Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah
Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah was the sixth ruler of the kingdom of Golconda in southern India under the Qutb Shahi dynasty. He ruled from 1611 to 1625, he was the nephew and son-in-law of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, having married Muhammad's only daughter with Bhagmati Hayat Baksh Begum in 1607. The first Qutb Shahi history was compiled during his reign, his son, Abdullah Qutub Shah became the Shah of Golconda
Indo-Islamic architecture is the architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced for Islamic patrons and purposes. Despite an earlier Muslim presence in Sindh in modern Pakistan, its main history begins when Muhammad of Ghor made Delhi a Muslim capital in 1193. Both the Delhi Sultans and the Mughal dynasty that succeeded them came from Central Asia via Afghanistan, were used to a Central Asian style of Islamic architecture that derived from Iran; the types and forms of large buildings required by Muslim elites, with mosques and tombs much the most common, were different from those built in India. The exteriors of both were often topped by large domes, made extensive use of arches. Both of these features were hardly used in other native Indian styles. Both types of building consisted of a single large space under a high dome, avoided the figurative sculpture so important to Hindu temples. Islamic buildings had to adapt the skills of a workforce trained in earlier Indian traditions to their own designs.
Unlike most of the Islamic world, where brick tended to predominate, India had skilled builders well used to producing stone masonry of high quality. As well as the main style developed in Delhi and Mughal centres, a variety of regional styles grew up where there were local Muslim rulers. By the Mughal period agreed to represent the peak of the style, aspects of Islamic style began to influence architecture made for Hindus, with temples using scalloped arches, domes; this was the case in palace architecture. Indo-Islamic architecture has left influences on modern Indian and Bangladeshi architecture, was the main influence on the so-called Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture introduced in the last century of the British Raj. Both secular and religious buildings are influenced by Indo-Islamic architecture; the style includes influences from Indian, Persian, Central Asian and Ottoman Turkish architecture. The best-preserved example of a mosque from the days of the infancy of Islam in South Asia is the ruined mosque at Banbhore in Sindh, from the year 727, from which only the plan can be deduced.
The start of the Delhi Sultanate in 1206 under Qutb al-Din Aibak introduced a large Islamic state to India, using Central Asian styles. The important Qutb Complex in Delhi was begun under Muhammad of Ghor, by 1199, continued under Qutb al-Din Aibak and sultans; the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque, now a ruin, was the first structure. Like other early Islamic buildings it re-used elements such as columns from destroyed Hindu and Jain temples, including one on the same site whose platform was reused; the style was Iranian. Beside it is the tall Qutb Minar, a minaret or victory column, whose original four stages reach 73 meters, its closest comparator is the 62-metre all-brick Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan, of around 1190, a decade or so before the probable start of the Delhi tower. The surfaces of both are elaborately decorated with inscriptions and geometric patterns; the Tomb of Iltutmish was added by 1236. Other elements were added to the complex over the next two centuries. Another early mosque, begun in the 1190s, is the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra in Ajmer, built for the same Delhi rulers, again with corbelled arches and domes.
Here Hindu temple columns are piled up in threes to achieve extra height. Both mosques had large detached screens with pointed corbelled arches added in front of them under Iltutmish a couple of decades later. In these the central arch is taller, in imitation of an iwan. At Ajmer the smaller screen arches are tentatively cusped, for the first time in India. By around 1300 true domes and arches with voussoirs were being built; the Alai Darwaza gatehouse at the Qutb complex, from 1311, still shows a cautious approach to the new technology, with thick walls and a shallow dome, only visible from a certain distance or height. Bold contrasting colours of masonry, with red sandstone and white marble, introduce what was to become a common feature of Indo-Islamic architecture, substituting for the polychrome tiles used in Persia and Central Asia; the pointed arches come together at their base, giving a mild horseshoe arch effect, their internal edges are not cusped but lined with conventionalized "spearhead" projections representing lotus buds.
Jali, stone openwork screens, are introduced here. The tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam in Multan, Pakistan is a large octagonal brick-built mausoleum with polychrome glazed decoration that remains much closer to the styles of Iran and Afghanistan. Timber is used internally; this was the earliest major monument of the Tughlaq dynasty, built during the initial huge expansion of its territory, which could not be maintained. It was built for a Sufi saint rather than sultan, most of the many Tughlaq tombs are much less exuberant; the tomb of the founder of the dynasty, Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq is impressive. Unlike the earlier buildings mentioned above
Golkonda known as Golconda, Gol konda, or Golla konda, is a citadel and fort in Southern India and was the capital of the medieval sultanate of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, is situated 11 km west of Hyderabad. It is a tehsil of Hyderabad district, India; the region is known for the mines that have produced some of the world's most famous gems, including the Koh-i-Noor, the Hope Diamond, Nassak Diamond and the Noor-ul-Ain. Golkonda was known as Mankal. Golkonda Fort was first built by the Kakatiyas as part of their western defenses along the lines of the Kondapalli Fort; the city and the fortress were built on a granite hill, 120 meters high, surrounded by massive battlements. The fort was strengthened by Rani Rudrama Devi and her successor Prataparudra; the fort came under the control of the Musunuri Nayaks, who defeated the Tughlaqi army occupying Warangal. It was ceded by the Musunuri Kapaya Bhupathi to the Bahmani Sultanate as part of a treaty in 1364. Under the Bahmani Sultanate, Golkonda rose to prominence.
Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, sent as a governor of Telangana, established it as the seat of his government around 1501. Bahmani rule weakened during this period, Sultan Quli formally became independent in 1538, establishing the Qutb Shahi dynasty based in Golkonda. Over a period of 62 years, the mud fort was expanded by the first three Qutb Shahi sultans into the present structure, a massive fortification of granite extending around 5 km in circumference, it remained the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1590 when the capital was shifted to Hyderabad. The Qutb Shahis expanded the fort; the fort fell into ruin in 1687, after an eight-month-long siege led to its fall at the hands of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. The Golkonda Fort used to have a vault where the famous Koh-i-Noor and Hope diamonds were once stored along with other diamonds. Golkonda is renowned for the diamonds found on the south-east at Kollur Mine near Kollur, Guntur district and Atkur in Krishna district and cut in the city during the Kakatiya reign.
At that time, India had the only known diamond mines in the world. Golkonda's mines yielded many diamonds. Golkonda was the market city of the diamond trade, gems sold there came from a number of mines; the fortress-city within the walls was famous for diamond trade. However, Europeans believed. Magnificent diamonds were taken from the mines in the region surrounding Golkonda, including the Daria-i-Noor or "Sea of Light", at 185 carats, the largest and finest diamond of the crown jewels of Iran, its name has come to be associated with great wealth. Gemologists use this classification to denote a diamond with a complete lack of nitrogen. Many famed diamonds are believed to have been excavated from the mines of Golkonda, such as: Daria-i-Noor Noor-ul-Ain Koh-i-Noor Hope Diamond Princie Diamond Regent Diamond Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond By the 1880s, "Golkonda" was being used generically by English speakers to refer to any rich mine, to any source of great wealth. During the Renaissance and the early modern eras, the name "Golkonda" acquired a legendary aura and became synonymous for vast wealth.
The mines brought riches to the Qutb Shahis of Hyderabad State, who ruled Golkonda up to 1687 to the Nizam of Hyderabad, who ruled after the independence from the Mughal Empire in 1724 until 1948, when the Indian integration of Hyderabad occurred. The Golkonda fort is listed as an archaeological treasure on the official "List of Monuments" prepared by the Archaeological Survey of India under The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act. Golkonda consists of four distinct forts with a 10 km long outer wall with 87 semicircular bastions, eight gateways, four drawbridges, with a number of royal apartments and halls, mosques, stables, etc. inside. The lowest of these is the outermost enclosure into which we enter by the "Fateh Darwaza" studded with giant iron spikes near the south-eastern corner. An acoustic effect can be experienced at Fateh Darwazaan, characteristic of the engineering marvels at Golkonda. A hand clap at a certain point below the dome at the entrance reverberates and can be heard at the'Bala Hisar' pavilion, the highest point a kilometer away.
