In Roman mythology and religion, Quirinus is an early god of the Roman state. In Augustan Rome, Quirinus was an epithet of Janus, as Janus Quirinus, his name may be derived from the Sabine word quiris "spear". Quirinus is an adjective meaning "wielder of the spear". Other suggested etymologies are: from the Sabine town Cures. Cook explains Quirinus as the oak-god, the quirites as the men of the oaken spear. In earlier Roman art, Quirinus was portrayed as a bearded man with military clothing. However, he was never depicted in Roman art. Quirinus was associated with the myrtle. Quirinus' main festival was the Quirinalia, held on February 17; the priest of Quirinus, the Flamen Quirinalis, was one of the three patrician flamines maiores who had precedence over the Pontifex Maximus. Quirinus most was a Sabine war god; the Sabines had a settlement near the eventual site of Rome, erected an altar to Quirinus on the Collis Quirinalis Quirinal Hill, one of the Seven hills of Rome. When the Romans settled in the area, the cult of Quirinus became part of their early belief system.
This occurred before the influences from classical Greek culture. In Plutarch's Life of Romulus, he writes that shortly after Rome's founder had disappeared under what some considered suspicious circumstances, a Roman noble named Proculus Julius reported that Romulus had come to him while he was travelling, he claimed that the king had instructed him to tell his countrymen that he, Romulus was Quirinus. By the end of the 1st century BCE, Quirinus would be considered to be the deified legendary king. Historian Angelo Brelich has argued that Quirinus and Romulus were the same divine entity, split into a founder hero and a god when Roman religion became demythicised. To support this, he points to the association of both Romulus and Quirinus with the grain spelt, through the Fornacalia or Stultorum Feriae, according to Ovid's Fasti; the last day of the festival is called the Quirinalia and corresponds with the traditional day of Romulus' death. On that day, the Romans would toast spelt as an offering to the goddess Fornax.
In one version of the legend of Romulus' death cited by Plutarch, he was killed and cut into pieces by the nobles and each of them took a part of his body home and buried it on their land. Brelich claims that this pattern – a festival involving a staple crop, a god, a tale of a slain founding hero whose body parts are buried in the soil – is a recognized mytheme that arises when such a split takes place in a culture's mythology; the possible presence of the flamen Quirinalis at the festival of Acca Larentia would corroborate this thesis, given the fact that Romulus is a stepson of hers, one of the original twelve arval brethren. The association of Quirinus and Romulus is further supported by a connection with Vofionos, the third god in the triad of the Grabovian gods of Iguvium. Vofionos would be the equivalent of Liber or Teutates, among the Celts respectively, his early importance led to Quirinus' inclusion in the first Capitoline Triad, along with Mars and Jupiter. Over time, Quirinus became less significant, he was absent from the more known triad.
Varro mentions the Capitolium Vetus, an earlier cult site on the Quirinal, devoted to Jupiter and Minerva, among whom Martial makes a distinction between the "old Jupiter" and the "new". Romans began to favor personal and mystical cults over the official state belief system; these included those of Bacchus and Isis, leaving only Quirinus' flamen to worship him. Centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire, the Quirinal hill in Rome named from the deified Romulus, was still associated with power – it was chosen as the seat of the royal house after the taking of Rome by the Savoia and it became the residence of the Presidents of the Italian Republic. Adolf Ellegard Jensen
The EOC 8 inch 45 caliber were a family of related 8-inch 45 caliber naval guns designed by the Elswick Ordnance Company and manufactured by Armstrong for export customers before World War I. In addition to being produced in the United Kingdom licensed variants were produced in Italy and in Japan. Users of this family of gun included the navies of Argentina, China, Italy and Spain; this family of guns saw action in the Spanish–American War, Boxer Rebellion, Russo-Japanese War, Italo-Turkish War, World War I and World War II. In addition to its naval role it was used as coastal artillery and siege artillery after the ships it served on were decommissioned; the EOC 8 inch 45 caliber family of guns originated in 1894 from the Elswick Ordnance Company Pattern Q gun, first produced for export in 1895. In addition to the Pattern Q there were S, U and W Pattern guns produced for export. Earlier Patterns A through P, R and T were shorter 40 caliber guns. While the Pattern Q, S, U and W were all 8 inch 45 caliber guns.
