The Cimbri were an ancient tribe. They are believed to have been a Germanic tribe originating in Jutland, but Celtic influences have been suggested. Together with the Teutones and the Ambrones, they fought the Roman Republic between 113 and 101 BC; the Cimbri were successful at the Battle of Arausio, in which a large Roman army was routed, after which they raided large areas in Gaul and Hispania. In 101 BC, during an attempted invasion of Italy, the Cimbri were decisively defeated by Gaius Marius, their king, was killed; some of the surviving captives are reported to have been among the rebelling gladiators in the Third Servile War. The origin of the name Cimbri is unknown. One etymology is PIE *tḱim-ro- "inhabitant", from tḱoi-m- "home", itself a derivation from tḱei- "live"; the name has been related to the word kimme meaning “rim”, i.e. "the people of the coast". Since Antiquity, the name has been related to that of the Cimmerians. Himmerland is thought to preserve their name. Alternatively, Latin c- represents an attempt to render the unfamiliar Proto-Germanic h = due to Celtic-speaking interpreters.
Because of the similarity of the names, the Cimbri have been at times associated with Cymry, the Welsh name for themselves. However, Welsh Cymry is derived from Brittonic *Kombrogi, meaning “compatriots”, is linguistically unrelated to Cimbri; the Cimbri are believed to have been a Germanic tribe originating in Jutland. Though Celtic origins have been suggested, this is controversial. Archaeologists have not found any clear indications of a mass migration from Jutland in the early Iron Age; the Gundestrup Cauldron, deposited in a bog in Himmerland in the 2nd or 1st century BC, shows that there was some sort of contact with southeastern Europe, but it is uncertain if this contact can be associated with the Cimbrian expedition. Advocates for a northern homeland point to Greek and Roman sources that associate the Cimbri with the Jutland peninsula. According to the Res gestae of Augustus, the Cimbri were still found in the area around the turn of the 1st century AD: My fleet sailed from the mouth of the Rhine eastward as far as the lands of the Cimbri, to which, up to that time, no Roman had penetrated either by land or by sea, the Cimbri and Charydes and Semnones and other peoples of the Germans of that same region through their envoys sought my friendship and that of the Roman people.
The contemporary Greek geographer Strabo testified that the Cimbri still existed as a Germanic tribe in the "Cimbric peninsula": As for the Cimbri, some things that are told about them are incorrect and others are improbable. For instance, one could not accept such a reason for their having become a wandering and piratical folk as this that while they were dwelling on a Peninsula they were driven out of their habitations by a great flood-tide, and the assertion that an excessive flood-tide once occurred looks like a fabrication, for when the ocean is affected in this way it is subject to increases and diminutions, but these are regulated and periodical. On the map of Ptolemy, the "Kimbroi" are placed on the northernmost part of the peninsula of Jutland. I.e. in the modern landscape of Himmerland south of Limfjorden. Some time before 100 BC many of the Cimbri, as well as the Ambrones migrated south-east. After several unsuccessful battles with the Boii and other Celtic tribes, they appeared ca 113 BC in Noricum, where they invaded the lands of one of Rome's allies, the Taurisci.
On the request of the Roman consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, sent to defend the Taurisci, they retreated, only to find themselves deceived and attacked at the Battle of Noreia, where they defeated the Romans. Only a storm, which separated the combatants, saved the Roman forces from complete annihilation. Now the road to Italy was open, they came into frequent conflict with the Romans, who came out the losers. In Commentarii de Bello Gallico the Aduaticii—Belgians of Cimbrian origin—repeatedly sided with Rome's enemies. In 109 BC, they defeated a Roman army under the consul Marcus Junius Silanus, the commander of Gallia Narbonensis. In 107 BC they defeated another Roman army under the consul Gaius Cassius Longinus, killed at the Battle of Burdigala against the Tigurini, who were allies of the Cimbri, it was not until 105 BC. At the Rhône, the Cimbri clashed with the Roman armies. Discord between the Roman commanders, the proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio and the consul Gnaeus Mallius Maximus, hindered Roman coordination and so the Cimbri succeeded in first defeating
Third Servile War
The Third Servile War called by Plutarch the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus, was the last in a series of slave rebellions against the Roman Republic, known collectively as the Servile Wars. The Third was the only one directly to threaten the Roman heartland of Italia, it was alarming to Rome because its military seemed powerless to suppress it. The revolt began in 73 BC, with the escape of around 70 slave-gladiators from a gladiator school in Capua. Within two years, they had been joined by some 120,000 men and children; the slaves wandered throughout Italia, raiding estates and towns with relative impunity, sometimes dividing their forces into separate but allied bands under the guidance of several leaders, including the famous gladiator-general Spartacus. The Roman Senate grew alarmed at the slave-army's depredations and continued military successes. Rome fielded an army of eight legions under the harsh but effective leadership of Marcus Licinius Crassus; the war ended in 71 BC when, after a long and bitter fighting retreat before the legions of Crassus, the realization that the legions of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus were moving in to entrap them, the armies of Spartacus launched their full strength against Crassus' legions and were utterly defeated.
Of the survivors, some 6,000 were crucified along the Appian Way. Plutarch's account of the revolt suggests that the slaves wished to escape to freedom, leave Roman territory by way of Cisalpine Gaul. Appian and Florus describe the revolt as a civil war, in which the slaves intended to capture the city of Rome itself; the Third Servile War had far-reaching effects on Rome's broader history. Pompey and Crassus exploited their successes to further their political careers, using their public acclaim and the implied threat of their legions to sway the consular elections of 70 BC in their favor, their subsequent actions as Consuls furthered the subversion of Roman political institutions and contributed to the eventual transition of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. To varying degrees throughout Roman history, the existence of a pool of inexpensive labor in the form of slaves was an important factor in the economy. Slaves were acquired for the Roman workforce through a variety of means, including purchase from foreign merchants and the enslavement of foreign populations through military conquest.
With Rome's heavy involvement in wars of conquest in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, tens if not hundreds of thousands of slaves at a time were imported into the Roman economy from various European and Mediterranean acquisitions. While there was limited use for slaves as servants and personal attendants, vast numbers of slaves worked in mines and on the agricultural lands of Sicily and southern Italy. For the most part, slaves were oppressively during the Roman republican period. Under Republican law, a slave was not considered property. Owners could abuse, injure or kill their own slaves without legal consequence. While there were many grades and types of slaves, the lowest—and most numerous—grades who worked in the fields and mines were subject to a life of hard physical labor; this high concentration and oppressive treatment of the slave population led to rebellions. In 135 BC and 104 BC, the First and Second Servile Wars erupted in Sicily, where small bands of rebels found tens of thousands of willing followers wishing to escape the oppressive life of a Roman slave.
While these were considered serious civil disturbances by the Roman Senate, taking years and direct military intervention to quell, they were never considered a serious threat to the Republic. The Roman heartland had never seen a slave uprising, nor had slaves been seen as a potential threat to the city of Rome; this would all change with the Third Servile War. In the Roman Republic of the 1st century BC, gladiatorial games were one of the more popular forms of entertainment. In order to supply gladiators for the contests, several training schools, or ludi, were established throughout Italy. In these schools, prisoners of war and condemned criminals—who were considered slaves—were taught the skills required to fight in gladiatorial games. In 73 BC, a group of some 200 gladiators in the Capuan school owned by Lentulus Batiatus plotted an escape; when their plot was betrayed, a force of about 70 men seized kitchen implements, fought their way free from the school, seized several wagons of gladiatorial weapons and armor.
