Population: 37,658 (2002 census).
Area: 1000,8 km².
- Districts of Georgia, Statoids.com
|This Georgia location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
Population: 37,658 (2002 census).
Area: 1000,8 km².
|This Georgia location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
1. Georgia (country) – Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi, Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres, and its 2016 population is about 3.72 million. Georgia is a unitary, semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy, during the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia. The kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia adopted Christianity in the early 4th century, a unified Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its political and economic strength during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter the kingdom declined and eventually disintegrated under hegemony of various powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire. Russian rule over Georgia was eventually acknowledged in various treaties with Iran. Since the establishment of the modern Georgian republic in April 1991, post-communist Georgia suffered from civil, the countrys Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008. Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and it contains two de facto independent regions, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which gained limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and a part of the international community consider the regions to be part of Georgias sovereign territory under Russian military occupation. Georgia probably stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians – gurğān, in the 11th and 12th centuries adapted via Syriac gurz-ān/gurz-iyān, starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was later adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages. This term itself might have established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region. The self-designation used by ethnic Georgians is Kartvelebi, the medieval Georgian Chronicles present an eponymous ancestor of the Kartvelians, Kartlos, a great-grandson of Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the name Sakartvelo consists of two parts. Its root, kartvel-i, specifies an inhabitant of the core central-eastern Georgian region of Kartli, ancient Greeks and Romans referred to early western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians. Today the full, official name of the country is Georgia, before the 1995 constitution came into force the countrys name was the Republic of Georgia. The territory of modern-day Georgia was inhabited by Homo erectus since the Paleolithic Era, the proto-Georgian tribes first appear in written history in the 12th century BC. The earliest evidence of wine to date has found in Georgia. In fact, early metallurgy started in Georgia during the 6th millennium BC, the classical period saw the rise of a number of early Georgian states, the principal of which was Colchis in the west and Iberia in the east
2. Kakheti – Kakheti is a region formed in the 1990s in eastern Georgia from the historical province of Kakheti and the small, mountainous province of Tusheti. The region comprises eight districts, Telavi, Gurjaani, Kvareli, Sagarejo, Dedoplistsqaro, Signagi, Lagodekhi. Kakheti is bordered by the Russian Federation to the Northeast, Azerbaijan to the Southeast, the Georgian David Gareja monastery complex is partially located in this province and is subject to a border dispute between Georgian and Azerbaijani authorities. It also includes the region of Hereti whose name has fallen into gradual oblivion since the 15th century. It was incorporated into the united Georgian Kingdom at the beginning of the eleventh century, only in the beginning of the twelfth century did Georgian King David the Builder incorporate Kakheti into his Kingdom successfully. After the disintegration of the Georgian Kingdom, Kakheti became an independent Kingdom in the 1460s, from the early 16th century till the early 19th century, Kakheti and its neighboring Kartli came under intermittent Iranian rule. During all these centuries the region was a part of Iran and it supplied many notable generals, administrators, women. In 1762, the Kakhetian Kingdom was united with the neighboring Georgian Kingdom of Kartli into the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti under King Erekle II. Following the Treaty of Georgievsk and the sack of Tblisi by Agha Mohammad Khan, Russian suzerainty over Kakheti and the rest of Georgia was recognized by Qajar Iran in the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan. In 1918–1921 Kakheti was part of the independent Democratic Republic of Georgia, in 1922–1936 part of the Transcaucasian SFSR, since the Georgian independence in 1991, Kakheti has been a region of the republic of Georgia. The travel infrastructure in Kakheti is fast developing, since it is the most visited region of Georgia, one can choose to stay in a guest house, in a small and comfortable hotel, or a beautiful boutique-style hotel while traveling in this region. Telavi and Signagi are the most visited towns, Signagi was renovated three years ago. Until recently there were only some family hotels, but now Signagi features several hotels, list of sovereigns of Kakheti www. kakheti. net - information Kakheti region website Kakheti regional administration website Kakheti travel guide from Wikivoyage
3. Districts of Georgia (country) – A municipality is a subdivision of Georgia, consisting of a settlement or a group of settlements, which enjoys local self-government. There are two types of municipalities—self-governing cities,12 in total, and self-governing communities,67 in total, the municipalities were first established in 2006. Most of them were successors to the subdivisions, known as raioni. In addition, new municipalities were formed to govern those settlements in the entities of Abkhazia. After the Russo-Georgian War of 2008, Georgia treats these municipalities as parts of its occupied territories, the former districts not under Georgias effective sovereignty at the moment of the local government reform of 2006 were not transformed into municipalities. In 2014, the system of government was further reformed. Each municipality is divided into units, which can comprise one or several settlements. *– The territories of Abkhazia outside Georgias control and defined by Georgia as occupied territories as of 2015, **– These municipalities which include settlements in South Ossetia outside Georgias control and defined by Georgia as occupied territories as of 2015. ***– Official statistics available only for parts of the municipalities that are controlled by Georgia. ****– Official statistics are not available for the territories not under Georgias control
4. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation
5. Municipalities of Georgia (country) – A municipality is a subdivision of Georgia, consisting of a settlement or a group of settlements, which enjoys local self-government. There are two types of municipalities—self-governing cities,12 in total, and self-governing communities,67 in total, the municipalities were first established in 2006. Most of them were successors to the subdivisions, known as raioni. In addition, new municipalities were formed to govern those settlements in the entities of Abkhazia. After the Russo-Georgian War of 2008, Georgia treats these municipalities as parts of its occupied territories, the former districts not under Georgias effective sovereignty at the moment of the local government reform of 2006 were not transformed into municipalities. In 2014, the system of government was further reformed. Each municipality is divided into units, which can comprise one or several settlements. *– The territories of Abkhazia outside Georgias control and defined by Georgia as occupied territories as of 2015, **– These municipalities which include settlements in South Ossetia outside Georgias control and defined by Georgia as occupied territories as of 2015. ***– Official statistics available only for parts of the municipalities that are controlled by Georgia. ****– Official statistics are not available for the territories not under Georgias control
6. Abkhazia – Abkhazia is a partially recognised state on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus Mountains, south of Russia and northwest of Georgia proper. It covers 8,660 square kilometres and has a population of around 240,000, the separatist Abkhazian polity, formally the Republic of Abkhazia or Apsny, is recognised only by Russia and a small number of other countries. The status of Abkhazia is an issue of the Georgian–Abkhazian conflict. The region enjoyed autonomy within Soviet Georgia at the time when the Soviet Union began to disintegrate in the late 1980s, despite the 1994 ceasefire agreement and years of negotiations, the dispute remained unresolved. The long-term presence of a United Nations Observer Mission and a Russian-led Commonwealth of Independent States peacekeeping force failed to prevent the flare-up of violence on several occasions. On 28 August 2008, the Parliament of Georgia declared Abkhazia a Russian-occupied territory, the Abkhazians call their homeland Аҧсны, popularly etymologised as a land/country of the soul, yet literally meaning a country of mortals. It possibly first appeared in the century in an Armenian text as Psin. The state is designated as the Republic of Abkhazia or Apsny. The Russian Абхазия is adapted from the Georgian აფხაზეთი, in Mingrelian, Abkhazia is known as აბჟუა or სააფხაზო. Between the 9th and 6th centuries BC, the territory of modern Abkhazia was part of the ancient Georgian kingdom of Colchis and this kingdom was subsequently absorbed in 63 BC into the Kingdom of Egrisi, known to Byzantine Roman sources as Lazica. Classical authors described various peoples living in the region and the multitude of languages they spoke. Arrian, Pliny and Strabo have given accounts of the Abasgoi and Moschoi peoples somewhere in modern Abkhazia on the shore of the Black Sea. Around the mid 6th century AD, the Byzantines and the neighbouring Sassanid Persia fought for supremacy over Abkhazia for 20 years, Abkhazia, or Abasgia in classic sources, formerly part of Colchis and later of Egrisi until the late 690s, was a princedom under Byzantine authority. The country was mostly Christian, with the seat in Pityus. An Arab incursion into Abkhazia led by Marwan II, was repelled by Leon I jointly with his Egrisian and Kartlian allies in 736, after acquiring Egrisi via a dynastic union in the 780s the Kingdom of Abkhazia was established and became a dominant power in western Caucasus. During this period the Georgian language replaced Greek as the language of literacy, the western Georgian kingdom flourished between 850 and 950 when it annexed significant parts of central Georgia. In the 16th century, after the break-up of the Georgian Kingdom into small kingdoms and principalities, since the 1570s, when the Ottoman navy occupied the fort of Tskhumi, Abkhazia came under the influence of the Ottoman Empire and Islam. Under Ottoman rule, the majority of Abkhaz elite converted to Islam, the principality retained a degree of autonomy
7. Gagra District – Gagra District is a district of Abkhazia. It corresponds to the Georgian district by the same name, in medieval times, it was known as the southern part of Sadzen. It is located in the part of Abkhazia, and the river Psou serves as a border with Krasnodar Krai of Russia. Its capital is Gagra, the town by the same name, ethnic Armenians now constitute a plurality in the district. Grigori Enik was reappointed as Administration Head on 10 May 2001 following the March 2001 local elections, in December 2002, Enik was appointed Head of the State Customs Committee, he was succeeded by Valeri Bganba. On 25 May 2006, Bganba was released from office by President Bagapsh upon his own request, in turn, after the election of Alexander Ankvab, on 6 September 2011 Ketsba was dismissed upon his own request and temporarily replaced by his deputy Teimuraz Kapba. On 15 November, Grigori Enik, who had headed the Presidential Administration, was appointed Acting Head of Gagra District. On 28 May 2012, Enik was permanently appointed, following the May 2014 Revolution and the election of Raul Khajimba as President, he dismissed Enik and replaced him with MP Beslan Bartsits on 22 October. Bartsits was confirmed in his post the following year, on 16 May 2016, Bartsits became Head of the Presidential Administration. That same day, Gagra Forestry Director Zaur Bganba was appointed acting District Head, Bganba was confirmed in his post on 2 June