This worked. The whole of the Golkonda Fort complex and its surrounding spreads across 11 km of total area and discovering its every nook is an arduous task. A visit to the fort reveals the architectural beauty in many of the pavilions, gates and domes. Divided into four district forts, the architectural valour still gleams in each of the apartments, temples and stables; the graceful gardens of the fort may have lost their fragrance, for which they were known 400 years ago, yet a walk in these former gardens should be in your schedule when exploring the past glories of Golkonda Fort. Bala Hissar Gate is the main entrance to the fort located on the eastern side, it has a pointed arch bordered by rows of scroll work. The spandrels have yalis and decorated roundels; the area above the door has peacocks with ornate tails flanking an ornamental arched niche. The granite block lintel below has sculpted yalis flanking a disc; the design of peacocks and lions is t
Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah
Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah was the second ruler of the Sultanate of Golkonda under the Qutb Shahi dynasty. He ruled from 1543 to 1550, his father, Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, had established the dynasty and had become the first Muslim to rule over the entire Telugu region. In 1543, Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah assassinated his father, blinded his older brother, the heir to the throne, forced his other brother, Ibrahim Quli to flee to Vijayanagar. Following his father's death, he did not proclaim himself sultan, but forced local chiefs to accept his suzerainty, while gaining some forts from the Baridis. Little is known of Jamsheed's reign, he died in 1550 from Tuberculosis
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb or by his regnal title Alamgir, was the sixth Mughal emperor, who reigned for a period of 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. Considered to be the last effective Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb was one of the most influential rulers of the 17th century; as a memorizer of the Quran, he was one of the few powerful rulers who established Sharia law and Islamic ethics in India. Described as a military paragon,although Aurangzeb has never claimed to be a caliph of the Muslim community, he has been variously called as a Caliph of The Merciful, Monarch of Islam, Living Custodian of God, he was an Islamic economist. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to 4 million square kilometres, he ruled over a population estimated to be over 158 million subjects, with an annual yearly revenue of $450 million, or £38,624,680 in 1690. Under his reign, India surpassed China to become the world's largest economy and manufacturing power, worth over $90 billion, nearly a quarter of global GDP and more than the entirety of Western Europe.
Unlike his predecessors, including his father Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb considered the royal treasury to be held in trust for the citizens of his empire. He did not enjoy a luxurious life and his personal expenses and constructions of small mosques were covered by his own earnings, which included the sewing of caps and trade of his written copies of the Quran. Aurangzeb has been subject to controversy and criticism for his policies that abandoned his predecessors' legacy of pluralism and religious tolerance, citing his introduction of the Jizya tax, destruction of Hindu temples, the executions of Maratha Kingdom ruler Sambhaji and the ninth Sikh guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur. Various historians question the historicity of the claims of his critics, arguing that his destruction of temples has been exaggerated, noting that he built temples, paid for the maintenance of temples, employed more Hindus in his imperial bureaucracy than his predecessors did, opposed bigotry against Hindus and Shia Muslims. Aurangzeb's other criticisms include the prohibition and supervision of behaviour and activities that are forbidden in Islam, such as the bowing to the king, drinking of alcohol, sexual immorality, human drawings, servitude, music and the use of narcotic and addictive substances,which have been argued to have violated rights to freedom of enjoyment.
The downfall of the Mughal Empire is sometimes thought to have begun after his due to his political and religious intolerance. Aurangzeb died by natural causes at his military camp in 1707, his funeral was ascetically decent and his personal earnings that were left was given to charity as per his instructions, his death marks the end of Medieval India, the start of modern Indian history and the domination of European powers in India. Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Gujarat, he was the third son and sixth child of Mumtaz Mahal. In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father and his brother Dara Shukoh were kept as hostages under their grandparents' Lahore court. On 26 February 1628, Shah Jahan was declared the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb returned to live with his parents at Agra Fort, where Aurangzeb received his formal education in Arabic and Persian, his daily allowance was fixed at Rs. 500, which he spent on religious education and the study of history. On 28 May 1633, Aurangzeb escaped death when a powerful war elephant stampeded through the Mughal Imperial encampment.
He rode against the elephant and struck its trunk with a lance, defended himself from being crushed. Aurangzeb's valour was appreciated by his father who conferred him the title of Bahadur and had him weighed in gold and presented gifts worth Rs. 200,000. This event was celebrated in Persian and Urdu verses, Aurangzeb said: If the fight had ended fatally for me, it would not have been a matter of shame. Death drops the curtain on Emperors; the shame lay in what my brothers did! Aurangzeb was nominally in charge of the force sent to Bundelkhand with the intent of subduing the rebellious ruler of Orchha, Jhujhar Singh, who had attacked another territory in defiance of Shah Jahan's policy and was refusing to atone for his actions. By arrangement, Aurangzeb stayed in the rear, away from the fighting, took the advice of his generals as the Mughal Army gathered and commenced the Siege of Orchha in 1635; the campaign was successful and Singh was removed from power. Aurangzeb was appointed viceroy of the Deccan in 1636.
After Shah Jahan's vassals had been devastated by the alarming expansion of Ahmednagar during the reign of the Nizam Shahi boy-prince Murtaza Shah III, the emperor dispatched Aurangzeb, who in 1636 brought the Nizam Shahi dynasty to an end. In 1637, Aurangzeb married the Safavid princess Dilras Banu Begum, posthumously known as Rabia-ud-Daurani, she was his first chief consort as well as his favourite. He had an infatuation with a slave girl, Hira Bai, whose death at a young age affected him. In his old age, he was under the charms of Udaipuri Bai; the latter had been a companion to Dara Shukoh. In the same year, 1637, Aurangzeb was placed in charge of annexing the small Rajput kingdom of Baglana
The Deccan Sultanates were five Muslim dynasties that ruled several late medieval Indian kingdoms, namely Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Berar in south-western India. The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan Plateau, between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range; these kingdoms became independent during the break-up of the Bahmani Sultanate. They were noted for the destruction of general economic misery. In 1490, Ahmadnagar declared independence, followed by Berar in the same year. Golkonda became independent in 1518 and Bidar in 1528; the five sultanates were of diverse origin. Although rivals, they did ally against the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, permanently weakening Vijayanagara in the Battle of Talikota. Notably, the alliance destroyed the entire city of Vijayanagara with important temples such as the Vitthala Temple being razed to the ground. In 1574, after a coup in Berar, Ahmadnagar conquered it. In 1619, Bidar was annexed by Bijapur; the sultanates were conquered by the Mughal Empire.
The Ahmadnagar sultanate was founded by Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah I, the son of the Nizam-ul-Mulk Malik Hasan Bahri. Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah I was the governor of Junnar, after defeating the Bahmani army led by general Jahangir Khan on May 28, 1490 he declared independence and established the Nizam Shahi dynasty rule over the sultanate of Ahmadnagar; the territory of the sultanate was located in the northwestern Deccan, between the sultanates of Gujarat and Bijapur. His capital was in Junnar. In 1494, the foundation was laid for the new capital Ahmadnagar. Malik Ahmed Shah after several attempts, secured the great fortress of Daulatabad in 1499. After his death in 1510, his son Burhan, a boy of seven was installed in his place. Burhan Shah I died in Ahmadnagar in 1553, he left six sons. After the death of Hussain Shah I in 1565, his son Murtaza ascended the throne. While as a child, his mother Khanzada Humayun Sultana ruled as a regent for several years. Murtaza Shah annexed Berar in 1574. On his death in 1588, his son Miran Hussain ascended the throne.
But his reign lasted only a little. Ismail, a cousin of Miran Hussain was raised to the throne, but the actual power was in the hands of Jamal Khan, the leader of the Deccani group in the court. Jamal Khan was killed in the battle of Rohankhed in 1591 and soon Ismail Shah was captured and confined by his father Burhan, who ascended the throne as Burhan Shah. After the death of Burhan Shah his eldest son Ibrahim ascended the throne. Ibrahim Shah died only after a few months in the battle with Bijapur sultanate. Soon, Chand Bibi, the aunt of Ibrahim Shah, proclaimed Bahadur, the infant son Ibrahim Shah as the rightful Sultan and she became the regent of him. In 1596, a Mughal attack led by Murad was repulsed by Chand Bibi. After the death of Chand Bibi in July 1600, Ahmadnagar was conquered by the Mughals and Bahadur Shah was imprisoned, but Malik Ambar and other Ahmadnagar officials defied the Mughals and declared Murtaza Shah II as sultan in 1600 at a new capital, Paranda. Malik Ambar became prime Vakil-us-Saltanat of Ahmadnagar.
The capital was shifted first to Junnar and to a new city Khadki. After the death of Malik Ambar, his son Fath Khan surrendered to the Mughals in 1633 and handed over the young Nizam Shahi ruler Hussain Shah, sent as a prisoner to the fort of Gwalior, but soon, Shahaji with the assistance of Bijapur, placed an infant scion of the Nizam Shahi dynasty, Murtaza, on the throne and he became regent. In 1636 Aurangzeb, the Mughal viceroy of Deccan annexed the sultanate to the Mughal empire after defeating Shahaji. Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah I 1490–1510 Burhan Nizam Shah I 1510–1553 Hussain Nizam Shah I 1553–1565 Murtaza Nizam Shah 1565–1588 Miran Nizam Hussain 1588–1589 Isma'il Nizam Shah 1589–1591 Burhan Nizam Shah II 1591–1595 Ibrahim Nizam Shah 1595–1596 Ahmad Nizam Shah II 1596 Bahadur Nizam Shah 1596–1600 Murtaza Nizam Shah II 1600–1610 Burhan Nizam Shah III 1610–1631 Hussain Nizam Shah II 1631–1633 Murtaza Nizam Shah III 1633–1636; the Berar Sultanate was founded by Fathullah Imad-ul-Mulk, born a Kanarese Hindu, but was captured as a boy by Bahmani forces on an expedition against the Vijayanagara empire and reared as a Muslim.
During the disintegration of the Bahmani sultanate, Fathullah Imad-ul-Mulk, governor of Berar declared independence in 1490 and founded the Imad Shahi dynasty of the Berar sultanate. He established the capital at Achalpur. Gavilgad and Narnala were fortified by him, he was succeeded by his eldest son Ala-ud-din after his death in 1504. In 1528, Ala-ud-din resisted the aggression of Ahmadnagar with the help from Bahadur Shah, sultan of Gujarat; the next ruler, Darya first tried to ally with Bijapur to prevent aggression of Ahmadnagar, but was unsuccessful. He helped Ahmednagar on three occasions against Bijapur. After his death in 1562, his infant son Burhan succeeded him to the throne, but in 1574 Tufal Khan, a minister of Burhan usurped the throne. In the same year Murtaza I, sultan of Ahmadnagar annexed it to his sultanate. Burhan, along with Tufal Khan and his son Shamshir-ul-Mulk were taken to Ahmadnagar and confined to a fortress where all of them subsequently
Telangana is a state in India situated on the centre-south stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the twelfth largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed 29th state with Hyderabad as its historic permanent capital, its other major cities include Warangal, Nizamabad and Karimnagar. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Karnataka to the west, Andhra Pradesh to the east and south; the terrain of Telangana region consists of hills, mountain ranges, thick dense forests distribution of 27,292 sq. km. As of 2019, the state of Telangana is divided into 33 districts. Throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages, the region now known as Telangana was ruled by multiple major Indian powers such as the Cholas, Satavahanas, Kakatiyas, Delhi Sultanate, Bahmani Sultanate, Golconda Sultanate.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, the region was ruled by the Mughals. The region is known for its Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb. During the 18th century and the British Raj, Telangana was ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad. In 1823, the Nizams lost control over Northern Circars and Ceded Districts, which were handed over to the East India Company; the annexation by the British of the Northern Circars deprived Hyderabad State, the Nizam's dominion, of the considerable coastline it had, to that of a landlocked princely state with territories in Central Deccan, bounded on all sides by British India. Thereafter, the Northern Circars were governed as part of Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947, after which the presidency became India's Madras state; the Hyderabad state joined the Union of India in 1948 after an Indian military invasion. In 1956, the Hyderabad State was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganisation of states and Telangana was merged with the Telugu-speaking Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.
A peasant-driven movement began to advocate for separation from Andhra Pradesh starting in the early 1950s, continued until Telangana was awarded separate statehood on 2 June 2014. The economy of Telangana is the eighth-largest state economy in India with ₹8.43 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹181,000. The state has emerged as a major focus for robust IT software and services sector; the state is the main administrative centre to a large number of Indian defence aero-space and research labs like Bharat Dynamics Limited, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisation and Defence Research and Development Laboratory. The cultural hearts of Telangana and Warangal, are noted for their wealth and renowned historical structures – Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Paigah Tombs, Falaknuma Palace, Chowmahalla Palace, Warangal Fort, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Thousand Pillar Temple and the Bhongir Fort in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district; the historic city Golconda during the Kakatiya reign was once known for the mines that have produced some of the world's most famous gems, including the Koh-i-Noor, Hope Diamond, Daria-i-Noor, Regent Diamond, Nassak Diamond and Noor-ul-Ain.
Religious edifices like the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Makkah Masjid in Hyderabad, Medak Cathedral are several of its most famous places of worship. A popular etymology derives the word "Telangana" from Trilinga desa, a region so called because three important Shaivite shrines were located here: Kaleshwaram and Draksharama. According to Jayadhir Thirumala Rao, a former director of Andhra Pradesh Oriental Manuscripts Library and Research Centre, the name Telangana is of Gondi origin. Rao asserts that it is derived from "Telangadh", which according to him, means "south" in Gondi and has been referred to in "Gond script dating back to about 2000 years". One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul, called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Tilangana, he was the commander of the Warangal Fort. A 16th-century travel writer, recorded in his book: During the just reign of Ibrahim Kootb Shah, like Egypt, became the mart of the whole world.
Merchants from Toorkistan and Persia resorted to it. The greatest luxuries from foreign parts daily abounded at the king's hospitable board; the word "Telinga" changed over time to "Telangana" and the name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada. After Asaf Jahis ceded the Seemandhra region to the British, the rest of the Telugu region retained the name Telingana and the other parts were called Madras Presidency's Circars and Ceded. Telangana was governed by many rulers, including the Maurya Empire, Satavahana dynasty, Vakataka dynasty, Chalukya dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Kakatiya Dynasty, the Musunuri Nayaks the Delhi Sultanate, the Bahmani Sultanate, Vijayanagara Empire, Qutb Shahi dynasty, Mughal Empire and Asaf Jahi Dynasty; the Satavahana dynasty became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari