William John Macquorn Rankine
William John Macquorn Rankine, FRSE FRS was a Scottish mechanical engineer who contributed to civil engineering and mathematics. He was a contributor, with Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson, to the science of thermodynamics. Rankine developed a theory of the steam engine and indeed of all heat engines. His manuals of engineering science and practice were used for decades after their publication in the 1850s and 1860s. He was an amateur singer and cellist who composed his own humorous songs. He was born in Edinburgh and died in Glasgow, a bachelor, born in Edinburgh to British Army lieutenant David Rankine and Barbara Grahame, of a prominent legal and banking family. Rankine was initially educated at home but he attended Ayr Academy and, very briefly, in 1836, Rankine began to study a spectrum of scientific topics at the University of Edinburgh, including natural history under Robert Jameson and natural philosophy under James David Forbes. Under Forbes he was awarded prizes for essays on methods of physical inquiry, during vacations, he assisted his father who, from 1830, was manager and, effective treasurer and engineer of the Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway which brought coal into the growing city.
In fact, the technique was simultaneously in use by other engineers –, the year 1842 marked Rankines first attempt to reduce the phenomena of heat to a mathematical form but he was frustrated by his lack of experimental data. At the time of Queen Victorias visit to Scotland, he organised a large bonfire situated on Arthurs Seat, the bonfire served as a beacon to initiate a chain of other bonfires across Scotland. Undaunted, he returned to his fascination with the mechanics of the heat engine. The following year, he used his theory to establish relationships between the temperature and density of gases, and expressions for the latent heat of evaporation of a liquid and he accurately predicted the surprising fact that the apparent specific heat of saturated steam would be negative. The work marked the first step on Rankines journey to develop a complete theory of heat. Rankine recast the results of his theories in terms of a macroscopic account of energy. He defined and distinguished between actual energy which was lost in dynamic processes and potential energy by which it was replaced.
He assumed the sum of the two energies to be constant, an idea already, although not for very long. From 1854, he made use of his thermodynamic function which he realised was identical to the entropy of Clausius. By 1855, Rankine had formulated a science of energetics which gave an account of dynamics in terms of energy and its transformations rather than force, the theory was very influential in the 1890s
The rite of laying a cornerstone is an important cultural component of eastern architecture and metaphorically in sacred architecture generally. Some cornerstones include time capsules from, or engravings commemorating, the time a building was built. Often, the ceremony involved the placing of offerings of grain and these were symbolic of the produce and the people of the land and the means of their subsistence. This in turn derived from the practice in more ancient times of making an animal or human sacrifice that was laid in the foundations. The object of the sacrifice is to give strength and stability to the building and it is believed that the man will die within the year. Not long ago there were still shadow-traders whose business it was to provide architects with the necessary for securing their walls. In these cases the measure of the shadow is looked on as equivalent to the shadow itself, and to bury it is to bury the life or soul of the man, deprived of it, must die. Ancient Japan legends talk about Hitobashira, in which maidens were buried alive at the base or near some constructions as a prayer to ensure the buildings against disasters or enemy attacks and this person is usually asked to place their hand on the stone or otherwise signify its laying.
Often still, and certainly until the 1970s, most ceremonies involved the use of a manufactured and engraved trowel that had a formal use in laying mortar under the stone. Similarly, a hammer was often used to ceremonially tap the stone into place. Freemasons sometimes perform the public cornerstone laying ceremony for notable buildings and this ceremony was described by The Cork Examiner of 13 January 1865 as follows. After this, Bishop Gregg spread cement over the stone with a specially made for the occasion by John Hawkesworth, a silversmith. He gave the stone three knocks with a mallet and declared the stone to be duly and truly laid, the Deputy Provincial Grand Master of Munster poured offerings of corn and wine over the stone after Bishop Gregg had declared it to be duly and truly laid. The Provincial Grand Chaplain of the Masonic Order in Munster read out the prayer, May the Great Architect of the universe enable us as successfully to carry out. The choir and congregation sang the Hundredth Psalm.
