Population: 37,658 (2002 census).
Area: 1000,8 km².
- Districts of Georgia, Statoids.com
|This Georgia location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
Population: 37,658 (2002 census).
Area: 1000,8 km².
|This Georgia location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
1. Georgian language – Georgian is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians. It is the language of Georgia. Georgian is written in its own writing system, the Georgian script, Georgian is the literary language for all regional subgroups of Georgians, including those who speak other Kartvelian languages, Svans, Mingrelians and the Laz. Georgian is the most pervasive of the Kartvelian languages, a family that also includes Svan and Megrelian and Laz. Dialects of Georgian are from Imereti, Racha-Lechkhumi, Guria, Adjara, Imerkhevi, Kartli, Kakheti, Saingilo, Tusheti, Khevsureti, Khevi, Pshavi, Fereydan, Mtiuleti and Meskheti. Georgian as separate from the other Kartvelian languages would have emerged in the 1st millennium BC in the area known later as the Kingdom of Iberia, the evolution of Georgian into a written language was a consequence of the conversion of the Georgian elite to Christianity in the mid-4th century. The first Georgian texts are inscriptions and palimpsests dating to the 5th century, Georgian has a rich literary tradition. The oldest surviving work in Georgian is the 5th century Martyrdom of the Holy Queen Shushanik by Iakob Tsurtaveli. In the 11th century, Old Georgian gives rise to Middle Georgian, the Georgian national epic, Shota Rustavelis The Knight in the Panthers Skin, dates from the 12th century. This marked the beginning of the modern Georgian language, symbols on the left are those of the IPA and those on the right are of the modern Georgian alphabet. Opinions also differ on the aspiration of /t͡sʰ, t͡ʃʰ/, as it is non-contrastive, a former distinction between /x/ and /qʰ/ has been lost. Prosody in Georgian involves stress, intonation, and rhythm, stress is very weak, and linguists disagree as to where stress occurs in words. Jun, Vicenik, and Lofstedt have proposed that Georgian stress and intonation are the result of pitch accents on the first syllable of a word, the rhythm of Georgian speech is syllable-timed. Georgian contains many harmonic clusters involving two consonants of a type which are pronounced with only a single release, e. g. ბგერა bgera, ცხოვრება tskhovreba. There are also frequent consonant clusters, sometimes involving more than six consonants in a row, as may be seen in words like გვფრცქვნი gvprtskvni and მწვრთნელი mtsvrtneli. Vicenik has observed that Georgian vowels following ejective stops have creaky voice, Georgian has been written in a variety of scripts over its history. Currently the Mkhedruli or Military script is almost completely dominant, the others are used mostly in religious documents, Mkhedruli has 33 letters in common use, a half dozen more are obsolete in Georgian, though still used in other alphabets, like Mingrelian, Laz, and Svan. The letters of Mkhedruli correspond closely to the phonemes of the Georgian language, however, the first examples of a Georgian script date from the 5th century AD
2. Georgia (country) – Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi, Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres, and its 2016 population is about 3.72 million. Georgia is a unitary, semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy, during the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia. The kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia adopted Christianity in the early 4th century, a unified Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its political and economic strength during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter the kingdom declined and eventually disintegrated under hegemony of various powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire. Russian rule over Georgia was eventually acknowledged in various treaties with Iran. Since the establishment of the modern Georgian republic in April 1991, post-communist Georgia suffered from civil, the countrys Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008. Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and it contains two de facto independent regions, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which gained limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and a part of the international community consider the regions to be part of Georgias sovereign territory under Russian military occupation. Georgia probably stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians – gurğān, in the 11th and 12th centuries adapted via Syriac gurz-ān/gurz-iyān, starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was later adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages. This term itself might have established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region. The self-designation used by ethnic Georgians is Kartvelebi, the medieval Georgian Chronicles present an eponymous ancestor of the Kartvelians, Kartlos, a great-grandson of Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the name Sakartvelo consists of two parts. Its root, kartvel-i, specifies an inhabitant of the core central-eastern Georgian region of Kartli, ancient Greeks and Romans referred to early western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians. Today the full, official name of the country is Georgia, before the 1995 constitution came into force the countrys name was the Republic of Georgia. The territory of modern-day Georgia was inhabited by Homo erectus since the Paleolithic Era, the proto-Georgian tribes first appear in written history in the 12th century BC. The earliest evidence of wine to date has found in Georgia. In fact, early metallurgy started in Georgia during the 6th millennium BC, the classical period saw the rise of a number of early Georgian states, the principal of which was Colchis in the west and Iberia in the east
3. Kakheti – Kakheti is a region formed in the 1990s in eastern Georgia from the historical province of Kakheti and the small, mountainous province of Tusheti. The region comprises eight districts, Telavi, Gurjaani, Kvareli, Sagarejo, Dedoplistsqaro, Signagi, Lagodekhi. Kakheti is bordered by the Russian Federation to the Northeast, Azerbaijan to the Southeast, the Georgian David Gareja monastery complex is partially located in this province and is subject to a border dispute between Georgian and Azerbaijani authorities. It also includes the region of Hereti whose name has fallen into gradual oblivion since the 15th century. It was incorporated into the united Georgian Kingdom at the beginning of the eleventh century, only in the beginning of the twelfth century did Georgian King David the Builder incorporate Kakheti into his Kingdom successfully. After the disintegration of the Georgian Kingdom, Kakheti became an independent Kingdom in the 1460s, from the early 16th century till the early 19th century, Kakheti and its neighboring Kartli came under intermittent Iranian rule. During all these centuries the region was a part of Iran and it supplied many notable generals, administrators, women. In 1762, the Kakhetian Kingdom was united with the neighboring Georgian Kingdom of Kartli into the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti under King Erekle II. Following the Treaty of Georgievsk and the sack of Tblisi by Agha Mohammad Khan, Russian suzerainty over Kakheti and the rest of Georgia was recognized by Qajar Iran in the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan. In 1918–1921 Kakheti was part of the independent Democratic Republic of Georgia, in 1922–1936 part of the Transcaucasian SFSR, since the Georgian independence in 1991, Kakheti has been a region of the republic of Georgia. The travel infrastructure in Kakheti is fast developing, since it is the most visited region of Georgia, one can choose to stay in a guest house, in a small and comfortable hotel, or a beautiful boutique-style hotel while traveling in this region. Telavi and Signagi are the most visited towns, Signagi was renovated three years ago. Until recently there were only some family hotels, but now Signagi features several hotels, list of sovereigns of Kakheti www. kakheti. net - information Kakheti region website Kakheti regional administration website Kakheti travel guide from Wikivoyage
4. Districts of Georgia (country) – A municipality is a subdivision of Georgia, consisting of a settlement or a group of settlements, which enjoys local self-government. There are two types of municipalities—self-governing cities,12 in total, and self-governing communities,67 in total, the municipalities were first established in 2006. Most of them were successors to the subdivisions, known as raioni. In addition, new municipalities were formed to govern those settlements in the entities of Abkhazia. After the Russo-Georgian War of 2008, Georgia treats these municipalities as parts of its occupied territories, the former districts not under Georgias effective sovereignty at the moment of the local government reform of 2006 were not transformed into municipalities. In 2014, the system of government was further reformed. Each municipality is divided into units, which can comprise one or several settlements. *– The territories of Abkhazia outside Georgias control and defined by Georgia as occupied territories as of 2015, **– These municipalities which include settlements in South Ossetia outside Georgias control and defined by Georgia as occupied territories as of 2015. ***– Official statistics available only for parts of the municipalities that are controlled by Georgia. ****– Official statistics are not available for the territories not under Georgias control
5. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation
6. Municipalities of Georgia (country) – A municipality is a subdivision of Georgia, consisting of a settlement or a group of settlements, which enjoys local self-government. There are two types of municipalities—self-governing cities,12 in total, and self-governing communities,67 in total, the municipalities were first established in 2006. Most of them were successors to the subdivisions, known as raioni. In addition, new municipalities were formed to govern those settlements in the entities of Abkhazia. After the Russo-Georgian War of 2008, Georgia treats these municipalities as parts of its occupied territories, the former districts not under Georgias effective sovereignty at the moment of the local government reform of 2006 were not transformed into municipalities. In 2014, the system of government was further reformed. Each municipality is divided into units, which can comprise one or several settlements. *– The territories of Abkhazia outside Georgias control and defined by Georgia as occupied territories as of 2015, **– These municipalities which include settlements in South Ossetia outside Georgias control and defined by Georgia as occupied territories as of 2015. ***– Official statistics available only for parts of the municipalities that are controlled by Georgia. ****– Official statistics are not available for the territories not under Georgias control
7. Abkhazia – Abkhazia is a partially recognised state on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus Mountains, south of Russia and northwest of Georgia proper. It covers 8,660 square kilometres and has a population of around 240,000, the separatist Abkhazian polity, formally the Republic of Abkhazia or Apsny, is recognised only by Russia and a small number of other countries. The status of Abkhazia is an issue of the Georgian–Abkhazian conflict. The region enjoyed autonomy within Soviet Georgia at the time when the Soviet Union began to disintegrate in the late 1980s, despite the 1994 ceasefire agreement and years of negotiations, the dispute remained unresolved. The long-term presence of a United Nations Observer Mission and a Russian-led Commonwealth of Independent States peacekeeping force failed to prevent the flare-up of violence on several occasions. On 28 August 2008, the Parliament of Georgia declared Abkhazia a Russian-occupied territory, the Abkhazians call their homeland Аҧсны, popularly etymologised as a land/country of the soul, yet literally meaning a country of mortals. It possibly first appeared in the century in an Armenian text as Psin. The state is designated as the Republic of Abkhazia or Apsny. The Russian Абхазия is adapted from the Georgian აფხაზეთი, in Mingrelian, Abkhazia is known as აბჟუა or სააფხაზო. Between the 9th and 6th centuries BC, the territory of modern Abkhazia was part of the ancient Georgian kingdom of Colchis and this kingdom was subsequently absorbed in 63 BC into the Kingdom of Egrisi, known to Byzantine Roman sources as Lazica. Classical authors described various peoples living in the region and the multitude of languages they spoke. Arrian, Pliny and Strabo have given accounts of the Abasgoi and Moschoi peoples somewhere in modern Abkhazia on the shore of the Black Sea. Around the mid 6th century AD, the Byzantines and the neighbouring Sassanid Persia fought for supremacy over Abkhazia for 20 years, Abkhazia, or Abasgia in classic sources, formerly part of Colchis and later of Egrisi until the late 690s, was a princedom under Byzantine authority. The country was mostly Christian, with the seat in Pityus. An Arab incursion into Abkhazia led by Marwan II, was repelled by Leon I jointly with his Egrisian and Kartlian allies in 736, after