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Quintus Curtius Rufus

Quintus Curtius Rufus was a Roman historian of the 1st century, author of his only known and only surviving work, Historiae Alexandri Magni, "Histories of Alexander the Great", or more Historiarum Alexandri Magni Macedonis Libri Qui Supersunt, "All the Books That Survive of the Histories of Alexander the Great of Macedon." Much of it is missing. Apart from his name on the manuscripts, nothing else certain is known of him; this fact alone has led philologists to believe that he had another historical identity, to which, due to the accidents of time, the link has been broken. A few theories exist, they are treated with varying degrees of credibility by various authors. Meanwhile, the identity of Quintus Curtius Rufus, historian, is maintained separately. Curtius' work is uniquely isolated. No other ancient work refers to it, or as far as is known, to him. Peter Pratt pointing out that the Senate and emperors proscribed or censored works, suggests that Curtius had not published the manuscript before his death, but left it in care of the emperor.

The emperors did not find a political opportunity. They had adopted the identity of Alexander for themselves; the provinces fashioned from the Macedonian Empire were difficult to govern, always on the point of rebellion. The work of Curtius, Pratt conjectures, was not politically appropriate because it would have encouraged independence; the earliest opportune moment was the year 167, when the campaign of the emperor Marcus Aurelius against the Parthian Empire had failed, the returning troops were in bad morale and infected with the Antonine Plague. The emperor attempted to build national pride among the former Macedonian states. Avidius Cassius, commandant of Legio III Gallica, returning veterans, was promoted to Consul, he claimed descent from the Seleucids of Macedonia. New coins and medals were issued in Macedonia on Alexandrian themes. Pratt conjectures that the manuscript in storage, by this time damaged and destroyed, was published accounting for the previous lack of references to it, it is possible Books I and II along with other loci were censored out.

As the emperors had surmised, it was popular. The dating available relies on internal evidence, not certain, but offers some degree of preponderance. In Book X Curtius digresses to give an encomium on blessings of peace under empire, citing the Roman Empire with the implication of contemporaneity. In essence he reasserts the policy of Augustus, which casts the empire as the restoration of monarchy for the suppression of the civil wars fomented by the contention of powerful noblemen vying for control of the Republic. Curtius' glowing endorsement of the policy dates him to the Roman Empire, he mentions the Parthian Empire. It was formed by the eastern satrapies recusing themselves from Macedonian overlordship and restoring a purely Iranian empire, it defended itself against Rome though Rome absorbed what was left of the Macedonian kingdoms. The dates of the Parthian Empire are 247 BC through 224 AD. Although Curtius may have been writing about an empire vanished in his own day, the most straightforward approach assumes that he wrote in a window, 63 BC through 224 AD.

For further localization, the same imperial purple passage contrasts the civil wars of the Macedonians due to failure to obtain a stable emperor, with an incident of the Roman Empire in which the risk of civil war was avoided by the appointment of a new emperor in a single night. Not many incidents fit the description. Baynham summarizes the argument of Julius Nützell that the crisis might be the night of January 24/25, 41 AD, following the assassination of Caligula on that day; the Senate met on an emergency basis to debate. The Praetorian Guard forced its way in to insist on the appointment of Claudius, his reign concentrated on the restoration of the rule of law. A lawyer, he issued up to 20 imperial edicts per day. If this argument is correct, Curtius' work must be dated to after 41 AD; the upper limit is provided by a passage that mentions the "continued prosperity of Tyre under Roman dominion." The peace of the empire came to an end in 43 AD. None of these dates are certain, but the union of all the ranges presents a credible view of Curtius' date.

Baynham says: "many modern scholars now accept a date in the middle to late part of the first century A. D. as a floruit for Curtius." By his name, Quintus Curtius Rufus was a member of the Curtii Rufi branch of the Curtii family, one of the original nobility of Rome. Due to the used institution of adoption, people of the name Curtius might not be consanguineous. Moreover, the same name tended to be repeated from grandfather to grandson. After centuries of Curtii, a Curtius might turn up in any period; the candidates for the historical identity of the author are but few. Given the time frame of the mid-1st century, there is a credible candidate, he is a certain Curtius Rufus In the List of Roman consuls he served as Consul Suffectus for October through December, 43 AD under the emperor Claudius. He had been a protégé of Tiberius, he must have written the Histories in two before the consulship. Tacitus says that he was on the staff of the Quaestor of Africa during that time, which would have given him the opportunity to use the Library of Alexandria.

Tiberius had died in 37. Curtius’ relations with Caligula are not mentioned, but Caligula was not in his vicinity. On Curtius’

British League Riders' Championship

The British League Riders Championship was an individual motorcycle speedway contest between the top riders with the highest average from each club competing in the British League in the UK, or the top division of the league during the period when it had two or more divisions. Similar tournaments had been held before the formation of the British League in 1965, including the Provincial League Riders' Championship, open to riders from the Provincial League; the championship has been sponsored by Player's No 10, Leyland Cars, Daily Mirror, TNT Sameday and Dunlop The championship continued until the British League was replaced with the Premier League in 1995. Provincial League Riders' Championship British League Division Two Riders Championship Premier League Riders' Championship Elite League Riders' Championship Oakes, Peter The Complete History of the British League, Front Page Books, ISBN 0-948882-07-7

Second French Empire

The Second French Empire the French Empire, was the regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. Historians in the 1930s and 1940s disparaged the Second Empire as a precursor of fascism; that interpretation is no longer promulgated and by the late 20th century they were celebrating it as leading example of a modernising regime. Historians have given the Empire negative evaluations on its foreign-policy, somewhat more positive evaluations of domestic policies after Napoleon III liberalised his rule after 1858, he exports. The greatest achievements came in material improvements, in the form of a grand railway network that facilitated commerce and tied the nation together and centered it on Paris, it had the effect of stimulating economic growth, bringing prosperity to most regions of the country. The Second Empire is given high credit for the rebuilding of Paris with broad boulevards, striking public buildings, attractive residential districts for upscale Parisians.

In international policy, Napoleon III tried to emulate his uncle, engaging in numerous imperial ventures around the world as well as several wars in Europe. Using harsh methods, he built up the French Empire in North Africa and in Southeast Asia. Napoleon III sought to modernise the Mexican economy and bring it into the French orbit, but this ended in a fiasco, he badly mishandled the threat from Prussia, by the end of his reign, Napoleon III found himself without allies in the face of overwhelming German force. On 2 December 1851, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, elected President of the Republic, staged a coup d'état by dissolving the National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so, he thus became sole ruler of France, re-established universal suffrage abolished by the Assembly. His decisions were popularly endorsed by a referendum that month that attracted an implausible 92 percent support. At that same referendum, a new constitution was approved. Formally enacted in January 1852, the new document made Louis-Napoléon president for 10 years, with no restrictions on re-election.

It concentrated all governing power in his hands. However, Louis-Napoléon was not content with being an authoritarian president; as soon as he signed the new document into law, he set about restoring the empire. In response to inspired requests for the return of the empire, the Senate scheduled a second referendum in November, which passed with 97 percent support; as with the December 1851 referendum, most of the "yes" votes were manufactured out of thin air. The empire was formally re-established on 2 December 1852, the Prince-President became "Napoléon III, Emperor of the French"; the constitution had concentrated so much power in his hands that the only substantive changes were to replace the word "president" with the word "emperor" and to make the post hereditary. The popular referendum became a distinct sign of Bonapartism, which Charles de Gaulle would use. With dictatorial powers, Napoleon III made building a good railway system a high priority, he consolidated three dozen incomplete lines into six major companies using Paris as a hub.

Paris grew in terms of population, finance, commercial activity, tourism. Working with Georges-Eugène Haussmann, Napoleon III spent lavishly to rebuild the city into a world-class showpiece; the financial soundness for all six companies was solidified by government guarantees. Although France had started late, by 1870 it had an excellent railway system, supported as well by good roads and ports. Napoleon, in order to restore the prestige of the Empire before the newly awakened hostility of public opinion, tried to gain the support from the Left that he had lost from the Right. After the return from Italy, the general amnesty of 16 August 1859 had marked the evolution of the absolutist or authoritarian empire towards the liberal, parliamentary empire, to last for ten years; the idea of Italian unification – based on the exclusion of the temporal power of the popes – outraged French Catholics, the leading supporters of the Empire. A keen Catholic opposition sprang up, voiced in Louis Veuillot's paper the Univers, was not silenced by the Syrian expedition in favour of the Catholic Maronite side of the Druze–Maronite conflict.

