Algeria national football team
The Algeria national football team represents Algeria in association football and is controlled by the Algerian Football Federation. The team plays its home games at the Stade 5 Juillet 1962 in Algiers. Algeria joined FIFA on a year and a half after gaining independence; the North African team has qualified for four World Cups in 1982, 1986, 2010 and 2014. Algeria won the African Cup of Nations once in 1990. At the 2014 World Cup, Algeria became the first African team to score four goals in a match at the World Cup against South Korea; the traditional rivals of Algeria are Morocco and Egypt, Algeria has had competitive matches against Nigeria in the 1980s during Algeria's best football generation. For the Algerians, their biggest victory is without a doubt the 2-1 win against Germany during the 1982 FIFA World Cup in which the African nation shocked the world. Algeria has produced many talented players throughout time and is considered one of the best teams in African Football history; the team was established in 1962 after gaining independence from France, as the successor of the FLN football team.
Under French rule, Algeria was not allowed to have a national team, the FLN football team was sort of a rebellion against the French colonization. All of their games were considered friendlies and were unrecognized by FIFA. After the Algerian national football team was recognized by FIFA in 1963, the team only qualified to the 1968 African Cup of Nations and failed to qualify for the next five editions of the African cup until 1980, where the Algerians had a great run. After finishing first in their group, Algeria beat rivals Egypt in the semi finals and reached the final for the first time, losing only to tournament hosts Nigeria 3–0; that tournament was considered the birth of the Algerian team as one of the big teams in Africa. 1982 FIFA World Cup Algeria caused one of the great World Cup upsets on the first day of the tournament with a 2–1 victory over the reigning European champions, West Germany. In the final match in the group between West Germany and Chile, with Algeria having played their final group game the day before, the European teams knew that a West German win by 1 or 2 goals would qualify them both, while a larger German victory would qualify Algeria over Austria, a draw or an Austrian win would eliminate the Germans.
After 10 minutes of all-out attack, West Germany scored through a goal by Horst Hrubesch. After the goal was scored, the two teams kicked the ball around aimlessly for the rest of the match. Chants of "Fuera, fuera" were screamed by the Spanish crowd, while angry Algerian supporters waved banknotes at the players; this performance was deplored by the German and Austrian fans. Algeria protested to FIFA. During the 1986 Africa Cup of Nations, the national teams recorded two defeats and one draw and was eliminated in the first round. In Mexico, at the 1986 World Cup, the Algerians were not able to pass the first round once again in a group that included Northern Ireland and Spain. Only one Algerian scored during this competition: Djamel Zidane. From thereon, Algeria failed to qualify for another World Cup until 2010. 1990 African Cup of Nations In 1990, Algeria hosted the 1990 African Cup of Nations for the first time and were considered to win the competition. Drawn In Group A, the Algerians started the tournament by beating Nigeria 5–1, with doubles by Djamel Menad and Rabah Madjer and a goal by Djamel Amani.
After a great start with a convincing victory against the Nigerians, they beat Ivory Coast 3–0, with goals by Djamel Menad, Tahar Cherif El Ouazzani, Cherif Oudjani. The last game of the group, Algeria beat Egypt 2 -- 0, with goals by Moussa Saib. After a perfect start with three wins in as many games, Algeria beat Senegal 2–1 in the semi finals after Djamel Menad and Djamel Amani scored in front of 85,000 fans in the Stade 5 Juillet 1962 to reach the final for the second time in history. In the final against Nigeria, in front of 105,302 fans in the same stadium, Cherif Oudjani, in the 38th minute, enabled Algeria to win the African Nations Cup for the first time. Djamel Menad was crowned top scorer of the competition with four goals. After winning the 1990 African Cup of Nations and missing out in qualifying to the 1990 World Cup, Algerian football was still at its peak and seemed to be moving towards the right direction while dominating fellow African teams with their unique north African style of play, mixed with physical but technical football.
However, with Algeria being on the brink of a civil war in the early 90s, social and political unrest started having a negative impact in every domain in the country including football. Although Algeria qualified to the 1992 African Cup of Nations, the title holders were disappointing and were eliminated in the first round of the competition. In the 1994 African Cup of Nations Algeria was disqualified from the tournament after fielding an ineligible player, many fans back home criticized the staff of the team, accusing them of being irresponsible and unprofessional. In 1996, Algeria returned to African Cup of Nations, but were eliminated by hosts South Africa in the quarter-finals; the Algerians failed to qualify for the following World Cups in 1998, 2002 and 2006. During the 1998 African Cup of Nations, Algeria finished last in its group with three defeats and was eliminated in the group stage
2010–11 Plymouth Argyle F.C. season
Plymouth Argyle Football Club is an English association football club based in Plymouth, Devon. The 2010–11 season is their 108th as a professional club, their 86th as a member of the Football League and 39th in the third tier of the English football league system; the club's 23rd-place finish in the 2009–10 Championship season means they are competing in League One for the first time since 2004, when they were promoted as champions. It began on 1 July 2010 and ends on 30 June 2011, with competitive fixtures taking place between August and May; the 2009–10 season was the club's sixth consecutive season back in the second tier of English football, known as the Championship. It was manager Paul Sturrock's third season back at the club after returning to Home Park from Swindon Town, he was replaced by Paul Mariner in December 2009 due to poor results, which had seen the club drop into the relegation zone. Argyle were relegated with two matches still to play after a defeat at home to Newcastle United, which saw the visitors claim the league title.
Yoann Folly, David McNamee, Lloyd Saxton were released after being informed that their contracts weren't being renewed, defender Gary Sawyer departed. A statement in May said that the club would seek a new manager and Paul Mariner would revert to his previous role as head coach. Jamie Mackie joined Queens Park Rangers two weeks for an undisclosed fee. Bondz N'Gala joined the club from West Ham United on a free transfer, Rory Patterson was signed for an undisclosed fee from Glentoran, before the club confirmed Peter Reid as their new manager in June 2010. Midfielder Simon Walton joined Sheffield United on a season-long loan, he was followed by Ashley Barnes, who joined Brighton & Hove Albion for an undisclosed fee, Alan Gow, released. The club's first pre-season friendly ended in a 2–0 win at Southern League team Truro City thanks to goals from Yannick Bolasie and Steve MacLean; this was followed by a defeat at League Two club Torquay United. The visitors took an early lead through Craig Noone, but the home side responded with goals from Lloyd Macklin, Elliot Benyon and Nicky Wroe to secure a 3–1 win.
Manager Peter Reid selected a 26-man squad to travel to the Netherlands to play three matches against Dutch opposition. Included in the squad were three trialists, including former player Tony Capaldi. A headed goal from Joe Mason gave Argyle a 1–0 victory against Eredivisie side NAC Breda, they suffered a defeat by the same scoreline against fellow Eredivisie side AZ in their next friendly. An early penalty from Nick van der Velden was the difference between the two sides in a match which saw Steve MacLean sent off in the second half. Argyle took a three-goal lead against Eerste Divisie club SC Cambuur, but had to settle for a 3–3 draw. A brace from Reza Ghoochannejhad and an equaliser from Robert van Boxel cancelled out Argyle's lead, given to them by Craig Noone and a brace from Joe Mason. Having featured in all of the club's pre-season matches, midfielder Anton Peterlin signed a permanent contract. Argyle won their next friendly that day against Hereford United of League Two. Steve MacLean was on target to secure a 1–0 win for the visitors.
Striker George Donnelly returned to Stockport County on a six-month loan. A penalty from Luke Summerfield earned the club a draw against Championship side Queens Park Rangers. Former player Jamie Mackie scored the equaliser for the hosts. Argyle completed their pre-season campaign with an 8–0 win against South West Peninsula League team Saltash United. Strikers Bradley Wright-Phillips and Rory Patterson both scored twice while trialist Owain Tudur-Jones, Craig Noone, Joe Mason and Curtis Nelson found the back of the net. Goalkeeper David Button joined the club on a season-long loan from Tottenham Hotspur, defender Lee Molyneux signed a permanent contract after impressing on trial. Two other players left the club on loan. Defender Chris Barker joined Southend United for one month, midfielder Damien Johnson signed a season-long deal with Huddersfield Town; the club started the season with a 1–0 win at Southampton. Luke Summerfield scored the winning goal in a match, broadcast live on Sky Sports, they were knocked out of the League Cup by Notts County three days later.
A second half goal from John Spicer eliminated Argyle at the first round stage for the third year in row. Midfielder Dean Parrett arrived on a season-long loan from Tottenham Hotspur. A late goal from Rory Patterson earned the club a share of the points at Home Park against Carlisle United in a 1–1 draw, having fallen behind to an Ian Harte goal; this was followed by a 2–1 defeat at Walsall. Joe Mason gave Argyle the lead, but second half goals from Paul Marshall and former player Reuben Reid won the game for the home side. Kári Árnason was shown a straight red card in stoppage time. Sean Kinsella and Jordan Trott were loaned out to Bridgwater Town for one month. Argyle were defeated 3–0 at home by Peterborough United, who scored three second-half goals thanks to strikers Craig Mackail-Smith, who scored twice, Aaron McLean; the club completed two transfers. Defender Stéphane Zubar arrived from Vaslui on a free transfer, Chris Barker joined Southend United permanently on a free transfer, after spending a month with them on loan.
Simon Walton had his season-long loan with Sheffield United cancelled after sustaining a cruciate knee ligament injury during a pre-season game. Réda Johnson scored his first goal for the club in a 1–1 draw at Colchester United. Having fallen behind to a goal from Andrew Bond, the visitors equalised in the second half before Lee Molyneux was sent off for two bookable offences. Argyle won their next game 3–2 at home against Sheffield Wednesday despite being reduced to 10-men a
Defender (association football)
In the sport of association football, a defender is an outfield player whose primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring goals. There are four types of defenders: centre-back, full-back, wing-back; the centre-back and full-back positions are essential in most modern formations. The sweeper and wing-back roles are more specialised for certain formations. A centre-back defends in the area directly in front of the goal, tries to prevent opposing players centre-forwards, from scoring. Centre-backs accomplish this by blocking shots, intercepting passes, contesting headers and marking forwards to discourage the opposing team from passing to them. With the ball, centre-backs are expected to make long and pinpoint passes to their teammates, or to kick unaimed long balls down the field. For example, a clearance is a long unaimed kick intended to move the ball as far as possible from the defender's goal. Due to the many skills centre-backs are required to possess in the modern game, many successful contemporary central-defensive partnerships have involved pairing a more physical defender with a defender, quicker, more comfortable in possession and capable of playing the ball out from the back.
During normal play, centre-backs are unlikely to score goals. However, when their team takes a corner kick or other set pieces, centre-backs may move forward to the opponents' penalty area. In this case, other defenders or midfielders will temporarily move into the centre-back positions; some centre-backs have been known for their direct free kicks and powerful shots from distance. Brazilian defenders David Luiz and Naldo have been known for using the cannonball free kick method, which relies more on power than placement. In the modern game, most teams employ three centre-backs in front of the goalkeeper; the 4–2–3–1, 4–3–3, 4–4–2 formations all use two centre-backs. There are two main defensive strategies used by centre-backs: the zonal defence, where each centre-back covers a specific area of the pitch; the sweeper is a more versatile centre-back who "sweeps up" the ball if an opponent manages to breach the defensive line. This position is rather more fluid than that of other defenders who man-mark their designated opponents.
Because of this, it is sometimes referred to as libero. Though sweepers may be expected to build counter-attacking moves, as such require better ball control and passing ability than typical centre-backs, their talents are confined to the defensive realm. For example, the catenaccio system of play, used in Italian football in the 1960s, employed a purely defensive sweeper who only "roamed" around the back line; the more modern libero possesses the defensive qualities of the typical libero while being able to expose the opposition during counterattacks. The Fundell-libero has become more popular in recent time with the sweeper transitioning to the most advanced forward in an attack; this variation on the position requires great fitness. While seen in professional football, the position has been extensively used in lower leagues. Modern libero sit behind centre-backs as a sweeper before charging through the team to join in the attack; some sweepers move forward and distribute the ball up-field, while others intercept passes and get the ball off the opposition without needing to hurl themselves into tackles.
If the sweeper does move up the field to distribute the ball, they will need to make a speedy recovery and run back into their position. In modern football, its usage has been restricted, with few clubs in the biggest leagues using the position; the position is most believed to have been pioneered by Franz Beckenbauer, Gaetano Scirea, Elías Figueroa, although they were not the first players to play this position. Earlier proponents included Alexandru Apolzan, Ivano Blason, Velibor Vasović, Ján Popluhár. Other defenders who have been described as sweepers include Bobby Moore, Franco Baresi, Ronald Koeman, Fernando Hierro, Matthias Sammer, Aldair, due to their ball skills and long passing ability. Though it is used in modern football, it remains a respected and demanding position. A recent and successful use of the sweeper was made by Otto Rehhagel, Greece's manager, during UEFA Euro 2004. Rehhagel utilized Traianos Dellas as Greece's sweeper to great success, as Greece became European champions.
Although this position has become obsolete in modern football formations, due to the use of zonal marking and the offside trap, certain players such as Daniele De Rossi:, Leonardo Bonucci, Javi Martínez and David Luiz have played a similar role as a ball-playing central defender in a 3–5–2 or 3–4–3 formation. Some goalkeepers, who are comfortable leaving their goalmouth to intercept and clear through balls, who participate more in play, such as René Higuita, Manuel Neuer, Edwin van der Sar, Fabien Barthez, Hugo Lloris, among others, have been referred to as sweep
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Marseille is the second-largest city of France. The main city of the historical province of Provence, it nowadays is the prefecture of the department of Bouches-du-Rhône and region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, it is located on French Riviera coast near the mouth of the Rhône. The city covers an area of 241 km2 and had a population of 852,516 in 2012, its metropolitan area, which extends over 3,173 km2 is the third-largest in France after Paris and Lyon, with a population of 1,831,500 as of 2010. Known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Massalia, Marseille was an important European trading centre and remains the main commercial port of the French Republic. Marseille is now France's largest city on the Mediterranean coast and the largest port for commerce and cruise ships; the city was European Capital of Culture in 2013 and European Capital of Sport in 2017. It is home to Aix-Marseille University. Marseille is the second-largest city in France after Paris and the centre of the third-largest metropolitan area in France after Paris and Lyon.