In Freemasonry, which grew from the practice of stonemasons, the initiate is placed in the north-east corner of the Lodge as a foundation stone. This is intended to signify the unity of the North associated with darkness, a cornerstone will sometimes be referred to as a foundation-stone, and is symbolic of Christ, whom the Apostle Paul referred to as the head of the corner and is the Chief Cornerstone of the Church. Many of the ancient churches will place relics of the saints, especially martyrs
A keystone is the wedge-shaped stone piece at the apex of a masonry arch, or the generally round one at the apex of a vault. In both cases it is the piece placed during construction and locks all the stones into position. In both arches and vaults, keystones are often enlarged beyond the requirements, and often decorated in some way. Keystones are often placed in the centre of the top of openings such as doors and windows. Although a masonry arch or vault cannot be self-supporting until the keystone is placed, old keystones can decay due to vibration, a condition known as bald arch. In a rib-vaulted ceiling, keystones may mark the intersections of two or more arched ribs, for aesthetic purposes, the keystone is sometimes larger than the other voussoirs, or embellished with a boss. Mannerist architects of the 16th century often designed arches with enlarged and slightly dropped keystones, numerous examples are found in the work of Sebastiano Serlio, a 16th-century Italian Mannerist architect.
Architectural sculpture Coping List of classical architecture terms Oculus compression ring Media related to keystones at Wikimedia Commons
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar. The Earths outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock, rock has been used by mankind throughout history. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization, three major groups of rocks are defined, igneous and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is a component of geology. At a granular level, rocks are composed of grains of minerals, the aggregate minerals forming the rock are held together by chemical bonds. The types and abundance of minerals in a rock are determined by the manner in which the rock was formed, many rocks contain silica, a compound of silicon and oxygen that forms 74. 3% of the Earths crust. This material forms crystals with other compounds in the rock, the proportion of silica in rocks and minerals is a major factor in determining their name and properties.
Rocks are geologically classified according to such as mineral and chemical composition, the texture of the constituent particles. These physical properties are the end result of the processes that formed the rocks, over the course of time, rocks can transform from one type into another, as described by the geological model called the rock cycle. These events produce three general classes of rock, igneous and metamorphic, the three classes of rocks are subdivided into many groups. However, there are no hard and fast boundaries between allied rocks, hence the definitions adopted in establishing rock nomenclature merely correspond to more or less arbitrary selected points in a continuously graduated series. Igneous rock forms through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava and this magma can be derived from partial melts of pre-existing rocks in either a planets mantle or crust. Typically, the melting of rocks is caused by one or more of three processes, an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition, igneous rocks are divided into two main categories, plutonic rock and volcanic.
Plutonic or intrusive rocks result when magma cools and crystallizes slowly within the Earths crust, a common example of this type is granite. Volcanic or extrusive rocks result from magma reaching the surface either as lava or fragmental ejecta, the chemical abundance and the rate of cooling of magma typically forms a sequence known as Bowens reaction series. Most major igneous rocks are found along this scale, about 64. 7% of the Earths crust by volume consists of igneous rocks, making it the most plentiful category. Of these, 66% are basalts and gabbros, 16% are granite, only 0. 6% are syenites and 0. 3% peridotites and dunites
Church of St Mary, Fetcham
Traces of its long past exist in many parts of its structure. In the 19th century a considerable amount of restoration and improvement in the church was carried out by Rev, Sir Edward Moon rector from 1854 to 1904. Moon inherited his baronetcy in 1871 on the death of his father Sir Francis Moon, 1st Baronet, the structure gained listed status in 1951, has some stained glass windows, and is classed as Grade II*. The daily service is the 5. 30pm Sung Evening Prayer, thursday 10. 00am Holy Communion, and Sunday 8. 00am Holy Communion are supplemented by 9. 30am Parish Communion. Activ8 for under 12s and Creche for under 3s takes place on Sunday at 9.30 and 11. 15am, list of places of worship in Mole Valley Official website
The Giusti Palace and Garden are located in the east of Verona, Italy, a short distance from Piazza Isolo and near the city centre. The palace was built in the sixteenth century, the garden is considered one of the finest examples of an Italian garden. The palace is a 16th-century neo-Classical structure with a built in 1701. The Italian Renaissance gardens were planted in 1580 and are regarded as some of the most beautiful Renaissance gardens in Europe and they include a parterre and hedge maze, and expansive vistas of the surrounding landscape from the terrace gardens. First, only two square parterres right and left hand of the way were designed, and a maze behind the right one. Some years later, four additional flower parterres were laid out left hand, the actual unifying layout of the garden parterres dates from early 20th century. The maze was reconstructed after 1945, francesco Pona, Sileno overo Delle Bellezze del Luogo dellIll. mo Sig. Co. 110-113 Federico Dal Forno, Case e palazzi di Verona,1973 Banca popolare di Verona, Verona Notiziario BPV, Numero 3, anno 1991.
Paolo Villa, Giardino Giusti 1993-94 pdf, with maps and 200 photos Patrizia Floder Reitter, Verona Giorgio Forti, La scena urbana, strade e palazzi di Verona e provincia,2000 Athesis, Verona Mario Luciolli Passeggiando tra i palazzi di Verona 2003 Garda
A course is a continuous horizontal layer of similarly-sized building material one unit high, usually in a wall. The term is almost always used in conjunction with unit masonry such as brick, cut stone, stretcher – The typical course style, masonry units are laid with their head viewed from a side cross-section and the long, narrow sides forming the bulk of the visible course. Header – Heads form the course and the long, narrow side is viewed from a side cross-section. This is often used to interlock a double wall. Rowlock – The long narrow sides are top and bottom, long thin sides are top and bottom, the heads are viewed from a side cross-section. Away from the top of the building it will represent a table where it has any mock or physical supports, these effects are defined as a dentillated course. Where just below the eaves or parapet wall the band course can be considered part of a cornice
Cement rendering is the application of a premixed layer of sand and cement to brick, stone, or mud brick. It is often textured, colored, or painted after application and it is generally used on exterior walls but can be used to feature an interior wall. Depending on the required, rendering can be fine or coarse, textured or smooth. The cement rendering of brick and mud houses has been used for centuries to improve the appearance of exterior walls and it can be seen in different forms all over southern Europe. Different countries have their own styles and traditional colors, different finishes can be created by using different tools such as trowels, sponges, or brushes. The art in traditional rendering is the appearance of the top coat, different tradesmen have different finishing styles and are able to produce different textures and decorative effects. Some of these special finishing effects may need to be created with a thin finishing top coat or a finishing wash, cement render consists of 6 parts clean sharp fine sand,1 part cement, and 1 part lime.
The lime makes the render more workable and reduces cracking when the render dries, any general purpose cement can be used. Various additives can be added to the mix to increase adhesion, coarser sand is used in the base layer and slightly finer sand in the top layer. The application process resembles the process for applying paint, to ensure adhesion, the surface to be rendered is initially hosed off to ensure it is free of any dirt and loose particles. Old paint or old render is scraped away, the surface is roughened to improve adhesion. For large areas, vertical battens are fixed to the wall every 1 to 1.5 meters, to keep the render flat, there is a wide variety of premixed renders for different situations. Some have an additive to the traditional cement and sand mix for enhanced water resistance, flexibility. Acrylic premixed renders have superior water resistance and strength and they can be used on a wider variety of surfaces than cement render, including concrete, cement blocks, and AAC concrete paneling.
With the right preparation, they can be used on surfaces like cement sheeting, new high tech polymer exterior cladding such as Uni-Base. A few of these require activation with cement just prior to application, some premixed acrylic renders have a smoother complexion than traditional renders. There are many various acrylic-bound pigmented designer finishing coats that can be applied over acrylic render, various finishes and textures are possible such as sand, marble, stone chip, lime wash or clay like finishes. There are stipple, glistening finishes, and those with enhanced water resistance, depending upon the product, they can be rolled, troweled or sponged on
Timber framing and post-and-beam construction are methods of building with heavy timbers rather than dimensional lumber such as 2x4s. Traditional timber framing is the method of creating structures using heavy squared-off and it is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. The method comes from making out of logs and tree trunks without modern high tech saws to cut lumber from the starting material stock. Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in parts of the world. These styles are categorized by the type of foundation, walls and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers. Three basic types of frames in English-speaking countries are the box frame, cruck frame. The distinction presented here is the load is carried by the exterior walls. Purlins are in a timber frame. A cruck is a pair of crooked or curved timbers which form a bent or crossframe, more than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have been recorded in the UK. Several types of frames are used, more information follows in English style below.
True cruck or full cruck, straight or curved, base cruck, tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam. Raised cruck, blades land on masonry wall, and extend to the ridge, middle cruck, blades land on masonry wall, and are truncated by a collar. Upper cruck, blades land on a tie beam, very similar to knee rafters, jointed cruck, blades are made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways. See also, hammerbeam roof End cruck is not a style, aisled frames have one or more rows of interior posts. These interior posts typically carry more load than the posts in the exterior walls. This is the concept of the aisle in church buildings, sometimes called a hall church. However, a nave is often called an aisle, and three-aisled barns are common in the U. S. the Netherlands, aisled buildings are wider than the simpler box-framed or cruck-framed buildings, and typically have purlins supporting the rafters. In northern Germany, this construction is known as variations of a Ständerhaus, the frame is often left exposed on the exterior of the building
A brick is building material used to make walls and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term referred to a unit composed of clay. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil and lime, Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types and sizes which vary with region and time period, and are produced in bulk quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are fired and non-fired bricks, block is a similar term referring to a rectangular building unit composed of similar materials, but is usually larger than a brick. Lightweight bricks are made from expanded clay aggregate, fired bricks are one of the longest-lasting and strongest building materials, sometimes referred to as artificial stone, and have been used since circa 5000 BC. Air-dried bricks, known as mudbricks, have an older than fired bricks. Bricks are laid in courses and numerous patterns known as bonds, collectively known as brickwork, the earliest bricks were dried brick, meaning that they were formed from clay-bearing earth or mud and dried until they were strong enough for use.
