Quitman is a city in and the county seat of Brooks County, United States. The population was 3,850 at the 2010 census; the Quitman Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Quitman was a home of James Pierpont, author of the song "Jingle Bells", uncle of American financier J. P. Morgan. Pierpont was organist for the First Presbyterian Church. A local Quitman ordinance prohibits chickens from crossing the road, it is called the "Camellia City". Quitman was designated county seat of newly formed Brooks County in 1858, it was incorporated as a town in 1859 and as a city in 1904. As the county seat, it was the center of trading in the county, devoted to cotton plantations before and after the American Civil War; the community was named for a hero of the Mexican -- American War. Quitman is located in southern Georgia at 30°47′05″N 83°33′39″W. U. S. Routes 84 and 221 pass through the center of the city. US 84 leads west 121 miles to Dothan, while US 221 leads south 24 miles to Greenville, 26 miles to Interstate 10.
US 84 and US 221 together lead east 15 miles to Interstate 75 and 17 miles to Valdosta. According to the United States Census Bureau, Quitman has a total area of 4.1 square miles, of which 0.019 square miles, or.50%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,638 people, 1,707 households, 1,131 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,211.1 people per square mile. There were 2,034 housing units at an average density of 531.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 30.98% White, 66.36% African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 1.06% from other races, 1.10% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.18% of the population. There were 1,707 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.9% were married couples living together, 30.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.26. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.1% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 22.9% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 78.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 68.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $20,924, the median income for a family was $24,154. Males had a median income of $22,727 versus $17,391 for females; the per capita income for the city was $10,594. About 31.2% of families and 34.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 46.7% of those under age 18 and 20.9% of those age 65 or over. The prevalent industries in Quitman are farming and automotive. Cass Burch Automotive Group is located in downtown Quitman, with both Dodge Chrysler Jeep & Ram and Chevrolet dealerships represented; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Quitman has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Schools for Quitman are Quitman Elementary School, Brooks County Middle School, Brooks County High School. Radio station WGOV-FM 96.7 is licensed to broadcast from Quitman. The Quitman Free Press, a weekly newspaper, is the official legal publication for Brooks County, it has been in operation since 1876. Dana A. Dorsey - Banker, business executive, philanthropist. Child of freed slaves. Henry L. Reaves - politician and cattleman James Lord Pierpont - songwriter of Jingle Bells, church organist, taught at the Quitman Academy. Uncle of J. P. Morgan. Media related to Quitman, Georgia at Wikimedia Commons City of Quitman official website Civil War Slave Conspiracy historical marker
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Stewart County, Georgia
Stewart County is a county located in the west portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,058; the county seat is Lumpkin. The county was created on December 23, 1830; the area was inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years in the Pre-Columbian period. Roods Landing Site on the Chattahoochee River is a significant archaeological site located south of Omaha. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it includes major earthwork mounds built about 1100-1350 CE by peoples of the sophisticated Mississippian culture. Another Mississippian site is the Singer Moye Mounds, located in the southern part of the county; the first Europeans to encounter the Native Americans were Spanish explorers in the mid-16th century. At that time the historical Creek tribe inhabited the southern two thirds of what is now defined as Georgia, west of the Low Country, they are believed to be the descendants of the Mississippian culture. They maintained their territory until after European American settlers arrived in increasing number in the early decades of the 19th century.
The ensuing conflicts resulted in most of the Creek people's being driven out of the region. In the 1830s under Indian removal, the US federal government forced most Creek to relocate west of the Mississippi River, to Indian Territory in what became present-day Oklahoma. Stewart County was created by an act of the Georgia General Assembly on December 23, 1830, from land, part of Randolph County, Georgia; the county is named for Daniel Stewart, a Revolutionary War veteran, fighter against American Indians. He was one of the four great-grandfathers of U. S. president Theodore Roosevelt. Settlers developed the area as large cotton plantations, part of the "Black Belt" of Georgia and the Deep South. Before the American Civil War, planters depended on enslaved labor of thousands of African Americans to cultivate and process the cotton for market. Born in the United States, the slaves were transported from the Upper South, with many families broken up when some members were purchased through sales in the domestic slave trade.
In 1850, the county reached its peak in wealth as one of the largest cotton producers in the state. It had the tenth-largest population of any county in the state, with 16,027 people. African-American slaves numbered 46 % of the population; this was By 1860, the county population was 13,422. The apparent drop was due to the counties of Kinchafoonee and Quitman being created from Stewart County territory in 1853 and 1858, respectively. There were 5,534 slaves in the redefined Stewart County, constituting more than one-third of the population. After the war and emancipation, cotton continued as the major commodity crop and additional territory was developed by planters for cultivation. Many freedmen became sharecroppers and tenant farmers in the area, agricultural for decades, but in decline. Stewart County lost its premier position when it was bypassed by developing railroads, which went to the north and south, it did not have railroad access until 1885. Inappropriate farming practices and over-cultivation of cotton from before the Civil War led to extensive land erosion by the early 20th century.
Together with mechanization of agriculture and damage due to infestation by the boll weevil, there were losses in this part of the economy. Population declined. Up to the mid century, many blacks left the area in two waves of the Great Migration, seeking escape from Jim Crow conditions, jobs and better lives in northern and midwestern industrial cities. Farmers shifted to cultivating peanuts and pine trees to reclaim and restore the land. Population losses continued throughout the 20th century, as the forest and lumber industry did not require as many laborers. In 1965, some of the towns in the county began to redevelop their historic properties to attract tourists and expand the economy. Lumpkin and Louvale all had intact historic properties and commercial districts. Green Grove is an historic African-American community established by freedmen after the Civil War. Stewart was the first rural county in the state to use historic preservation and Main Street redevelopment to support heritage tourism.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 464 square miles, of which 459 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles is water. The vast majority of Stewart County is located in the Middle Chattahoochee River-Walter F. George Lake sub-basin of the ACF River Basin. Just the eastern edge of the county, bordered by a north-to-south line running through Richland, is located in the Kinchafoonee-Muckalee sub-basin of the same ACF Basin, with the southeastern corner located in the Ichawaynochaway Creek sub-basin of the larger ACF River Basin. Chattahoochee County Webster County Randolph County Quitman County Barbour County, Alabama Russell County, Alabama Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,058 people, 1,862 households, 1,187 families residing in the county; the population density was 13.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,383 housing units at an average density of 5.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 47.3% black or African American, 28.0% white, 0.7% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 22.8% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 24.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 6.8% were English, 6.3% were German, 4.9% were American. Of the 1,862 households
Georgia's 2nd congressional district
Georgia's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Georgia. The district is represented by Democrat Sanford D. Bishop, Jr. though the district's boundaries have been redrawn following the 2010 census, which granted an additional congressional seat to Georgia. The first election using the new district boundaries were the 2012 congressional elections. One of the largest districts by size, it comprises much of the southwestern portion of the state of Georgia. Much of the district is rural, although the district has a number of small cities and medium-sized towns, such as Albany, Americus and portions of Columbus and Macon; the district is the historic and current home of President Jimmy Carter. The district is one of the most Democratic in the country, as Democrats have held the seat since 1875; as of May 2017, there is one former member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Georgia's 2nd congressional district, living at this time. Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 2nd district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 2nd district at GovTrack.us
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Randolph County, Georgia
Randolph County is a county located in the southwestern portion of the US state of Georgia and is considered part of the Black Belt an area of plantations. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,719, less than half its peak population in 1910, when there were numerous agricultural workers; the county seat is Cuthbert. Randolph County was created on December 20, 1828, named after the Virginia planter and politician, John Randolph, he was honored as the namesake of present-day Jasper County but, because of his opposition to U. S. entry into the War of 1812, the Georgia General Assembly changed the county name in December 10, 1812. John Randolph's reputation was restored. In 1828, the General Assembly organized the current Randolph County in the west of the state. Most of the historic tribe of Muscogee people were forced from the area to Indian Territory during Indian Removal. Lumpkin, Georgia was the original county seat, it was within the portion of Randolph County, reassigned in 1830 to form Stewart County, Lumpkin was designated as the latter's county seat.
This area is considered part of the Black Belt, upland areas across the Deep South that were developed in the 19th century as plantations after invention of the cotton gin made processing of short-staple cotton profitable. Enslaved Blacks made up the vast majority of workers on the plantations, with hundreds of thousands being transported through the domestic slave trade from the coast and Upper South. After the American Civil War, many freedmen and their descendants continued to work on plantations in the county and region, comprising the majority of county population until the 1930s. Like other areas of the rural South, workers in Randolph County lost jobs due to mechanization, invasion of the boll weevil, the decline in agriculture. In the 20th century, many black families moved from the county to cities in the North and Midwest for work and less oppressive conditions during the Great Migration. But, the rural counties of the Black Belt continue to have substantial African-American populations.
Agriculture has been industrialized and depends on few workers. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 431 square miles, of which 428 square miles is land and 2.6 square miles is water. More than half of Randolph County east of U. S. Route 27, is located in the Ichawaynochaway Creek sub-basin of the ACF River Basin; the northwestern portion of the county, from just south of Cuthbert north, is located in the Middle Chattahoochee River-Walter F. George Lake sub-basin of the same ACF River Basin; the southwestern corner, centered on Coleman, is located in the Lower Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the same larger ACF River Basin. Stewart County – north Webster County – northeast Terrell County – east Calhoun County – southeast Clay County – southwest Quitman County – west As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,719 people, 3,187 households, 2,011 families residing in the county; the population density was 18.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,153 housing units at an average density of 9.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 61.8% black or African American, 36.6% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.5% of the population. In terms of European-American ancestry, 11.7% identified as English, 8.1% were Irish, 2.4% were American. Of the 3,187 households, 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.0% were married couples living together, 22.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families, 33.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age was 42.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $26,194 and the median income for a family was $29,800. Males had a median income of $21,313 versus $23,542 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,632. About 23.7% of families and 28.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 53.2% of those under age 18 and 16.3% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2000, there were 7,791 people, 2,909 households, 1,972 families residing in the county. The population density was 18 people per square mile. There were 3,402 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 59.47% Black or African American, 38.94% White, 0.35% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 0.44% from two or more races. 1.18% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,909 households out of which 30.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.90% were married couples living together, 22.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.20% were non-families. 30.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.20. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.30% under the age of 18, 11.00% from 18 to 24, 24.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 85.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $22,004, the median income for a family was $30,278. Males had a median income of $27,033 versus $20,394 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,809. About 22.00% of families and 27.70% of the po
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com