Once free, the escaped gladiators chose leaders from their number, selecting two Gallic slaves—Crixus and Oenomaus—and Spartacus, said either to be a Thracian auxiliary from the Roman legions condemned to slavery, or a captive taken by the legions. There is some question as to Spartacus's nationality. A Thraex was a type of gladiator in Rome, so "Thracian" may refer to the style of gladiatorial combat in which he was trained; these escaped slaves were able to defeat a small force of troops sent after them from Capua, equip themselves with captured military equipment as well as their gladiatorial weapons. Sources are somewhat contradictory on the order of events following the escape, but they agree that this band of escaped gladiators plundered the region surrounding Capua, recruited many other slaves into their ranks, retired to a more defensible position on Mount Ves
Battle of Vercellae
The Battle of Vercellae, or Battle of the Raudine Plain, in 101 BC was the Roman victory of Consul Gaius Marius over the invading Celto-Germanic tribe of the Cimbri near the settlement of Vercellae in Cisalpine Gaul. The Cimbri had invaded northern Italy and defeated the 20,000 men strong army of consul Quintus Lutatius Catulus. After defeating the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae, Marius arrived with 32,000 soldiers to reinforce Catulus and defeat the Cimbri; the two armies met on the Raudian plain and the Romans won a total victory over the invaders. Much credit for this victory has been given to the actions of Proconsul Catulus' legate, Lucius Cornelius Sulla who led the Roman and allied Italian cavalry; the Cimbri were wiped out, with the Romans claiming to have killed 65,000–160,000 and captured 60,000, including large numbers of women and children. In 101 BC the Cimbri invaded Italy through the Eastern Alpine passes. No enemy army had invaded Roman Italy since Carthage in the Second Punic War.
Roman Consul Catulus, who had only 20,000 men to guard all of the passes, was forced to retreat before the Cimbrians. Catulus mounted a surprise attack on the Cimbric camp and was afterwards able to retreat to the north Italian plain; the Romans retreated to the Adige river, built fortifications on both banks and a bridge between the two positions, to fight on the defensive against Cimbric attacks. After the Cimbrians had dammed the river and sent heavy objects downriver to destroy the bridge, many of the Romans panicked and abandoned their second defensive position as well. Catulus retreated along with his men; some of his cavalry retreated all the way to Rome. A significant Roman force stayed behind to hold the Adige line but were defeated by the Cimbrians, who attacked and captured the fort. Catulus retreated to his third defensive position south of the Po; the Cimbrians now proceeded to sack Cisalpine Gaul. They did not pursue the Romans. Having defeated the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae and having returned to Rome without his army, consul Gaius Marius regathered his men and marched to the Po.
After merging Catulus' army with his own, Marius began negotiations with the Cimbrians, who demanded land to settle on. Marius refused and instead sought to demoralize the Cimbri by parading captured Teuton nobles before them. Neither side genuinely sought negotiations, the Romans not intending to hand over their land to foreign invaders and the Cimbri believing themselves to be on brink of a successful peace after their recent victories over the Romans. Over the next few days the armies maneuvered against each other, the Romans refusing to give battle. Marius chose the optimal location for an open plain near Vercelli; the Roman consul met with the Cimbri leader Boiorix to agree on the time of battle. Marius had 32,000 men and Catulus 20,300. Traditionally most historians locate the settlement of the battle in or near the modern Vercelli, Piedmont, in northern Italy; some historians think that "vercellae" is not a proper name and may refer to any mining area at the confluence of two rivers. The latter historians think that the Cimbri followed the river Adige after having crossed the Brenner Pass, instead of "unreasonably" turning west to the modern Vercelli.
At Borgo Vercelli, near the river Sesia, 5 km from Vercelli, items have been found that strengthen the tradition. Another suggested location is the hamlet in what is now the province of Cuneo, Piedmont; the 15,000 strong Cimbric cavalry rode onto the battlefield. Behind them came the infantry. According to Plutarch, Marius made a final sacrifice to the gods. "Marius washed his hands, lifting them up to heaven, vowed to make a sacrifice of 100 beasts should victory be his". The Romans got into position first, therefore the sun would be reflecting off the Roman's armor; the Cimbri thought. Sensing their sudden anxiety, the Romans attacked; the Cimbri cavalry were taken by surprise by the Roman cavalry. The Cimbri were forced back; the Roman legionaries engaged the Cimbri infantry. The Cimbri were unnerved by this. Plutarch writes. Boiorix and his noblemen made a last stand; the Romans had won a stunning victory. The victory of Vercellae, following close on the heels of Marius' destruction of the Teutones at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae the previous year, put an end to the Celto-Germanic threat on Rome's northern frontiers.
The Cimbri were wiped out, with the Romans claiming to have killed 120,000 and captured 60,000, including large numbers of women and children. Children of the surviving captives may have been among the rebelling gladiators in the Third Servile War. Politically, this battle had great implications for Rome as well, it marked a continuation in the rivalry between Marius and Sulla, which would lead to the first of Rome's great civil wars. As a reward for their gallant service, Marius granted Roman citizenship to his Italian allied soldiers, without consulting or asking permission from the Senate first; when some senators questioned this action, he would claim that in the heat of battle he could not distinguish the voice of Roman from ally from the voice of the law. Henceforth all Italian legions would be Roman legions; this was the first time a victorious general had defied the Senate and it would not be the last. And Julius Caesar, when ordered by the Senate to lay down his command an
Gaius Marius was a Roman general and statesman. He held the office of consul an unprecedented seven times during his career, he was noted for his important reforms of Roman armies, authorizing recruitment of landless citizens, eliminating the manipular military formations, reorganizing the structure of the legions into separate cohorts. Marius defeated the invading Germanic tribes, for which he was called "the third founder of Rome." His life and career were significant in Rome's transformation from Republic to Empire. Marius was born in 157 BC in the town of Arpinum in southern Latium; the town had been conquered by the Romans in the late 4th century BC and was given Roman citizenship without voting rights. Only in 188 BC did the town receive full citizenship. Although Plutarch claims that Marius' father was a labourer, this is certainly false since Marius had connections with the nobility in Rome, he ran for local office in Arpinum, he had marriage relations with the local nobility in Arpinum, which all combine to indicate that he was born into a locally important family of equestrian status.
The problems he faced in his early career in Rome show the difficulties that faced a "new man". There is a legend that Marius, as a teenager, found an eagle's nest with seven chicks in it – eagle clutches hardly have more than 3 eggs. Since eagles were considered sacred animals of Jupiter, the supreme god of the Romans, it was seen as an omen predicting his election to the consulship seven times; as consul, he decreed that the eagle would be the symbol of the Senate and People of Rome. In 134 BC, he was serving with the army at Numantia and his good services brought him to the attention of Scipio Aemilianus. Whether he arrived with Scipio Aemilianus or was serving in the demoralized army that Scipio Aemilianus took over at Numantia is not clear. According to Plutarch, during a conversation after dinner, when the conversation turned to generals, someone asked Scipio Aemilianus where the Roman people would find a worthy successor to him. Aemilianus gently tapped on Marius' shoulder, saying: "Perhaps this is the man."
It would seem that at this early stage in his army career, Marius had ambitions for a political career in Rome. He ran for election as one of the twenty-four special military tribunes of the first four legions who were elected. Sallust tells us that he was unknown by sight to the electors but was returned by all the tribes on the basis of his accomplishments. Next, he ran for the quaestorship after losing an election for local office in Arpinum; the military tribunate shows that he was interested in Roman politics before the quaestorship. He ran for local office as a means of gaining support back home, lost to some other local worthy. Nothing is known of his actions while quaestor. In 120 BC, Marius was returned as plebeian tribune for the following year, he won with the support of Quintus Caecilius Metellus, an inherited patronus. The Metelli, though neither ancient nor patrician, were one of the most powerful families in Rome at this time. During his tribunate, Marius pursued a populares line.
He passed a law. In the 130s voting by ballot had been introduced in elections for choosing magistrates, passing laws and deciding legal cases, replacing the earlier system of oral voting; the wealthy continued to try to influence the voting by inspecting ballots and Marius passed a law narrowing the passages down which voters passed to cast their votes in order to prevent outsiders from harassing the electors. In the passage of this law, Marius alienated the Metelli. Soon thereafter, Marius lost; this loss was at least in part due to the enmity of the Metelli. In 116 BC he won election as praetor for the following year and was promptly accused of ambitus, he won acquittal on this charge, spent an uneventful year as praetor in Rome. In 114 BC, Marius' imperium was prorogued and he was sent to govern Hispania Ulterior, where he engaged in some sort of minor military operation: according to Plutarch, he cleared away the robbers whilst robbery was still considered a noble occupation by the local people.
During this period in Roman history governors seem to have served two years in Hispania, so he was replaced in 113 BC. He received no triumph on his return and did not run for the consulship, but he did marry Julia, the aunt of Julius Caesar; the Julii Caesares were a patrician family, but at this period seem to have found it hard to advance above the praetorship. To judge by this marriage, Marius had achieved some substantial political or financial influence by this point; the Marii were the inherited clients of the Caecilii Metelli and a Caecilius Metellus had aided Marius' campaign for the tribunate. Although he seems to have had a break with the Metelli as a result of the laws he passed while tribune, the rupture was not permanent, since in 109 BC Quintus Caecilius Metellus took Marius with him as his legate on his campaign against Jugurtha. Legates were simply envoys sent by the Senate, but men appointed as legates by the Senate were used by generals as subordinate c
Norcia, traditionally known in English by its Latin name of Nursia, is a town and comune in the province of Perugia in southeastern Umbria. Unlike many ancient towns, it is located in a wide plain abutting the Monti Sibillini, a subrange of the Apennines with some of its highest peaks, near the Sordo River, a small stream that flows into the Nera; the town is popularly associated with the Valnerina. The area is known for its air and scenery, is a base for mountaineering and hiking, it is widely known for hunting of the wild boar, for sausages and ham made from wild boar and pork. Such products have been named after Norcia. Traces of human settlement in Norcia's area date back to the Neolithic Age; the town's known history begins with settlement by the Sabines in the 5th century BC. After the conquest by the Romans in the 3rd century BC, it was an ally of ancient Rome in 205 BC, during the Second Punic War, when it was known in Latin as Nursia, but the earliest extant Roman ruins date from around the 1st century.
St. Benedict, the founder of the Benedictine monastic system, his twin sister St. Scholastica, were born here in 480. In the 8th century, an oratory was built. Monks came to Norcia in the 10th century. Contemporary monks care for the Monastery of St. Benedict, built over the Roman ruins of the house of Sts. Benedict and Scholastica. In the 6th century Norcia was conquered by the Lombards. In the 9th century it suffered from Saracen attacks. In the 11th century, it was part of the domain of Holy Roman Emperor. In the 12th century Norcia became an independent commune within the Papal territories, with an increasing political and economical prestige; the collaboration with the Benedictine abbey in Preci led to the creation of the Schola Chirurgica. Studies at this institution contributed to Norcia residents improving their swine breeding; the powerful Spoleto and the 1324 earthquake thwarted the city's ambitions, in 1354 it was returned definitively to the Papal authority. On 24 August 2016, a magnitude 6.2 earthquake and numerous strong aftershocks struck near Norcia, causing major damage to the towns in the region.
The people in the town of Norcia were not injured. The town of Norcia itself only suffered structural damage but this displaced many citizens. However, several small towns around the town received many collapsed buildings. On 30 October 2016, another magnitude 6.5 earthquake rocked Norcia, causing heavy damage to the city: among others the Basilica of St. Benedict has been destroyed; the older core of Norcia is flat, unusual among the towns of Umbria. It is enclosed by a full circuit of walls that has survived intact from the 14th century, they stood up despite many earthquakes. After the earthquake of 22 August 1859, the Papal States, to which Norcia belonged, imposed a stringent construction code forbidding structures of more than three storeys and requiring the use of certain materials and building techniques. Roman vestiges are observable throughout the city in the walls of San Lorenzo, its oldest extant church. On via Umberto is a small aedicule or corner chapel, sometimes called a tempietto, with faded frescoes, painted by Vanni della Tuccia in 1354.
Of greater interest are the two Romanesque arches, densely sculpted with zoomorphic and geometric forms. The main basilica is dedicated to St. Benedict and is connected to a functioning Benedictine monastery, the Monastery of St. Benedict. Though this edifice was built in the 13th century, it stood on the remains of one or more small Roman buildings, sometimes considered to have been a Roman basilica, or alternately the house in which the twin saints were born; the façade, in Gothic style, is characterized by a central rose window and relief portraying the four Evangelists. Inside, the fresco of the Resurrection of Lazarus was painted by Michelangelo Carducci; the altar in the left-hand transept housed a St Totila by Filippo Napoletano. The basilica was destroyed by an earthquake on 30 October 2016; the Renaissance church of Santa Maria Argentea is the cathedral. It holds some works by Flemish masters, a richly decorated altar by Duquesnoy, a Madonna and Saints by Pomarancio, a St Vicent Ferrer and the Sick by Giuseppe Paladini.
The Gothic church of Sant ` Agostino has many votive frescoes of St Sebastian. San Francesco, from the same century has a notable portal, surmounted by a Gothic rose window, with pink and white stone decorations. A fortress, the Castellina was built in 1555-1563 as the residence of the Papal governors, as designed by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, it now houses a small museum with Roman and medieval artifacts, documents of the Middle Ages and periods. In the frazioni near the town proper, are The pieve of San Salvatore, at Campi, with two rose windows and two portals of different ages. In Campi is the parish church of St. Andrew, with an original triangular loggiato; the Church of San Salvatore and that of Sant'Andrea were damaged or destroyed in the 2016 earthquake. The frazione of Savelli has the ruins of Madonna della Neve, an elegant octagonal church designed by Bramante in the 15th century, it was destroyed by the 1979 earthquake. In San Pellegrino is the convent of Santa Maria di Montesanto, now in poor condition.
It has a noteworthy cloister and a church with 17th-century canvasses and a 14th-century wooden statue, Madonna with Child. On 30 October 2016, a 6.6 mag
Second Catilinarian conspiracy
The second Catilinarian conspiracy known as the Catiline conspiracy, was a plot, devised by the Roman senator Lucius Sergius Catilina, with the help of a group of fellow aristocrats and disaffected veterans of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, to overthrow the consulship of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Gaius Antonius Hybrida. In 63 BC, Cicero exposed the plot; the conspiracy was chronicled by Sallust in his work The Conspiracy of Catiline, this work remains an authority on the matter. Catiline had been an unsuccessful candidate in the consular elections of the previous year and he did not take this lightly; the knowledge that this would be his last chance to obtain consulship led him to undertake a no-holds-barred election campaign. He had lost the support of many among the nobility in his previous campaign, which meant he had to look elsewhere to get the backing he needed, he turned towards the people, those plagued by debts and other difficulties. Many of the other leading conspirators had faced political problems similar to his in the Senate.
Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, the most influential conspirator after Catiline, had held the rank of consul in 71 BC, but he had been cast out of the senate by the censors during a political purge in the following year on the pretext of debauchery. Publius Autronius Paetus was complicit in their plot, since he was banned from holding office in the Roman government. Another leading conspirator, Lucius Cassius Longinus, praetor in 66 BC with Cicero, joined the conspiracy after he failed to obtain the consulship in 64 BC along with Catiline. By the time that the election came around, he was no longer regarded as a viable candidate. Gaius Cornelius Cethegus, a young man at the time of the conspiracy, was noted for his violent nature, his impatience for rapid political advancement may account for his involvement in the conspiracy. The ranks of the conspirators included a variety of other patricians and plebeians, cast out of the political system for various reasons. Many of them sought the restoration of their status as their lost political power.
Promoting his policy of debt relief, Catiline also rallied many of the poor to his banner along with a large portion of Sulla’s veterans. Debt had never been greater than in 63 BC since the previous decades of war had led to an era of economic downturn across the Italian countryside. Numerous plebeian farmers lost their farms and were forced to move to the city, where they swelled the numbers of the urban poor. Sulla's veterans were in bad economic straits as well. Desiring to regain their fortunes, they were prepared to march to war under the banner of the "next" Sulla. Thus, many of the plebs eagerly flocked to Catiline and supported him in the hope of the absolution of their debts. Catiline sent Gaius Manlius, a centurion from Sulla’s old army, to manage the conspiracy in Etruria where he assembled an army. Others were sent to aid the conspiracy in important locations throughout Italy, a small slave revolt which had begun in Capua. While civil unrest was felt throughout the countryside, Catiline made the final preparations for the conspiracy in Rome.
Their plans included arson and the murder of a large portion of the senators, after which they would join up with Manlius’ army. They would return to Rome and take control of the government. To set the plan in motion, Gaius Cornelius and Lucius Vargunteius were to assassinate Cicero early in the morning on November 7, 63 BC, but Quintus Curius, a senator who would become one of Cicero's chief informants, warned Cicero of the threat through his mistress Fulvia. Cicero escaped death that morning by placing guards at the entrance of his house who scared the conspirators away. On the following day, Cicero convened the Senate in the Temple of Jupiter Stator and surrounded it with armed guards. Much to his surprise, Catiline was in attendance while Cicero denounced him before the Senate and it's been said that the senators adjacent to Catiline moved away from him during the course of the speech, the first of Cicero's four Catiline Orations. However, some sources suggest. Incensed at these accusations, Catiline exhorted the Senate to recall the history of his family and how it had served the republic, instructing them not to believe false rumors and to trust the name of his family.
He accused them of placing their faith in a "homo novus", over a "nobilis", himself. Catiline violently concluded that he would put out his own fire with the general destruction of all. Afterward, he rushed home and the same night ostensibly complied with Cicero's demand and fled Rome under the pretext that he was going into voluntary exile at Massilia because of his "mistreatment" by the consul. While Catiline was preparing the army, the conspirators continued with their plans; the conspirators observed that a delegation from the Allobroges was in Rome seeking relief from the oppression of their governor. So, Lentulus Sura instructed Publius Umbrenus, a businessman with dealings in Gaul, to offer to free them of their miseries and to throw off the heavy yoke of their governor, he brought Publius Gabinius Capito, a leading conspirator of the equestrian rank, to meet them and the conspiracy was revealed to the Allobroges. The envoys took advantage of this opportunity and informed Cicero who instructed the envoys to get tangible proof of the conspiracy.
Five of the leading conspirators wrote letters to the Allobroges so that the envoys could show their people that there was hope in a real conspira
The Teutons were an ancient tribe mentioned by Roman authors. They are classified as a Germanic tribe; the Teutons are best known for their participation in the Cimbrian War with the Roman Republic in the late 2nd century BC. The Teutons are classified as a Germanic tribe; some historians have suggested a Celtic origin for the Teutones. It has been suggested. Certain ancient writers classify the Teutones as Celts; this might be explained by the fact that writers of the time did not distinguish between Celtic and Germanic peoples. The early traveller of the 4th century BC, mentions the Teutones as inhabitants of the northern ocean coasts along with the Gutones. Strabo and Marcus Velleius Paterculus, classify them as Germanic peoples. According to a map by Ptolemy, they lived in Jutland, in agreement with Pomponius Mela, who placed them in Scandinavia, implying that they may have inhabited both regions previously; the Danish district of Thy claims to be their homeland. In the late second century BC, many of the Teutones as well as the Cimbri and the Ambrones migrated from their original homes in southern Scandinavia and on the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, moving south and west to the Danube valley, where they encountered the expanding Roman Republic.
The Teutones and Cimbri were recorded as passing west through Gaul before attacking Roman Italy. After achieving decisive victories over the Romans at Noreia and Arausio in 105 BC, the Cimbri and Teutones divided their forces. Gaius Marius defeated them separately in 102 BC and 101 BC ending the Cimbrian War; the defeat of the Teutones occurred at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae. According to the writings of Valerius Maximus and Florus, the king of the Teutones, was taken in irons after the Teutones were defeated by the Romans. Under the conditions of the surrender, three hundred married women were to be handed over to the victorious Romans as concubines and slaves; when the matrons of the Teutones heard of this stipulation, they begged the consul that they might instead be allowed to minister in the temples of Ceres and Venus. When their request was denied, the Teutonic women slew their own children; the next morning, all the women were found dead in each other's arms, having strangled each other during the night.
Their joint martyrdom passed into Roman legends of Teutonic fury. Some surviving captives participated as the rebelling gladiators in the Third Servile War of 73-71 BC. Furor Teutonicus Teutonic Theodisca Fick, Alf Torp and Hjalmar Falk: Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen. Part 3, Wortschatz der Germanischen Spracheinheit. 4. Aufl. 1909. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Teutoni". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. P. 673. Beach, Chandler B. ed.. "Teutones". The New Student's Reference Work. Chicago: F. E. Compton and Co