To the east, starting in the small fishing village of Callelongue on the outskirts of Marseille and stretching as far as Cassis, are the Calanques, a rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord-like inlets. Farther east still are the city of Toulon and the French Riviera. To the north of Marseille, beyond the low Garlaban and Etoile mountain ranges, is the 1,011 m Mont Sainte Victoire. To the west of Marseille is the former artists' colony of l'Estaque; the airport lies to the north west of the city at Marignane on the Étang de Berre. The city's main thoroughfare stretches eastward from the Old Port to the Réformés quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas on the south side and Fort Saint-Jean on the north. Farther out in the Bay of Marseille is the Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands, one of which, If, is the location of Château d'If, made famous by the Dumas novel The Count of Monte Cristo; the main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at Rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse.
The centre of Marseille has several pedestrianised zones, most notably Rue St Ferréol, Cours Julien near the Music Conservatory, the Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off the Old Port and the area around the Hôtel de Ville. To the south east of central Marseille in the 6th arrondissement are the Prefecture and the monumental fountain of Place Castellane, an important bus and metro interchange. To the south west are the hills of the 7th and 8th arrondissements, dominated by the basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde. Marseille's main railway station—Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles—is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; the city has a hot-summer mediterranean climate with mild, humid winters and warm to hot dry summers. December and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around 12 °C during the day and 4 °C at night. July and August are the hottest months, averaging temperatures of around 28–30 °C during the day and 19 °C at night in the Marignane airport but in the city near the sea the average high temperature is 27 °C in July.
Marseille is the sunniest major city in France with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while the average sunshine in country. It is the driest major city with only 512 mm of precipitation annually thanks to the Mistral, a cold, dry wind originating in the Rhône Valley that occurs in winter and spring and which brings clear skies and sunny weather to the region. Less frequent is the Sirocco, a hot, sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara Desert. Snowfalls are infrequent; the hottest temperature was 40.6 °C on 26 July 1983 during a great heat wave, the lowest temperature was −14.3 °C on 13 February 1929 during a strong cold wave. Marseille was founded circa 600 BC as the Greek colony of Massalia and populated by settlers from Phocaea, it became the preeminent Greek polis in the Hellenized region of southern Gaul. The city-state sided with the Roman Republic against Carthage during the Second Punic War, retaining its independence and commercial empire throughout the western Mediterranean as Rome expanded into Western Europe and North Africa.
However, the city lost its independence following the Roman Siege of Massilia in 49 BC, during Caesar's Civil War, in which Massalia sided with the exiled faction at war with Julius Caesar. Marseille continued to prosper as a Roman city, becoming an early center of Christianity during the Western Roman Empire; the city maintained its position as a premier maritime trading hub after its capture by the Visigoths in the 5th century AD, although the city went into decline following the sack of 739 AD by the forces of Charles Martel. It became part of the County of Provence during the 10th century, although its renewed prosperity was curtailed by the Black Death of the 14th century and sack of the city by the Crown of Aragon in 1423; the city's fortunes rebounded with the ambitious building projects of René of Anjou, Count of Proven
The Championnat de France National referred to as National or Division 3, serves as the third division of the French football league system behind Ligue 1 and Ligue 2. Contested by 18 clubs, the Championnat National operates on a system of promotion and relegation with Ligue 2 and the Championnat National 2, the fourth division of French football. Seasons run with teams playing 34 games each, totalling 272 games in the season. Most games are played on Saturdays, with a few games played during weekday evenings. Play is suspended the last weekend before Christmas for two weeks before returning in the second week of January. National was founded in 1993 by the French Football Federation and serves as a base league for clubs on the brink of becoming professional or falling to the amateur levels; the league is annually composed of professional, semi-professional, amateur football clubs. The current champions are Red Star F. C; the matches in the league attract on average between 2,500 and 6,000 spectators per match.
There are 18 clubs in the Championnat National. During the course of a season from August to May, each club plays the others twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 34 games. Teams receive one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points goal difference, goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned champion and promoted to Ligue 2. If points are equal, the goal difference and goals scored determine the winner. If still equal, teams are deemed to occupy the same position. If there is a tie for the championship or for relegation, a play-off match at a neutral venue decides rank; the second and third-place finisher are promoted to the second division, while the four lowest placed teams are relegated to the Championnat de France Amateur and the four winners of the four groups from the Championnat de France amateur are promoted in their place. Official Site