acquiring Egrisi via a dynastic union in the 780s the Kingdom of Abkhazia was established and became a dominant power in western Caucasus. During this period the Georgian language replaced Greek as the language of literacy, the western Georgian kingdom flourished between 850 and 950 when it annexed significant parts of central Georgia. In the 16th century, after the break-up of the Georgian Kingdom into small kingdoms and principalities, since the 1570s, when the Ottoman navy occupied the fort of Tskhumi, Abkhazia came under the influence of the Ottoman Empire and Islam. Under Ottoman rule, the majority of Abkhaz elite converted to Islam, the principality retained a degree of autonomy
8. Gagra District – Gagra District is a district of Abkhazia. It corresponds to the Georgian district by the same name, in medieval times, it was known as the southern part of Sadzen. It is located in the part of Abkhazia, and the river Psou serves as a border with Krasnodar Krai of Russia. Its capital is Gagra, the town by the same name, ethnic Armenians now constitute a plurality in the district. Grigori Enik was reappointed as Administration Head on 10 May 2001 following the March 2001 local elections, in December 2002, Enik was appointed Head of the State Customs Committee, he was succeeded by Valeri Bganba. On 25 May 2006, Bganba was released from office by President Bagapsh upon his own request, in turn, after the election of Alexander Ankvab, on 6 September 2011 Ketsba was dismissed upon his own request and temporarily replaced by his deputy Teimuraz Kapba. On 15 November, Grigori Enik, who had headed the Presidential Administration, was appointed Acting Head of Gagra District. On 28 May 2012, Enik was permanently appointed, following the May 2014 Revolution and the election of Raul Khajimba as President, he dismissed Enik and replaced him with MP Beslan Bartsits on 22 October. Bartsits was confirmed in his post the following year, on 16 May 2016, Bartsits became Head of the Presidential Administration. That same day, Gagra Forestry Director Zaur Bganba was appointed acting District Head, Bganba was confirmed in his post on 2 June
9. Gudauta District – Gudauta District is a district of Abkhazia, Georgia’s breakaway republic. It corresponds to the eponymous Georgian district and its capital is Gudauta, the town by the same name. The population of the district was 34,869 at the time of the 2003 census, by the time of the 2011 Census, the population had increased to 36,775. Lev Shamba was reappointed as Administration Head on 10 May 2001 following the March 2001 local elections, on 16 June 2003, President Ardzinba assented to Shambas request for dismissal and replaced him with First Deputy Minister for Education Beslan Dbar. On 29 March 2005, newly elected President Sergei Bagapsh replaced Beslan Dbar as the Head of Gudautas Administration by Daur Vozba, during the February 2011 assembly elections, Daur Vozba failed to be re-elected by a margin of 92 votes. Sergei Bagapsh appointed Valeri Malia as his successor on 23 February, on 17 February, during its first session, the new Gudauta District assembly elected Roman Bazba its chairman, with 22 out of 29 votes, and Fyodor Sakania its Deputy Chairman. On 1 November 2011, Abkhazias Prosecutor General announced that he had initiated proceedings against former Administration Head Daur Vozba. Following the May 2014 Revolution and the election of Raul Khajimba as President, on 23 September 2014 he replaced Malia as Administration Head with Ruslan Ladaria
10. Gulripshi District – Gulripshi District is a district of Abkhazia, one of Georgia’s breakaway republics. It corresponds to the eponymous Georgian district and its capital is Gulripshi, the town by the same name. Upper Abkhazia was home to 1,956 of the districts 19,918 inhabitants, most of these fled before the battle and have not yet returned. Of note is the Dranda Cathedral sitting over a built by Justinian in 551. The medieval principality of Dal-Tsabal was centered in the district, abkhazias main airport, Sukhumi Dranda Airport, is also located in Gulripshi district. Adgur Kharazia was reappointed as Administration Head on 10 May 2001 following the March 2001 local elections, on 18 December 2002, President Ardzinba released Kharazia as Administration Head and appointed him as Minister for Agriculture and Food. On 16 June 2003, President Ardzinba appointed Tamaz Gogia as Administration Head, in the beginning of 2004, district officials stayed away from work in protest of what they perceived as rudeness from Gogia. In response, Gogia applied for resignation which President Ardzinba granted on 9 February, on 24 March 2005, newly elected President Sergei Bagapsh replaced Administration Head Aslan Baratelia with Mikhail Logua. In the 2011 Presidential election, Logua successfully ran for Vice President alongside Alexander Ankvab and he was succeeded on 14 December by Timur Eshba, who had previously been Deputy Head. Following the May 2014 Revolution and the election of Raul Khajimba as President, on 23 September 2014 he replaced Eshba with Aslan Baratelia