The weights and dimensions of each Pattern of gun were similar and their ammunition, bagged charges and their ballistic performance were similar. The Armstrong Pattern Q was the first wire wound 8 inch EOC gun. I was constructed of an inner A tube, wire wound with a jacket shrunk over the wire, it had a single-motion breech mechanism of cylindrical-conical style with five threaded and five smooth sectors. The Japanese 20.3 cm/45 Type 41 naval gun was based on the Pattern S guns from Armstrong first installed on Takasago in 1898 with licensed production beginning in 1902. Existing S, U and W Pattern guns were classified as Type 41 naval guns in Japanese service. Type 41 guns were employed as Coastal Artillery during World War II after the ships they armed were decommissioned and disarmed. Pattern S guns armed protected cruisers of Argentine Navy and Chinese Navy. Pattern S: ARA Buenos Aires - This protected cruiser was completed in 1896 by Armstrong in Newcastle upon Tyne for the Argentinian Navy.
The primary armament was two Pattern S guns mounted on single, pedestal mounts fore and aft. Hǎi Qí class - The two protected cruisers of the Hǎi Qí class were completed in 1899 by Armstrong for the Chinese Navy; the primary armament of the class were two Pattern S guns mounted on single, pedestal mounts fore and aft. Kasagi class - The two protected cruisers of the Kasagi class were built in the United States for the Imperial Japanese Navy. Kasagi was built by William Cramp & Sons in Philadelphia and completed in 1898, while Chitose was built by the Union Iron Works in San Francisco and completed in 1899; the primary armament of the class were two Pattern S guns mounted on single, pedestal mounts fore and aft. Takasago - This protected cruiser was completed in 1898 by Armstrong for the Imperial Japanese Navy; the primary armament was two Pattern S guns mounted on single, pedestal mounts fore and aft. Pattern U guns from Armstrong armed armored cruisers. Pattern U: Asama class - The two armored cruisers of the Asama class were completed in 1899 by Armstrong for the Imperial Japanese Navy.
The primary armament of the class were four Pattern U guns mounted in aft. Azuma - This armored cruiser was completed in 1900 by Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire, Saint-Nazaire, France for the Imperial Japanese Navy; the primary armament was four Pattern U guns mounted in aft. Chilean cruiser Chacabuco - This protected cruiser was the sister ship of Takasago and completed in 1902 by Armstrong for the Chilean Navy; the primary armament was two Pattern U guns mounted on single, pedestal mounts fore and aft. Izumo class - The two armored cruisers of the Izumo class were completed in 1900-1901 by Armstrong for the Imperial Japanese Navy; the primary armament of the class were four Pattern U guns mounted in aft. Yakumo - This armored cruiser was completed in 1900 by AG Vulcan Stettin, Germany for the Imperial Japanese Navy; the primary armament was four Pattern U guns mounted in aft. The Italian Cannone da 203/45 Modello 1897 was based on the Pattern W gun from Armstrong and licensed production began in 1897 at the Armstrong factory in Pozzuoli, Italy.
The Modello 1897 guns armed ships built in Italy for the Argentinian Navy, Italian Navy, Imperial Japanese Navy and the Spanish Navy. Modello 1897 guns were employed by the Italian Army as Siege Artillery during World War I and as Coastal Artillery during World War II after the ships they armed were decommissioned and disarmed. Pattern W: Giuseppe Garibaldi class:** One of the four Giuseppe Garibaldi-class armored cruisers built for the Argentinian Navy, ARA San Martín had four Pattern W guns as primary armament mounted in twin gun turrets fore and aft; the three Giuseppe Garibaldi-class armored cruisers built for the Italian Navy had a primary armament of one Armstrong Pattern R 10 inch gun in a single turret fore and two Pattern W guns mounted in twin gun turrets aft. There were two Kasuga-class armored cruisers built for the Imperial Japanese Navy. Kasuga had a primary armament of one Armstrong Pattern R 10-inch gun in a single turret fore and two Pattern W guns mounted in a twin gun turret aft.
Nisshin had a primary armament of four Pattern W guns mounted in aft. The single Giuseppe Garibaldi-class armored cruiser built for the Spanish Navy, Cristóbal Colón, was designed to have a primary armament of one Armstrong Pattern R 10-inch gun in a single turret fore and two Pattern W guns mounted in a twin gun turret aft; however the 10-inch gun was not installed. Iwami - This ship Oryol of the Imper
"The Love Parade" is the fourth single released by The Dream Academy. It was a more "edgy" song than their previous singles, made so by the inclusion of implied themes of adultery and erotic temptation in the lyrics, and was arranged to a brisk bossa nova-esque beat, in stark contrast to the style of the group's first single Life In A Northern Town. There were two additional singles released in the UK by Blanco y Negro, a 7" shaped picture disc and a second limited edition release. There were high hopes for the single from Warners, there was some degree of promotion of the song. However, the single failed to live up to the expectations of their debut single, "Life in a Northern Town", just making the top 40 in the US but reaching #68 in the UK. 7" version "The Love Parade" - 3:50 "Girl in a Million" - 3:50 The Video. Hosted on VH1.com. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics