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Quitman County, Mississippi

Quitman County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,223, making it the fifth-least populous county in Mississippi, its county seat is Marks. The county is named after John A. Quitman, Governor of Mississippi from 1835 to 1836 and from 1850 to 1851. Quitman County is located in the Mississippi Delta region of Mississippi; the county was developed for cotton cultivation. Much of the bottomlands behind the riverfront were not developed until the late 19th century, population continued to increase as the frontier was cleared and cultivated; the county reached its peak population in 1940. Agricultural mechanization reduced the need for farm labor, workers were recruited to northern and midwestern industrial cities. Thousands of African Americans left in the Great Migration, many going upriver to St. Louis and Chicago. Martin Luther King wanted the Poor People's Campaign to start in Quitman County because of the intense and visible economic disparity there.

On March 18, 1968, King visited the town of Mississippi. He watched a teacher feeding black schoolchildren their lunch, consisting only of a slice of apple and some crackers, was moved to tears. After King's death, the Southern part of the Campaign began in Quitman County. Participants rode a train of mules to Washington, D. C. to protest about economic conditions. According to wagonmaster Willie Bolden, white citizens of Marks harassed the mule train on its way out of town. Bolden stated that they "would drive by blowing their horns, purposely trying to spook the mules and us." More Quitman County residents have made an effort to promote tourism based on the county's role in the Poor People's Campaign. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 406 square miles, of which 405 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles is water. It is the fourth-smallest county in Mississippi by land third-smallest by total area. Mississippi Highway 3 Mississippi Highway 6 Tunica County Panola County Tallahatchie County Coahoma County Coldwater River National Wildlife Refuge Reflecting the decreased need for farm labor after mechanization and the development of industrial farms, the population has declined by more than two thirds since its peak in 1940.

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 8,223 people living in the county. 69.6% were Black or African American, 29.0% White, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.3% of some other race and 0.8% of two or more races. 0.7 % were Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,117 people, 3,565 households, 2,506 families living in the county; the population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 3,923 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.62% Black or African American, 30.47% White, 0.13% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, 0.52% from two or more races. 0.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2000, there were 3,565 households out of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.60% were married couples living together, 26.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.70% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.42. In the county, the population was spread out with 32.00% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 19.50% from 45 to 64, 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 86.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,636, the median income for a family was $25,394. Males had a median income of $23,571 versus $16,993 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,817. About 28.60% of families and 33.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.10% of those under age 18 and 30.60% of those age 65 or over. Quitman County has the fifth-lowest per capita income in Mississippi and the 51st lowest in the United States; the Mississippi Department of Corrections operates the Quitman County Community Work Center in an area near Lambert. In addition MDOC operates the Mississippi State Penitentiary in an unincorporated area in Sunflower County, in the area.

Camp B, an inmate housing unit, was a satellite complex located away from the main Parchman prison property in unincorporated Quitman County, near Lambert. Camp B was one of Parchman's largest African-American housing units. Camp B's buildings have been demolished; the Mississippi Code gives Quitman County the right to "not over twenty offenders from the Parchman facility for five workdays of each week for the purpose of working the roads of Quitman County", goes on to state that the "board of supervisors of Quitman County shall lay out and designate roads to be worked by the offenders, the board of supervisors shall furnish transportation to and from the Parchman facility for offenders." On July 24, 1969, federal judge William Keady found that Quitman County school officials were maintaining an unconstitutional de jure racially segregated school system, he placed the school board under the supervision of United States District Court for the Northern District of Mississippi. As of 1993, this order had not been set aside.

In March 1991, the school board asked the district court for permission to close Crowder elementary and junior high school, a majority-white school. The court gave permission

Plectrurus guentheri

Plectrurus guentheri known as Günther's burrowing snake, is a species of snake in the family Uropeltidae. The species is endemic to the Western Ghats of India; the following description of P. guentheri is provided by Beddome: "Scales of the neck in 17 rows. All the scales of the tail 5-6-keeled, some of the approximated scales of the body keeled. Total length 13 inches, circumference 1 2⁄8 inches. Colour of the body a bright reddish purple. Boulenger added the following details: "Snout obtuse. Eye half the length of the ocular. Diameter of body 36 to 42 times in the total length. Ventrals not twice as large as the contiguous scales. Terminal scute with two superposed bi- or tricuspid transverse ridges. P. guentheri is named after German-born zoologist at the British Museum. P. guentheri is associated hills of southern India. The type locality is "Walaghat on the Western slopes of the Neilgherries". Plectrurus guentheri at the Reptile Database. Accessed 13 December 2007

Shusaku Arakawa

Shusaku Arakawa was a Japanese artist and architect. He had a personal and artistic partnership with writer and artist Madeline Gins that spanned more than four decades. Shusaku Arakawa, who spoke of himself as an "eternal outsider" and "abstractionist of the distant future," first studied mathematics and medicine at the University of Tokyo, art at the Musashino Art University, he was a member of a precursor to The Neo-Dada movement. Arakawa's early works were first displayed in the infamous Yomiuri Independent Exhibition, a watershed event for postwar Japanese avant-garde art. Arakawa arrived in New York in 1961 with fourteen dollars in his pocket and a telephone number for Marcel Duchamp, whom he phoned from the airport and with whom he formed a close friendship, he started using diagrams within his paintings as philosophical propositions. Jean-Francois Lyotard said of Arakawa's work that it "makes us think through the eyes," and Hans-Georg Gadamer described it as transforming "the usual constancies of orientation into a strange, enticing game—a game of continually thinking out."

Quoting Paul Celan, Gadamer wrote of the work: "There are songs to sing beyond the human." Charles Bernstein and Susan Bee observe, "Arakawa deals with the visual field as discourse, modal systems that constitute the world rather than being constituted by it." Arthur Danto found Arakawa to be "the most philosophical of contemporary artists." For his part, Arakawa declared: "Painting is only an exercise, never more than that." Beginning in 1963, he collaborated with fellow artist and poet Madeline Gins on the research project The Mechanism of Meaning, completed by 1973. This research project and the architectural projects that stem from it, both built and unbuilt ones, formed the basis of the 1997 Arakawa + Gins: Reversible Destiny exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum SoHo; the panels appear as a constellation of views concerning the nature of meaning that made be characterized in broad stroke as "holistic" or as entailments of a holistic view concerning meaning. To date, two editions of The Mechanism of Meaning have been made and many of the panels incorporate collaged elements.

Arakawa and Madeline Gins are co-founders of the Reversible Destiny Foundation, an organization dedicated to the use of architecture to extend the human lifespan. They have co-authored books, including Reversible Destiny, the catalogue of their Guggenheim exhibition, Architectural Body and Making Dying Illegal, have designed and built residences and parks, including the Reversible Destiny Lofts, Bioscleave House, the Site of Reversible Destiny – Yoro. Arakawa and Gins "lost their life savings" to the Bernie Madoff ponzi scheme. Arakawa died on March 2010, after a week of hospitalization. Gins would not state the cause of death. "This mortality thing is bad news," she stated. She planned to redouble efforts to prove "aging can be outlawed." "UBIQUITOUS SITE, NAGI'S RYOANJI, Architectural Body "the Site of Reversible Destiny - Yoro Park "Shidami Resource Recycling Model House "the Reversible Destiny Lofts MITAKA – In Memory of Helen Keller "Bioscleave house - LIFESPAN EXTENDING VILLA "Biotopological Scale-Juggling Escalator Word Rain The Mechanism of Meaning Intend What the President Will Say and Do To Not to Die Architecture: Sites of Reversible Destiny Hellen Keller or Arakawa Reversible Destiny Architectural Body Making Dying Illegal Madeline Gins Reversible Destiny Foundation Nagi Museum Of Contemporary Art Arakawa and Madeline Gins Tokyo Office Shusaku Arakawa collection at the Israel Museum.

Retrieved September 2016. Shusaku Arakawa works at the National Gallery of Art

Convoy QS-15

Convoy QS-15 was a trade convoy of merchant ships during the Second World War. It was one of the numbered QS Convoys; the convoy was attacked in the early weeks of the Battle of the St. Lawrence, in the St. Lawrence River and Gulf of St. Lawrence, when German U-boats were making ad hoc forays deep into Canadian waters; the convoy was found on 6 July 1942 by U-132, which sank three ships. U-132 was damaged by the convoy escort ship HMCS Drummondville; the March 1942 St. Lawrence Conference reviewed plans for Quebec–Sydney convoys for defence against U-boats in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence River and establishing a base at Gaspé, Quebec for the St. Lawrence patrol force, named Gaspé Force. However, by spring 1942 the only deterrent active within the St. Lawrence were air patrols. In early May, the first U-boat arrived in the St. Lawrence, U-553, it sank two merchant vessels. Following the attacks, all independent sailings were cancelled and the QS-SQ convoy system was adopted; as a result of merchant ship losses in the Atlantic Ocean, many slow lake freighters, vessels built for shipping on the Great Lakes, had been brought into service supplying St. Lawrence ports.

The large number of slow ships prevented the adoption of slow and fast convoys of merchants, making all the convoys uniform in speed at a maximum of 14 knots. The German submarine U-132 had departed its base in France on 10 June. On 13 June, the submarine came under intense attack by an unknown corvette, suffering damage significant enough to be ordered home. However, the submarine's commander, Ernst Vogelsang, insisted. Arriving in the St. Lawrence area in mid-June the submarine was ordered to replenish from one of the German supply submarines off the Atlantic coast. U-132 returned to the St. Lawrence via the Cabot Strait and was directed to attack shipping west of Anticosti Island. U-132 entered the St. Lawrence on 30 June, developing engine problems from the attack by the corvette earlier in the patrol; the submarine continued to patrol, submerging to avoid the Royal Canadian Air Force air cover over the area. A total of twelve merchant vessels joined the convoy, either at Quebec City or in the short voyage.

The convoy sailing formation was two rows of five followed by one row of two merchant vessels. The entire convoy covered 800 feet in total, but lax station keeping by the merchant vessels led to the convoy spreading over a 3-mile stretch of water; the convoy's maximum speed was 5.9 knots. Anastassios Pateras was carrying trucks and general cargo to the United Kingdom. Hainaut was loaded with general cargo bound for the United Kingdom. Dinaric was carrying timber; the convoy commodore, a civilian commander of the merchant vessels, had his flag aboard Fjordheim. As with other convoys in the early weeks of the Battle of the St. Lawrence, the escort was a single armed military ship. Drummondville was on its sixth escort mission as part of Gaspé Force, having been one of the five Bangor-class minesweepers assigned to the unit in May 1942. All of the missions had been commanded by Drummondville's commanding officer, Lieutenant J. P. Fraser. Additionally, the convoy was to have air cover provided by Royal Canadian Air Force Canso aircraft operating from the airfield at Gaspé.

Their arrival was delayed, as they were covering convoy SQ-16 transiting the Gulf of St. Lawrence; the convoy departed Bic Island in the afternoon of 5 July 1942 heading for Nova Scotia. While transiting the St. Lawrence River, a Fairmile motor launch on patrol from Rimouski to Gaspé temporarily joined the convoy to aid Drummondville on forcing the merchant vessels into their places in the convoy. U-132 picked up the convoy at 19:20 off Quebec on 5 July. However, the commander of U-132 waited until 22:30 to pursue it. QS-15 met the inbound convoy SQ-16 during the night and passed to the south, giving the German submarine captain the "impression of overlapping vessels". At 12:21 on 6 July, U-132 was 4,900 feet south of the southernmost ship of the front row of the convoy off Cap-Chat and fired four torpedoes. Two torpedoes missed, one struck the freighter Anastassios Pateras in the starboard side, hitting between the cross bunker and the stokehold. Anastassios Pateras was the second ship in the front row.

The second torpedo struck Hainaut on the starboard side creating a 4-foot hole in Hold No. 2 two to three minutes after the first explosion. Hainaut was situated at the northern end of the front row. Anastassios Pateras sank within ten minutes of the torpedo strike, Hainaut took twenty. After the first explosion, the convoy heading for Rimouski. Neither of the ships hit by torpedoes fired their rockets signalling torpedo strikes; this led to confusion among the convoy, with Lieutenant Fraser believing the explosions a result of the Fairmile, which had never signalled its departure, had begun dropping depth charges on a contact. Once he discovered the Fairmile was no longer with the convoy, the distance between the two torpedoed ships led Lieutenant Fraser to believe two U-boats were operating against the convoy. Twenty-six of the twenty-nine crew escaped Anastassios Pateras and made for shore, arriving four hours at Cap-Chat. Following the explosion aboard Hainaut, the crew were ordered to the lifeboats.

Forty of the forty-one crew survived the sinking and were recovered on 7 July at 07:45. Drummondville fired three star shells and closed with Fjordheim, sailing in the first row next to Hainaut; the convoy commodore believed that Panchito in the second row had been torpedoed, but this wa

Bann flake

A Bann flake is a large, butt-trimmed, leaf-shaped lithic blade of flint or chert, dating from the Late Mesolithic period of prehistoric Ireland, from around 4500 BC onwards. They are named after the river Bann in Northern Ireland; the term is rather variably defined, the uses of the flakes varied with many being all-purpose tools, weapons. Some were used as spear heads attached to wooden shafts, despite many being rather heavy for this, they are part of the Bann culture assemblage. Peter Woodman of University College Cork defines them as large flakes without a significant tang, with only light retouch, they come in two forms: elongated or laminar forms less than 3.2 cm across, or wider leaf shapes having only peripheral retouch at the butt. Wallace, Patrick F. O'Floinn, Raghnall eds. Treasures of the National Museum of Ireland: Irish Antiquities, 2002, Gill & Macmillan, Dublin, ISBN 0717128296


Kallol refers to one of the most influential literary movements in Bengali literature, which can be placed between 1923 and 1935. The name Kallol of the Kallol group derives from a magazine of the same name. Kallol was the main mouthpiece for a group of young writers starting their careers around that time including Premendra Mitra, Kazi Nazrul Islam, Buddhadeb Basu. A number of other magazines that followed Kallol can be placed as part of the general movement; these include Uttara, Pragati and Purbasha. In 1921, Gokulchandra Nag, Dineshranjan Das, Sunita Debi, Manindralal Basu set up the "Four Arts Club" at Hazra Road in Kolkata to discuss and practice literature, painting and drama; the four members published an anthology of short stories in 1922 named Jhorer Dola. The Four Arts Club did not last, but Dineshranjan Das and Gokulchandra Nag established a magazine and a literary circle in 1923, which they named Kallol; the regular adda, or literary discussion, would be held at Dineshranjan's house at Patuatola Lane, Kolkata.

The Kallol circle was the first conscious literary movement to embrace modernism in Bengali literature. However, the general literary atmosphere was not receptive of such a radical break from the critically and popularly acclaimed humanism of Tagore. Another major literary establishment of the day, Shanibarer Chithi, began a famous literary feud with the young Kallol members which lasted for years. Tagore himself joined the debate and published an essay in Kallol where he mentioned that he appreciated the literary effort, but found that the demand for realistic literature was just "the flaunting of poverty" combined with the "unrestraint of lust", he described the literary squabbles of the day in Shesher Kabita, where the protagonist Amit Ray is a modernist who abhors Tagore's humanism but espouses it later. The Kallol members, on the other hand influenced by Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx, did not deny that they loathed an idealist's version of a "higher" individual; the discussions of the Kallol circle provided ideas for many of the progressive writers of the age.

One of the greatest achievements of the Kallol group was in establishing a new generation of writers and thinkers in Bengal. When writing for Kallol, Kazi Nazrul Islam was only twenty-five, Premendra Mitra under twenty, Buddhadeb Basu fifteen. Nazrul would establish a rebellious streak in Bengali poetry, Mitra, a Chekhovian grasp of the short story and Basu would inspire a generation of poets with his little magazine group Kabita. Premendra Mitra Buddhadeb Basu Kazi Nazrul Islam Achintya Kumar Sengupta Manish Ghatak Gokulchandra Nag Bengal renaissance