The oldest discovered bricks, originally made from shaped mud and dating before 7500 BC, were found at Tell Aswad, in the upper Tigris region, ceramic, or fired brick was used as early as 3000 BC in early Indus Valley cities. In pre-modern China, bricks were being used from the 2nd millennium BCE at a site near Xian, the carpenters manual Yingzao Fashi, published in 1103 at the time of the Song dynasty described the brick making process and glazing techniques in use. He had to know when to quench the kiln with water so as to produce the surface glaze, Early civilisations around the Mediterranean adopted the use of fired bricks, including the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The Roman legions operated mobile kilns, and built large brick structures throughout the Roman Empire, during the Early Middle Ages the use of bricks in construction became popular in Northern Europe, after being introduced there from Northern-Western Italy. An independent style of architecture, known as brick Gothic flourished in places that lacked indigenous sources of rocks.
Examples of this style can be found in modern-day Denmark, Poland. A clear distinction between the two styles developed at the transition to Baroque architecture. In Lübeck, for example, Brick Renaissance is clearly recognisable in buildings equipped with terracotta reliefs by the artist Statius von Düren, production of bricks increased massively with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the rise in factory building in England. For reasons of speed and economy, bricks were increasingly preferred as building material to stone and it was at this time in London, that bright red brick was chosen for construction to make the buildings more visible in the heavy fog and to help prevent traffic accidents. The transition from the method of production known as hand-moulding to a mechanised form of mass-production slowly took place during the first half of the nineteenth century. His mechanical apparatus soon achieved widespread attention after it was adopted for use by the South Eastern Railway Company for brick-making at their factory near Folkestone, the Bradley & Craven Ltd ‘Stiff-Plastic Brickmaking Machine’ was patented in 1853, apparently predating Clayton
Ashlar is finely dressed masonry, either an individual stone that has been worked until squared or the masonry built of such stone. It is the finest stone masonry unit, generally cuboid, mentioned by Vitruvius as opus isodomum, one such decorative treatment consists of small grooves achieved by the application of a metal comb. Generally used only on softer stone ashlar, this decoration is known as masons drag, ashlar is in contrast to rubble masonry, which employs irregularly shaped stones, although sometimes minimally worked or selected for similar size, or both. Ashlar is related but distinct from other stone masonry that is finely dressed but not quadrilateral, such as curvilinear masonry, ashlar may be coursed, which involves lengthy horizontal courses of stone blocks laid in parallel, and therefore with continuous horizontal joints. Ashlar may be random, which involves stone blocks laid with deliberately discontinuous courses, in either case, it generally uses a joining material such as mortar to bind the blocks together, although dry ashlar construction, metal ties, and other methods of assembly have been used.
The dry ashlar of Inca architecture in Cusco and Machu Picchu is particularly fine, the word is attested in Middle English and derives from Old French aisselier, from Latin axilla, diminutive of axis, plank. Ashlar blocks have been used in the construction of buildings as an alternative to brick or other materials. In classical architecture, ashlar wall surfaces were contrasted with rustication. The term is used to describe the dressed stone work of prehistoric Greece and Crete. For example, the tombs of Bronze Age Mycenae use ashlar masonry in the construction of the so-called beehive dome. This dome consists of finely cut ashlar blocks that decrease in size and these domes are not true domes, but are constructed using the corbel arch. Ashlar masonry was used in the construction of palace facades on Crete. These constructions date to the MM III-LM Ib period, ca, in modern European masonry the blocks are generally about 35 centimetres in height. When shorter than 30 centimetres, they are called small ashlar.
In some Masonic groupings, which such societies term jurisdictions, ashlars are used as a metaphor for how ones personal development relates to the tenets of their lodge. Ablaq Dimension stone Opus quadratum Rustication Stone cladding Stone veneer