Ultramontane Catholicism, emphasising the necessity for close links to the Pope at the Vatican played a pivotal role in the democratisation of culture. The pamphlet campaign led by Mgr Gaston de Ségur at the height of the Italian question in February 1860 made the most of the freedom of expression enjoyed by the Catholic Church in France; the goal was to mobilise Catholic opinion, encourage the government to be more favourable to the Pope. A major result of the ultramontane campaign was to trigger reforms to the cultural sphere, the granting of freedoms to their political enemies: the Republicans and freethinkers; the Second Empire favoured Catholicism, the official state religion. However, it tolerated Protestants and Jews, there were no persecutions or pogroms; the state dealt with the small Protestant community of Calvinist and Lutheran churches, whose members included many prominent businessmen who supported the regime. The emperor's Decree Law of 26 March 1852 led to greater government interference in Protestant church affairs, thus reducing self-regulation.

Catholic bureaucrats both were biased against it. The administration of their policies affected not only church-state relations but the internal lives of Protestant c

Haiti and the World Bank

The World Bank Group country partnership framework aims to support Haiti's efforts to reduce poverty and provide economic opportunities for all Haitians. The framework aims to strengthen institutions, government capacity, public financial management as aid and concessional financing decline. In September 1953, Haiti became a nation member of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the first of five member institutions of the World Bank Group. Despite its urgent need for humanitarian aid as the poorest country in the Western hemisphere, Haiti's political instability under a series of dictatorial regimes limited its access to international aid and development programs. Due to poor governance, the country was considered a risky recipient of foreign assistance; this resulted in little improvement and the country remained dysfunctional and impoverished despite billions in foreign aid over decades. The World Bank Group's involvement in Haiti has focused on development; the country has suffered deterioration from Western slavery and imperialism, ceaseless civil unrest, decades of the extreme poverty, devastation from a series of natural disasters.

Following its satisfaction for the requirements of domestic and social reforms, Haiti was granted a total of US $1.2 billion in 2009 by reaching the finishing point under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country debt relief initiative approved by the Boards of the International Development Association and the International Monetary Fund. In response to the catastrophic earthquake in Haiti in January 2010, the IDA waived the country's remaining US $36 million debt in May, the World Bank made US $479 million available for Haiti's recovery from the earthquake and development through June 2016. In September 2015, the World Bank Board of Executive Directors endorsed the New Country Partnership Strategy in Haiti; the Country Partnership Framework is collectively set by the Haitian Government and branches of the World Bank Group including the International Development Association, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Finance Corporation and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency.

The World Bank in Haiti focuses on projects to increase government capacity by enhancing energy accessibility and developing a renewable energy infrastructure that facilitates the country's economic opportunity, strengthening human capital through improvement in education and health services, improving climate resilience and disaster response capacity. As of April 2017, the World Bank’s portfolio in Haiti comprised 13 ongoing projects with a net commitment of US $637.8 million. The International Finance Corporation has focused Haiti’s flagship private sector projects; the IFC committed a portfolio of US $122 million in Haiti through the Country Partnership Framework in 2015. Sylvain Kakou, the IFC Country Head in Haiti, said the IFC has become the largest provider of foreign direct investment in Haiti for the private sector to foster economic growth; this support facilitated the resumption of business after the earthquake and provided packages of loans for private sector clients including the independent power producer, two banks, a micro-credit institution, mining exploration, a hotel and an industrial park.

The IFC has supported many of Haiti’s private sector projects with its portfolio of investments amounting to the US $32.7 million in 7 transactions. The project is projected to aid in providing basic healthcare services to 3 million people, it aims to increase the ability for the government to monitor health risks and the immunization process, as well as better the relationship between the Haitian government and international organizations within the health sector. This is an active project with the project end date being December 31, 2024; the results of this project are: 45.3% of children aged 12 to 23 months in project intervention areas are vaccinated, 45% of suspected cases of cholera are given notifications within 10 days, 72% and 77% of suspected cases of diphtheria and measles were investigated and reported within 48 hours. The project is being lead by Andrew Sunil Rajkumar and the total project cost being $70 million dollars with $50 million dollars being the commitment amount; the goal of this project is to increase the enrollment in public and private primary schools, create a better learning environment by improving the condition of schools, close the gender gap in education.

The focus of this project is regional with the selected area being the Southern departments. This active project is headed by Elena Maria Roseo; the total project cost is the commitment amount being $39 million. The project objective is to create enhanced infrastructure to support efficient disaster risk management by implementing a national early warning system, better emergency response, improve the evacuation process in high risk areas, it will implement the development of schools and community centers to be used as emergency shelters, create improved building codes, give training. The project is headed by Claudia Ruth Soto Orozco and Roland Alexander Bradshaw; the total project cost is $35 million and the commitment amount being $35 million as well. This project was approved on May 16, 2019 and the end date being April 30, 2025; the World Bank curates objectives tailored to member country's needs. The World Bank's priorities in Haiti are listed. Growing the economy outside of Port-au-Prince by revitalizing energy sources, increasing the activity in the private sector, increasing access to funds.

Increase human capital through promotion of primary education and child healthcare. Aiding communities aff

Paulinus of Trier

Saint Paulinus of Trier was bishop of Trier and a supporter of Athanasius in the conflict with Arianism. At the Synod of Arles he was targeted by the Arians, was exiled to Phrygia, being singled out by the Emperor Constantius II, he died in exile five years but his remains were returned to Trier in 395. His tomb is in the crypt of the city's St. Paulinus' Church, rededicated to him. Paulinus was from Gascony and educated in the cathedral school at Poitiers, he travelled to Germany with Maximin of Trier. He is a Orthodox saint. August 31 in German History

All Saints discography

The discography of the English-Canadian girl group All Saints consists of six studio albums, two compilation albums, one remix album, two video albums and 18 singles between London Records and Parlophone Records. After the two promotional single-only releases "Silver Shadow" and "Let's Get Started" as All Saints All Saints renamed and released their debut single "I Know Where It's At" in 1997 via London Records and reached number four on the UK Singles Chart, their second single "Never Ever" was released in November 1997, introduced the group to international success, reaching the top ten in several countries as well as peaking at number-one in the United Kingdom and Australia. It sold over 1.2 million copies in the UK and was certified double platinum by the British Phonographic Industry. In 1998 the group won two BRIT Awards for Best British Single and Best British Video, both for "Never Ever"; the group released their self-titled debut album All Saints in October 1997. It reached number two in the UK and was certified five times platinum by the BPI for sales of 1.5 million.

While, "If You Want to Party" has been released in Japan only, their third single from the album was "Lady Marmalade", soon re-released as a double A-side with "Under the Bridge", which became their second and third UK number-one single in May 1998, earning a gold certification for 400,000 copies sold. The same month, the album was re-released with a different track listing. "Bootie Call", the fourth single, sixth overall went to number-one, the silver-certified "War of Nerves" peaked at number seven, selling 200,000 copies. The album achieved success in countries such as Australia and the United States, where All Saints was certified platinum by the RIAA for sales of one million and produced two top 40 singles on the Billboard Hot 100: "I Know Where It's At" and "Never Ever". All Saints returned in February 2000 with the single "Pure Shores", written by Shaznay Lewis and William Orbit for the soundtrack of the film The Beach. "Pure Shores" was their fifth number-one single in the UK and the second best-selling single of 2000, with 600,000 copies sold.

The song won an Ivor Novello Award for Most Performed Work. All Saints performed the song at the 2000 MTV Europe Music Awards. In October 2000, All Saints released the single "Black Coffee", which became their sixth and final number-one single in the UK, selling 200,000 copies; this preceded their second studio album, Saints & Sinners, which debuted at number one on the UK Albums Chart reaching double platinum certification in the UK for sales of 600,000 copies. The third and final single was "All Hooked Up" in January 2001. In February 2001, All Saints announced that they were to take a break so that they "could clear the air" between themselves. Melanie Blatt said that year that it was uncertain if they would reform, citing their difficulties with the financial and business aspects of the group. Shaznay Lewis explained that the catalyst for the break-up was a disagreement over who would wear a certain jacket for a photoshoot: "I would never in a million years have put money on the group ending over a jacket incident.

But when that incident happened, it fired up so strong, it had to be over. And the way I was the state we'd got into there was no way she was getting that stupid jacket." In November 2001, London Records released a greatest hits compilation entitled All Hits. On 24 January 2006, it was announced that the band had reformed and signed a record deal with Parlophone, they subsequently began work on their third studio album, Studio 1. The first single, "Rock Steady", reached number three on the UK Singles Chart. Studio 1 entered the albums chart at number forty, falling short of the success of "Rock Steady" and the group's previous releases. A second single, "Chick Fit", followed in February 2007, but promotional appearances and a physical release were cancelled and it failed to reach the top 200, it was subsequently reported that All Saints and Parlophone had parted ways and the group cancelled their planned UK tour. Despite Melanie Blatt confirming that the group would never reform again in a 2009 interview, All Saints reformed in 2013 to support Backstreet Boys for five dates in their UK tour a year later.

Due to the success of the tour, the band confirmed on 27 January 2016 that they're releasing their first new album in ten years titled Red Flag, expected for an 8 April 2016 release, with "One Strike" confirmed as the lead single for the album. "Girls on Film", on Trevor Horn Reimagines the Eighties