11. Sukhumi District – Sukhumi district is a district of Abkhazia, Georgia’s breakaway republic. It corresponds to the eponymous Georgian municipality and its capital is Sukhumi, the town by the same name, which is also the capital of entire Abkhazia. The population of the district is 11,531 according to the 2011 census, the city of Sukhumi is a separate administrative entity with more than 60,000 inhabitants. On 2 April 2003, President Ardzinba dismissed Lev Avidzba and appointed State Security Service Chairman Zurab Agumava as acting District Head, Agumava remained in this post until in 2006 he was appointed Military Prosecutor by Ardzinbas successor Sergei Bagapsh. On 21 February 2007, before the elections, President Bagapsh temporarily prolonged Vladimir Avidzba tenure as Head of the District Administration. After Avidzba was re-elected, he was permanently re-appointed on 21 March, on 12 June 2012, President Alexander Ankvab dismissed Avidzba for reaching the age of retirement, and awarded him with the order Akhdz-Apsha in the third degree for his long government service. On the same day, Ankvab appointed Head of the Education Department Zhuzhuna Bigvava as Avidzbas successor, following the May 2014 Revolution and the election of Raul Khajimba as President, on 28 October 2014 he dismissed Bigvava and appointed Beslan Avidzba as acting Head of the Administration. Avidzba was permanently appointed after local elections were held, on 2 June 2016
12. Adjara – Adjara, officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, is a historical, geographic and political-administrative region of Georgia. Located in the southwestern corner, Adjara lies on the coast of the Black Sea near the foot of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains. It is an important tourism destination and includes Georgias second-largest city of Batumi as its capital, about 350,000 people live on its 2,880 km2. Adjara is home to the Adjarians, a subgroup of Georgians. Adjaras name can be spelled in a number of ways, including Ajara, Ajaria, Adjaria, Adzharia, under the Soviet Union, Adjara was part of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic as the Adjarian ASSR. Adjara has been part of Colchis and Caucasian Iberia since ancient times, colonized by Greeks in the 5th century BC, the region fell under Rome in the 2nd century BC. It became part of the region of Egrisi before being incorporated into the unified Georgian Kingdom in the 9th century AD, the Ottomans conquered the area in 1614. The people of Adjara converted to Islam in this period, the Ottomans were forced to cede Adjara to the expanding Russian Empire in 1878. After a temporary occupation by Turkish and British troops in 1918–1920, the Soviet Union established the Adjar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921 in accord with this clause. Thus, Adjara was still a component part of Georgia, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Adjara became part of a newly independent but politically divided Republic of Georgia. It avoided being dragged into the chaos and civil war that afflicted the rest of the country between 1991 and 1993 due largely to the rule of its leader Aslan Abashidze. The central government in Tbilisi had very little say in what went on in Adjara during the presidency of Eduard Shevardnadze, in the spring of 2004, a major crisis in Adjara erupted as the central government sought to reimpose its authority on the region. It threatened to develop into an armed confrontation, however, Saakashvilis ultimatums and mass protests against Abashidzes autocratic rule forced the Adjaran leader to resign in May 2004, following which he went into exile in Russia. After Abashidzes ousting, a new law was introduced to redefine the terms of Adjaras autonomy, levan Varshalomidze succeeded Abashidze as the chairman of the government. In July 2007, the seat of the Georgian Constitutional Court was moved from Tbilisi to Batumi, in November 2007 Russia ended its two century military presence in Georgia by withdrawing from the 12th Military Base in Batumi. Since mid-2000s Turkey has expanded its influence over Adjara, Turkish influence can be seen in the regions economy and in the religious life—through the regions Muslim population. The status of the Adjaran Autonomous Republic is defined by Georgias law on Adjara, the local legislative body is the Parliament. Zurab Pataridze is the current head of the Adjaran government, Adjara is subdivided into six administrative units, Adjara is located on the south-eastern coast of the Black Sea and extends into the wooded foothills and mountains of the Lesser Caucasus
13. Batumi – Batumi is the second largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the countrys southwest. Much of Batumis economy revolves around tourism and gambling, but the city is also an important sea port and includes industries like shipbuilding, food processing and light manufacturing. Since 2010, Batumi has been transformed by the construction of modern high-rise buildings, Batumi is located on the site of the ancient Greek colony in Colchis called Bathus or Bathys – derived from the Greek phrase βαθύς λιμεν bathus limen or βαθύς λιμήν bathys limin meaning deep harbor. Under Hadrian, it was converted into a fortified Roman port, from 1010, it was governed by the eristavi of the king of Georgia. In the late 15th century, after the disintegration of the Georgian kingdom, Batumi passed to the princes of Guria, de Thoisy was taken captive and released through the mediation of the emperor John IV of Trebizond. In the 15th century in the reign of the prince Kakhaber Gurieli and they returned to it in force a century later and inflicted a decisive defeat on the Georgian armies at Sokhoista. Batumi was recaptured by the Georgians several times, first in 1564 by prince Rostom Gurieli, who lost it soon afterwards, in 1723, Batumi again became part of the Ottoman Empire. It was the last Black Sea port annexed by Russia during the Russian conquest of that area of the Caucasus, in 1878, Batumi was annexed by the Russian Empire in accordance with the Treaty of San Stefano between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Occupied by the Russians on August 28,1878, the town was declared a port until 1886. It functioned as the center of a military district until being incorporated in the Government of Kutaisi on June 12,1883. Finally, on June 1,1903, with the Okrug of Artvin, it was established as the region of Batumi, the expansion of Batumi began in 1883 with the construction of the Batumi-Tiflis-Baku railway and the finishing of the Baku-Batumi pipeline. Henceforth, Batumi became the chief Russian oil port in the Black Sea, the town expanded to an extraordinary extent and the population increased rapidly, from 8,671 inhabitants in 1882 to 12,000 in 1889. By 1902 the population had reached 16,000, with 1,000 working in the refinery for Baron Rothschilds Caspian, in the late 1880s and after, more than 7400 Doukhobor emigrants sailed for Canada from Batumi, after the government agreed to let them emigrate. Canada settled them in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, during 1901, sixteen years prior to the October Revolution, Joseph Stalin, the future leader of the Soviet Union, lived in the city organizing strikes. Kemal Atatürk ceded the area to the Bolsheviks of the Soviet Union on the condition that it be granted autonomy, when the USSR collapsed in 1989, Aslan Abashidze was appointed head of Adjaras governing council and subsequently held onto power throughout the unrest of the 1990s. Whilst other regions, such as Abkhazia, attempted to break away from the Georgian state, Abashidze exploited the central governments weaknesses and ruled the area as a personal fiefdom. In May 2004, he fled to Russia because of protests in Tbilisi sparked by the Rose Revolution. Batumi today is one of the port cities of Georgia
14. Guria – Guria is a region in Georgia, in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea. The region has a population of 113,000, with Ozurgeti as the regional capital, Guria is bordered by Samegrelo to the north-west, Imereti to the north, Samtskhe-Javakheti to the east, Ajaria to the south, and the Black Sea to the west. The province has an area of 2,033 km², Guria is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude. Guria consists of three municipalities, Ozurgeti Lanchkhuti Chokhatauri The toponym Guria is first attested in the c.800 Georgian chronicle of Pseudo-Juansher. The principality, comprising modern Guria and much of Adjara with the city of Batumi, was reduced in size. There were uprisings against Russian rule in 1819 and again in 1841, in 1840, Guria was made a county and renamed Ozurgeti, after one of its main towns. In 1846, it was transferred to the new Kutais Governorate, by 1904, the population was just under 100,000, occupying an area of approximately 532,000 acres of mountains and swampy valleys, covered by corn fields, vineyards, and some tea plantations. The peasants’ self-government, the so-called Gurian Republic, survived into 1906, the region was a native powerbase of the Georgian Social Democratic Party which dominated the Democratic Republic of Georgia from 1918 to 1921. Guria was a scene of guerrilla resistance to the militarily imposed Soviet rule early in the 1920s, under the Soviet government, Guria was an agrarian area divided into three administrative districts. In 1995, the Georgian government decreed the creation of the region of Guria, the Orthodox churches of Likhauri and Shemokmedi are the main historical buildings in the province. According to an explanation, in the times of Georgia’s prosperity. The linguistic evidence for the hypothesis is the Megrelian for “heart” – “guri”. Subtropic farming and tourism is a mainstay of the region’s economy, water is one of the Guria’s main assets. The province is famous for the water of Nabeglavi, which is similar to Borjomi in its chemical composition. Guria is also one of the largest tea growing regions in Georgia, the Gurians or Gurulebi is one of the ethnographical groups of Georgians, inhabiting Guria. Gurians are Orthodox Christian and speak the Gurian dialect of the Georgian language, gabriel Kikodze, the Bishop of Imereti. Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from 1918 to 1921, pavle Ingorokva, historian, philologist, and public benefactor
15. Imereti – Imereti is a region in Georgia situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni river. Traditionally, Imereti is a region, known for its mulberries and grapes. The 800,000 Imeretians speak a Georgian dialect, they are one of the local culture-groups of the ethnically subdivided Georgian people, in late antiquity and early Middle Ages the ancient western Georgian kingdom of Egrisi existed on the territory of Imereti. Its king declared Christianity as a religion of Egrisi in 523 AD. In 975-1466 Imereti was part of the united Georgian Kingdom, since its disintegration in the 15th century, Imereti was an independent kingdom. In the 17th-18th centuries the kingdom of Imereti suffered frequent invasions by the Turks and paid patronage to the Ottoman Empire until 1810, the last King of Imereti was Solomon II. From 1918–1921, Imereti was part of the independent Democratic Republic of Georgia, within the USSR, the region was part of the Transcaucasian SFSR from 1922–1936, and part of the Georgian SSR from 1936–1991. Since Georgian independence in 1991, Imereti has been a region of Georgia with Kutaisi as the regional capital, Kingdom of Imereti Subdivisions of Georgia Imereti. com - The Guide to Imereti, Georgia, Sakartvelo Official website Civil. GE
16. Kutaisi – Kutaisi is the legislative capital of Georgia, and its 3rd most populous city. Situated 221 kilometres west of Tbilisi, it is the capital of the region of Imereti. Kutaisi is located along banks of the Rioni River. The city lies at an elevation of 125–300 metres above sea level, to the east and northeast, Kutaisi is bounded by the Northern Imereti Foothills, to the north by the Samgurali Range, and to the west and the south by the Colchis Plain. Kutaisi is surrounded by deciduous forests to the northeast and the northwest, the low-lying outskirts of the city have a largely agricultural landscape. The city centre has many gardens its streets are lined with high, in the springtime, when the snow starts to melt in the nearby mountains, the storming Rioni River in the middle of the city is heard far beyond its banks. Kutaisi has a subtropical climate with a well-defined on-shore/monsoonal flow during the Autumn. The summers are hot and relatively dry while the winters are wet. Average annual temperature in the city is 14.5 degrees Celsius, january is the coldest month with an average temperature of 5.3 degrees Celsius while July is the hottest month with an average temperature of 23.2 degrees Celsius. The absolute minimum recorded temperature is −17 degrees Celsius and the maximum is 44 degrees Celsius. Average annual precipitation is around 1,530 mm, rain may fall in every season of the year. The city often experiences heavy, wet snowfall in the winter, Kutaisi experiences powerful easterly winds in the summer which descend from the nearby mountains. Kutaisi was the capital of the ancient Kingdom of Colchis, archaeological evidence indicates that the city functioned as the capital of the kingdom of Colchis in the sixth to fifth centuries BC. From 978 to 1122 CE, Kutaisi was the capital of the united Kingdom of Georgia, in 1508, the city was captured by Selim I, who was the son of Bayezid II, the sultan of the Ottoman Empire. During the seventeenth century, Imeretian kings made many appeals to Russia to help them in their struggle for independence from the Ottomans, all these appeals were ignored as Russia did not want to spoil relations with Turkey. Totleben helped King Solomon I of Imereti to recover his capital, Kutaisi, finally, the Russian-Turkish wars ended in 1810 with the annexation of the Imeretian Kingdom by the Russian Empire. The city was the capital of the Gubernia of Kutaisi, which included much of west Georgia, in March 1879, the city was the site of a blood- libel trial that attracted attention all over Russia, the ten accused Jews were acquitted. Kutaisi was an industrial center before Georgias independence in 1991
17. Zestafoni Municipality – Zestafoni is a district of Georgia, in the region of Imereti. The district covers a area of 423 square kilometres and as of 2002 it had a population total of 76,208 people. Its main town is Zestafoni which is an important industrial center, the district is a notable wine-growing region. The region is bounded to the south with a low range of rising to about 1. The lowland zone has relatively cold winters averaging -4C in January, in the higher areas the temperature is lower and there is more rainfall. The Kvirila River runs through the region from east to west, flooding is common in the spring. The region is forested with hornbeam, oak, beech, chestnut, alder, the southern range has beech, maple, lime and Imeretian oak. The land has been cleared for agriculture in the lowlands and hilly areas. The forests are home to wolf, fox, jackal, badger, rabbit, the town of Zestafoni and the smaller neighboring town of Shorapani are industrial centers. The Zestafoni ferro-alloy plant processes raw manganese ore shipped by rail down the Kvirila valley from Chiatura and it is the largest ferroalloy plant in the country. There were more factories in the Soviet era, but many have closed down, each community typically includes two or three villages. There are medieval castles in several villages, notably the Shorapani and Sviri castles in the village of Argveti. There are old churches, ancient wine cellars and other points of interest for tourism, the Zestafoni region has 5,000 hectares of vineyards accounting for 80% of all farmland. The Sakara Viticulture and Winemaking Scientific-Research Station plays an important role in developing viticulture in the Zestafoni Region, other crops include maize and vegetables, cattle breeding and swine production. Districts of Georgia Districts of Georgia, Statoids. com
18. Akhmeta Municipality – Akhmeta is a Municipality of Georgia, in the region of Kakheti. Borders Dusheti Municipality and Tianeti Municipality in the west, Chechen Republic in the north, Telavi Municipality and Dagestan in the east, Akhmeta Municipality includes historic region of Tusheti. The population of Akhmeta District is 41,641,75. 02% of them are Georgians,16. 64% Kists,2, 71% Ossetians,0, 4% Azerbaijani. Area,2,208 km² Bakhtrioni Fortress Kvetera Church Alaverdi Monastery Matani Tskhrakara Tskhrakara Complex Districts of Georgia Districts of Georgia, Statoids. com
19. Akhalgori Municipality – Akhalgori Municipality is a Municipality in Georgia or South Ossetia respectively. Georgia considers Akhalgori part of the Mtskheta-Mtianeti, South Ossetian authorities refer to the district as Leningor District, whereas Tbilisi refers to it as Alkhagori District. According to Tskhinval, the current Head of Administration of Leningor is Alan Djussoev, the Akhalgori/Leningor Municipality had a population of 7,700, with approximately 2,000 living in the town itself. The largest villages are Ikorta, Korinta, Qanchaveti, Kvemo Zakhori, Largvisi, Doretkari, the population was primarily Georgian and Ossetian prior to the 2008 South Ossetia war. The old palace of the Eristov noble Family