circulated in his name represent the lecture notes of a scholar either using Quintilian's system or trained by him".

Institutio Oratoria is a twelve-volume textbook on the theory and practice of rhetoric by Roman rhetorician Quintilian. It was published around year 95 AD; the work deals with the foundational education and development of the orator himself. In this work, Quintilian establishes that the perfect orator is first a good man, after that he is a good speaker, he believed that a speech should stay genuine to a message, "just and honorable". Coherently, this came to be known as his good man theory, embracing the message that if one cannot be genuinely good one cannot be a good speaker for the people; this theory revolves around being of service to the people. A good man is one who works for the prosperity of society. Quintilian published Institutio Oratoria in the last years of Domitian’s rule of the empire, he had worked alongside Domitian, but as he began to write more and ease away from Emperor Domitian’s complete power, the emperor did not seem to mind as he was so impressed with Quintilian, he hired him to be a tutor for his family because of Quintilian’s devotion to education.

Domitian was in the harshest period of his rule, no one had the courage to speak any idea, unlike his, but Quintilian did. He spoke as an orator in the tradition of Cicero, such as had not been seen since the beginning of the reign of Augustus. Rather than pleading cases, as an orator of his era might have been expected to do, he concentrated on speaking in more general terms about how sound rhetoric influences the education of the people. Quintilian cites many authors in the Institutio Oratoria before providing his own definition of rhetoric, his rhetoric is chiefly defined by Cato the Elder’s vir bonus, dicendi peritus, or “the good man skilled at speaking”. He states

Morane-Saulnier AN

The Morane-Saulnier AN or MoS.31 C.2 was a French two seat fighter prototype of the 1910s that resulted in the development of several other unsuccessful Morane-Saulnier prototypes. Completed in late 1918, the AN was a two-seat fighter designed to use an unorthodox Bugatti U-16 engine. Large and with equal span wings, it was a two-bay biplane with a monocoque fuselage. First tested in late October 1918, the AN was bested by the SEA 4 and Breguet 17 it was competing against in terms of rate of climb, however it showed sufficient promise that a number of variants were developed, it was ordered into production but never entered service as the SEA and Breguet were entering service and the end of the First World War curtained production requirements. Morane-Saulnier AN - prototype with 450 hp Bugatti U-16 engine and radiator in leading edge of wing. Morane-Saulnier ANB - modification of prototype with Lamblin radiator. Morane-Saulnier ANL - First flown in 1919, the ANL had a 400 hp Liberty L-12 engine.

Morane-Saulnier ANR - Also flown in 1919, the ANR had a 450 hp Renault 12Kb engine as well as a rear-mounted Vickers gun. Morane-Saulnier ANS - Again making its début in 1919, the ANS was the final incarnation of the AN series. Equipped with a 530 hp Salmson 18Z 18-cylinder radial. Showed promise at testing, however no further production took place. MoS.31 C.2 Military designation for AN and ANB. MoS.32 C.2 Military designation for ANL. MoS.33 C.2 Military designation for ANR. MoS.34 C.2 Military designation for ANS. General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 8.34 m Wingspan: 11.73 m Height: 2.77 m Wing area: 41.00 m2 Gross weight: 1770 kg Powerplant: 1 × Bugatti U-16 16-cylinder water-cooled, 336 kW Performance Maximum speed: 225 km/h Armament 1 x forward-firing.303 Vickers gun 2 x rear-mounted.303 Lewis guns Davilla, Dr. James J.. French Aircraft of the First World War. Mountain View, CA: Flying Machines Press. ISBN 978-1891268090. Green, William; the Complete Book of Fighters. Godalming, UK: Salamander Books.

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William Bolts

William Bolts was a Amsterdam-born merchant active in India. He began his career as an employee of the British East India Company, subsequently became an independent merchant, he is best known today for his 1772 book, Considerations on India Affairs, which detailed the exploitation and despoliation of Bengal by the East India Company which began shortly after the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The observations and experiences he recorded offer a unique resource for scholars inquiring into the nature of early British rule in Bengal. Throughout his life, Bolts continued to propose and execute various trading ventures on his own behalf and in conjunction with various commercial and governmental partners; the ventures of individual traders like Bolts did much to spur governments and large corporations into the expansion of their own interests and empires. William Bolts was born in Amsterdam on 7 February 1738; the baptismal register of the English church at Amsterdam records his baptism on 21 February 1738.

His parents were William and Sarah Bolts, who left no traces. When Bolts was fifteen, he left for England. According to a deposition he made in 1801, Bolts lived in Lisbon in 1755 where he spent some time working in the diamond trade. Four years Bolts decided to venture to Bengal, where he was employed in Calcutta as a factor in the service of the English East India Company, he learned to speak Bengali, in addition to his other languages, Dutch, German and French. He was appointed to the Company's Benares factory, where he opened a woolens mart, developed saltpeter manufacturing, established opium works, imported cotton, promoted the trade in diamonds from the Panna and Chudderpoor mines in Bundelkhand, he fell foul of the East India Company in 1768 because diamonds were a favorite means for Company employees to secretly remit to Britain the ill-gotten gains of private trade in India, which they were forbidden to engage in. He announced in September of that year that he intended to start up a newspaper in Calcutta, saying that he had "in manuscript many things to communicate which most intimately concerned every individual", but he was directed to quit Bengal, proceed to Madras and from thence to take his passage to England.

Company officials declared him bankrupt, "to the irretrievable loss of his Fortune", he claimed. He never seemed to have been able to redeem himself in the eyes of the Company, in London and elsewhere fought a rearguard action against his many opponents within it; the rearguard action occurred in 1772 with the publication of his book "Considerations on India Affairs...", in which he attacked the whole system of the English government in Bengal. Today, this type of exposure would be labeled whistle-blowing; as an employee of the East India Company, he had seen how Bengal, once a prosperous region, had been despoiled and bled white by the East India Company. Considerations was translated into French and enjoyed wide circulation, which contributed to his fame on the Continent; the observations and experiences he records still offer a unique resource for scholars inquiring into the nature of early British rule in Bengal. In 1775, Bolts offered his services to the Imperial government, putting forward a proposal for re-establishing Austrian trade with India from the Adriatic port of Trieste.

His proposal was accepted by the government of Empress Maria Theresa, on 24 September 1776, Bolts sailed from Leghorn in the dominions of Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany, the younger son of the Empress, to India in command of a ship under the Imperial flag, the former Indiaman Earl of Lincoln, renamed the Giuseppe e Teresa. He took with him a ten-year charter authorizing him to trade under Imperial colors between Austria's Adriatic ports and Persia, India and Africa, from Africa and Madagascar to America; this enterprise required substantial capital, which Bolts sought in the Austrian Netherlands, he brought in the Antwerp banker, Charles Proli, his associates, the bankers I. C. I. Borrikens and D. Nagel. In the next few years Bolts established factories on the Malabar Coast, on the South East African coast at Delagoa Bay and at the Nicobar Islands, his aim in establishing a factory at Delagoa Bay was to use it as a base for trade between East Africa and the West coast ports of India. He procured three ships to conduct this "country" trade, as trade by Europeans between India and other non-European destinations was called.

During his voyage out, he obtained Brazilian cochineal beetles at Rio de Janeiro, transported them to Delagoa Bay, thereby predating the introduction to Bengal of this insect for the making of scarlet dyes and carmine. The Imperial flag did not fly for long over Delagoa Bay, as alarmed Portuguese authorities who claimed the place as their own sent a 40-gun frigate and 500 men from Goa to remove Bolts's men in April 1781, to found the Presidio of Lourenço Marques that established a permanent Portuguese presence there; when it learned of Bolts's venture, the English East India Company instructed its officers in Bengal and Bombay to "pursue the most effectual means that can be justified to counteract and defeat" him. Bolts took full advantage of Austria's neutral status in the war between Britain and France and the Dutch Republic during 1778 to 1783 that formed part of the struggle for American independence; the Company's repeated acts of hostility