Wallachian Revolution of 1848
The Wallachian Revolution of 1848 was a Romanian liberal and nationalist uprising in the Principality of Wallachia. Part of the Revolutions of 1848, connected with the unsuccessful revolt in the Principality of Moldavia, it sought to overturn the administration imposed by Imperial Russian authorities under the Regulamentul Organic regime, through many of its leaders, demanded the abolition of boyar privilege. Led by a group of young intellectuals and officers in the Wallachian Militia, the movement succeeded in toppling the ruling Prince Gheorghe Bibescu, whom it replaced with a Provisional Government and a Regency, in passing a series of major progressive reforms, first announced in the Proclamation of Islaz. Despite its rapid gains and popular backing, the new administration was marked by conflicts between the radical wing and more conservative forces over the issue of land reform. Two successive abortive coups were able to weaken the Government, its international status was always contested by Russia.
After managing to rally a degree of sympathy from Ottoman political leaders, the Revolution was isolated by the intervention of Russian diplomats, repressed by a common intervention of Ottoman and Russian armies, without any significant form of armed resistance. Over the following decade, the completion of its goals was made possible by the international context, former revolutionaries became the original political class in united Romania; the two Danubian Principalities and Moldavia, came under direct Russian supervision upon the close of the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829, being subsequently administered on the basis of common documents, known as Regulamentul Organic. After a period of Russian military occupation, Wallachia returned to Ottoman suzerainty while Russian oversight was preserved, the throne was awarded to Alexandru II Ghica in 1834—this measure was controversial from the onset, given that, despite the popular provisions of the Akkerman Convention, Ghica had been appointed by Russia and the Ottomans, instead of being elected by the Wallachian Assembly.
As a consequence, the Prince was faced with opposition from both sides of the political spectrum, while attempting to quell the peasantry's discontent by legislating against the abuse of estate lessors. The first liberal movement, taking inspiration from the French Revolution and having for its stated purpose the encouragement of culture, was Societatea Filarmonică, established in 1833. Hostility towards Russian policies erupted in 1834, when Russia called for an "Additional Article" to be attached to the Regulament, as the latter document was being reviewed by the Porte; the proposed article sought to prevent the Principalities' Assemblies from modifying the Regulament any further without the consent of both protecting powers. This move met with stiff opposition from a majority of deputies in Wallachia, among whom was the radical Ioan Câmpineanu. Câmpineanu, who had proposed a reformist constitution to replace the Regulament was forced into exile, but remained an influence on a younger generation of activists, both Wallachian and Moldavian.
The latter group, comprising many young boyars who had studied in France took direct inspiration from reformist or revolutionary-minded societies such as the Carbonari. It was this faction who would first explicitly publicize the demands for national independence and Moldo-Wallachian unification, which it included in a wider agenda of political reforms and European solidarity. Societatea Studenților Români was founded in 1846, having the French poet Alphonse de Lamartine for its honorary president. In October 1840, the first revolutionary secret society of the period was repressed by Prince Ghica. Among those arrested and taken into confinement were the high-ranking boyar Mitică Filipescu, the young radical Nicolae Bălcescu, the much older Dimitrie Macedonski, who had taken part in the uprising of 1821; the new ruler, Gheorghe Bibescu, released Bălcescu and other participants in the plot during 1843. Early on, Frăția's nucleus was formed by Bălcescu, Ion Ghica, Alexandru G. Golescu, Major Christian Tell.
It was successful in Bucharest, where it reached out to the middle class, kept a legal facade as Soțietatea Literară, whose meetings were attended by the Moldavians Vasile Alecsandri, Mihail Kogălniceanu, Costache Negruzzi, as well as by the Austrian subject Constantin Daniel Rosenthal. During the early months of 1848, Romanian students at the University of Paris, including the Brătianu brothers, witnessed and, in some cases, took part in the French republican uprising. Rebellion broke out in late June 1848, after Frăția's members came to adopt a single project regarding the promise of land reform; this resolution, which had caused dissension, was passed into the revolutionary program upon pressures from Nicolae Bălcescu and his supporters. The document itself, destined to be read as a proclamation, was most drafted by Heliade Rădulescu, Bălcescu himself was responsible for most of its ideas, it called for, among other issues, national in
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is distributed throughout the year; the definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below −3 °C and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C. In addition, the location in question must not be arid; the Dfb and Dsb subtypes are known as hemiboreal. Humid continental climates are found between latitudes 40° N and 60° N, within the central and northeastern portions of North America and Asia, they are much less found in the Southern Hemisphere due to the larger ocean area at that latitude and the consequent greater maritime moderation. In the Northern Hemisphere some of the humid continental climates in Scandinavia, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland are maritime-influenced, with cool summers and winters being just below the freezing mark.
More extreme humid continental climates found in northeast China, southern Siberia, the Canadian Prairies, the Great Lakes region of the American Midwest and Central Canada combine hotter summer maxima and colder winters than the marine-based variety. Using the Köppen climate classification, a climate is classified as humid continental when the temperature of the coldest month is below −3 °C and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C; these temperatures were not arbitrary. In Europe, the −3 °C average temperature isotherm was near the southern extent of winter snowpack; the 10 °C average temperature was found to be the minimum temperature necessary for tree growth. Wide temperature ranges are common within this climate zone. Second letter in the classification symbol defines seasonal rainfall as follows: s: A dry summer—the driest summer month has less than 40 millimetres of rainfall and has less than 1⁄3 the precipitation of the wettest winter month, w: A dry winter—the driest winter month has less than one‑tenth of the precipitation found in the wettest summer month, f: Without dry season—does not meet either of the alternative specifications.while the third letter denotes the extent of summer heat: a: Hot summer, warmest month averages at least 22 °C, b: Warm summer, warmest month averages below 22 °C and at least four months averages above 10 °C.
Within North America, moisture within this climate regime is supplied by the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent western subtropical Atlantic. Precipitation is well distributed year-round in many areas with this climate, while others may see a marked reduction in wintry precipitation, which increases the chances of a wintertime drought. Snowfall occurs in all areas with a humid continental climate and in many such places is more common than rain during the height of winter. In places with sufficient wintertime precipitation, the snow cover is deep. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms, in North America and Asia an tropical system. Though humidity levels are high in locations with humid continental climates, the "humid" designation means that the climate is not dry enough to be classified as semi-arid or arid. By definition, forests thrive within this climate. Biomes within this climate regime include temperate woodlands, temperate grasslands, temperate deciduous, temperate evergreen forests, coniferous forests.
Within wetter areas, spruce, pine and oak can be found. Fall foliage is noted during the autumn. A hot summer version of a continental climate features an average temperature of at least 22 °C in its warmest month. Since these regimes are limited to the Northern Hemisphere, the warmest month is July or August. For example, Chicago has average July afternoon temperatures near 29 °C, while average January afternoon temperature are near −1 °C. Frost free periods last 4–6 months within this climate regime. Within North America, this climate includes small areas of central and southeast Canada, portions of the central and eastern United States from the 100th meridian eastward to the Atlantic. Precipitation is less seasonally uniform in the west; the western states of the central United States have thermal regimes which fit the Dfa climate type, but are quite dry, are grouped with the steppe climates. In the Eastern Hemisphere, this climate regime is found within interior Eurasia, east-central Asia, parts of India.
Within Europe, the Dfa climate type is present near the Black Sea in southern Ukraine, the Southern Federal District of Russia, southern Moldova, parts of southern Romania, Bulgaria, but tends to be drier and can be semi-arid in these places. In East Asia, this climate exhibits a monsoonal tendency with much higher precipitation in summer than in winter, due the effects of the strong Siberian High much colder winter temperatures than similar latitudes around the world, however with lower snowfall, the exception being western Japan with its heavy snowfall. Tōhoku, between Tokyo and Hokkaidō and Wester
Counties of Romania
A total of 41 counties, along with the municipality of Bucharest, constitute the official administrative divisions of Romania. They represent the country's NUTS-3 statistical subdivisions within the European Union and each of them serves as the local level of government within its borders. Most counties are named after a major river, while some are named after notable cities within them, such as the county seat; the earliest organization into județe of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia dates back to at least the late 14th century. For most of the time since modern Romania was formed in 1859, the administrative division system has been similar to the French departments one; the system has been changed several times since and the number of counties has varied over time, from the 71 județe that existed before World War II to only 39 after 1968. The current format has been in place since 1968 as only small changes have been made since the last of, in 1997. According to a 2011 census data from the National Institute of Statistics, the average population of Romania's 41 counties is about 445,000, with Iași County as the most populous and Covasna County the least.
The average county's land area is 5,809 square kilometres, with Timiș County the largest and Ilfov County the smallest. The municipality of Bucharest, which has the same administrative level as that of a county, is both more populous and much smaller than any county, with 1,883,425 people and 228 square kilometres; the earliest organization into județe, ținuturi, dates back at least to the late 14th century. Inspired from the organization of the late Byzantine Empire, each județ was ruled by a jude, a person appointed with administrative and judicial functions. Transylvania was divided into royal counties headed by comes with administrative and judicial functions. After modern Romania was formed in 1859 through the union of Wallachia and the rump of Moldavia, the administrative division was modernized using the French administrative system as a model, with județ as the basic administrative unit. Aside from the 1950–1968 period, this system has remained in place until today. Since 1864, for each județ there exists a prefect, a subordinate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and representative of the government inside the county.
Until 1948, each județ was further divided into several plăși, each administered by a pretor. After the adoption of a new Constitution in 1923, the traditional local administrative systems of the newly acquired regions of Transylvania and Bessarabia were made uniform in 1925 with that of the Romanian Old Kingdom. County borders were kept intact, with few adjustments, the total number of counties was raised to 71. In 1938, King Carol II modified the law on the administration of the Romanian territory according to the fascist model. Ten ținuturi were ruled by Rezidenți Regali, appointed directly by the Monarch; the ținuturi represented another layer of administration between counties and the country, as the county borders were not erased. Due to the territorial changes during World War II, this style of administration did not last, the administration at the județ level was reintroduced after the war. Between 1941–1944, Romania administered the territory between the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers known as Transnistria, which consisted of 13 separate counties.
After taking over the administration of the country in 1945, the Communist Party changed the administrative model to that of the Soviet Union in 1950, but changed it back in 1968. The county borders set were quite different from those present during the interbellum, as only 39 counties were formed from the 56 remaining after the war. In 1981, Giurgiu and Călărași were split from Ialomița and the former county of Ilfov, while in 1997, Ilfov County, a dependency of the municipality of Bucharest for nearly two decades, was reinstated; the county borders set in 1968 are still in place today, but the functions of different authorities have changed due to administrative reforms in the 1990s. At present, Romania is divided into one municipality; each of the counties is further divided into communes. The prefect and his administration have executive prerogatives within the county limits, while limited legislative powers are assigned to a County Council elected every four years during local elections.
The territorial districts of the Romanian judicial system overlap with county borders, thus avoiding further complication in the separation of powers on the government. Communes of Romania Development regions of Romania List of Romania county name etymologies Former administrative divisions of Romania List of Romanian counties by population List of cities and towns in Romania List of Romanian counties by foreign trade Municipiu Blog of the Romanian Royalty House showing various maps with the previous administrative divisions of Romania. Current and historical divisions of Romania at Statoids.com "Geopolitical Entities and Their Codes". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Archived from the original on 2010-08-22. Retrieved 2010-
"Deșteaptă-te, române!" Romanian pronunciation: is the national anthem of Romania. The lyrics were composed by Andrei Mureșanu and the music was popular, it was written and published during the 1848 revolution with the name “Un răsunet”. It was first sung in late June in the same year in the city of Brașov, on the streets of Șchei quarter, it was accepted as the revolutionary anthem and renamed “Deșteaptă-te, române”. Since this song, which contains a message of liberty and patriotism, has been sung during all major Romanian conflicts, including during the 1989 anti-Ceaușist revolution. After that revolution, it became the national anthem, replacing the communist-era national anthem "Trei culori". July 29 is now "an annual observance in Romania; the song was used on various solemn occasions in the Moldavian Democratic Republic, during its brief existence, between 1917 and 1918. Between 1991 and 1994 it was the national anthem of Moldova as well, but was subsequently replaced by the current Moldovan anthem, “Limba noastră”.
The melody was a sentimental song called “Din sânul maicii mele” composed by Anton Pann after hearing the poem In 1848, Andrei Mureșanu wrote the poem “Un răsunet”, asked Gheorghe Ucenescu, a Scheii Brașovului Church singer, to find him a suitable melody. After Ucenescu sang him several lay melodies, Mureșanu chose Anton Pann’s song. First sung during the uprisings of 1848, “Deșteaptă-te române” has endured as a favorite song and seen play during various historical events, including as part of Romania’s declaration of independence from the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish War, during the first world war; the song received heavy radio broadcast in the days following the state coup of August 23, 1944, when Romania switched sides, turning against Nazi Germany and joining the Allies side in the war. After the seizure of power by the communists on December 30, 1947, “Deșteaptă-te române” and other patriotic songs associated with the previous regime were outlawed. Ceaușescu’s government permitted the song to be played and sung in public, but it was not given state recognition as the national anthem.
The overall message of the anthem is a “call to action”. This is the reason why Nicolae Bălcescu called it the “Romanian Marseillaise”. Besides this anthem, the Romanians have “Hora Unirii”, written in 1855 by the poet Vasile Alecsandri, sung a great deal on the occasion of the Union of the Principalities and on all occasions when the Romanians aspired to union and harmony among themselves. “Hora Unirii” is sung on the Romanian folk tune of a slow but energetic round dance joined by the whole attendance. The round dance is itself an ancient ritual, symbolizing spiritual communion and the Romanians’ wish for a common life. Romania’s national anthem has eleven stanzas, although only the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 11th are sung on official occasions, as established by Romanian law. At major events, such as the National Holiday, the full version is sung, accompanied by 21-gun salute when the President is present at the event. Note that, in accordance with Romanian law, there are no official translations of the anthem.
1 Awaken thee, wake up from deadly slumber The scourge of inauspicious barbarian tyrannies And now or never to a bright horizon clamber That shall to shame put all your enemies. 2 It’s now or never that we prove to the world That in these veins still flows Roman blood And in our hearts for we glorify a name Triumphant in battles, the name of Trajan. 4 Behold, imperial shadows, Stephen, Corvinus At the Romanian nation, your mighty progeny With arms like steel and hearts of fire impetuous “Live in liberty, or die” that's what they all decree. 11 Priests, raise the cross, as this army is Christian Give it liberty and it's sanctified scope We’d rather die in battle, with honorary glory Than live again enslaved on our ancestral land. 1 Romanian, awaken your Spirit from the sleep of Death Impressed upon you by Tyrannies of barbarians. 2 Now or never, our legacy prove to all, That through our veins still flows the Blood of Ancient Rome That in our chests we proudly hail a Name, Triumphant in battle, the Name of Trajan.
3 Raise your strong brow and gaze around you As trees stand in a forest, brave youths, a hundred thousand An order they await, ready to pounce, as wolves among the sheep Old men, young, from mountains high and open plains. 4 Gaze mightily, glorious shadows, Stephen, Corvine The Romanian nation, your descendants, With weapons in their hands, with your Fire burning “Life in Liberty or Death”, all shout together. 5 You were vanquished by the evils of envy By the blind disunity at the Milcov and Carpathians But we, our Spirit touched by saintly Liberty, Swear allegiance, to be forever Brothers. 6 A widowed mother from the time of Michael the Great Asks of her sons a helping hand today And curses, with tears in her eyes, whosoever In times of such great danger, proves to be a traitor. 7 May lightning bolts and brimstone kill Whoever retreats from the glorious battle When motherland or mother, with a tender heart, Will ask us to pass through sword and flame. 8 Is not enough the yatagan of the barbaric crescent Whose fa
Eastern European Summer Time
Eastern European Summer Time is one of the names of UTC+03:00 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. It is used as a summer daylight saving time in some European and Middle Eastern countries, which makes it the same as Arabia Standard Time, East Africa Time and Moscow Time. During the winter periods, Eastern European Time is used. Since 1996 European Summer Time has been observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October; the following countries and territories use Eastern European Summer Time during the summer: Belarus, Moscow Summer Time in years 1981–89, regular EEST from 1991-2011 Bulgaria, regular EEST since 1979 Cyprus, regular EEST since 1979 Estonia, Moscow Summer Time in years 1981–88, regular EEST since 1989 Finland, regular EEST since 1981 Greece, regular EEST since 1975 Israel, Israel Daylight Time since 1948 Jordan, since 1985 Latvia, Moscow Summer Time in years 1981–88, regular EEST since 1989 Lebanon, since 1984 Lithuania, Moscow Summer Time in years 1981–88, regular EEST since 1989, apart from in years 1998-2003 when it was Central European Summer Time Moldova, Moscow Summer Time in years 1932–40 and 1981–89, regular EEST since 1991 Romania, unofficial EEST in years 1932–40, regular EEST since 1979 Russia, Moscow Summer Time in years 1981–90, regular EEST since 1991, as standard time from March 2011.
Syria, since 1983 Ukraine, Moscow Summer Time in years 1981–89, regular EEST from 1992In one year 1991 EEST was used in Moscow and Samara time zones of Russia. Egypt has used EEST from 1957–2010 and 2014–2015. Turkey, has used EEST from 1970-1978 EEST, Moscow Summer Time from 1979–1983, EEST from 1985-2016. European Summer Time UTC+03:00