The Réseau Express Régional abbreviated RER, is a hybrid suburban commuter and rapid transit system serving Paris and its suburbs. The RER combines the operations and roles of a local city-centre underground rail system and suburbs-to-city-center commuter rail. Inside the city center, the RER functions is faster as it has fewer stops; this has made it a model for proposals to improve transit within other cities. The network consists of five lines: A, B, C, D and E; the network has 257 stations and has several connections with the Paris Métro within the City of Paris. The lines are identified by letters to avoid confusion with the Métro lines, which are identified by numbers; the network is still expanding: RER E, which opened in 1999, is planned for westward extension toward La Défense and Mantes-la-Jolie in two phases by 2020–2022. The RER contains 257 stations, 33 of which are within the city of Paris, runs over 587 km of track, including 76.5 km underground. Each line passes through the city exclusively underground and on dedicated tracks.
The RER is operated by RATP, the transport authority that operates most public transportation in Paris, by SNCF, the national rail operator. In spite of this, the system uses a single fare structure and no transfer is needed between sections run by the two operators. Total traffic on the central sections of lines A and B, operated by RATP, was 452 million people in 2006. RATP manages 65 RER stations, including all stations on Line A east of Nanterre-Préfecture and those on the branch to Saint-Germain-en-Laye, it operates stations on Line B south of Gare du Nord. Other stations on the two lines and those on lines C, D and E are operated by SNCF. Of the RER stations operated by RATP, 9 have interchanges with Métro lines, 9 allow transfer to SNCF's Transilien service; the origins of the RER can be traced back to the 1936 Ruhlmann-Langewin plan of the Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris for a "métropolitain express". The company's post-war successor, RATP, revived the scheme in the 1950s, in 1960 an interministerial committee decided to go ahead with the construction of an east-west line.
Subsequently, the central part of the RER was completed between 1962 and 1977 in a large-scale civil engineering project whose chief supervisor was Siavash Teimouri. As its instigator, RATP was granted authority to run the new link; the embryonic RER was not properly conceived until the 1965 Schéma directeur d'aménagement et d'urbanisme, which envisioned an H-shaped network with two north-south routes. Between 1969 and 1970 RATP purchased the Vincennes and Saint-Germain lines from SNCF, as the basis for the east-west link. Only a single north-south route crossing the Left Bank has so far come to fruition, although the Métro's line 13 has been extended to perform a similar function. In the first phase of construction, the Vincennes and Saint-Germain lines became the ends of the east-west Line A, the central section of, opened station by station between 1969 and 1977. On its completion, Line A was joined by the initial southern section of the north-south Line B. During this first phase, six new stations were built, three of which are underground.
Construction was inaugurated by Robert Buron Minister for Public Works, at the Pont de Neuilly on 6 July 1961, four years before the publication of the official network blueprint. The rapid expansion of the La Défense business district in the west made the western section of the first line a priority. Nation, the first new station, was opened on 12 December 1969 and temporarily became the new western terminus of the Vincennes line; the section from Étoile to La Défense was opened a few weeks later. It was subsequently extended eastward to the newly built Auber station on 23 November 1971, westward to Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 1 October 1972; the latter extension was achieved by a connection to the existing Saint-Germain-en-Laye line, the oldest railway line into Paris, at Nanterre. The RER network came into being on 9 December 1977 with the joining of the eastern Nation-Boissy segment and the western Auber-Saint-Germain-en-Laye segment at Châtelet – Les Halles; the southern Ligne de Sceaux was extended from Luxembourg to meet Line A at Châtelet – Les Halles, becoming the new Line B.
The system of line letters was introduced to the public on this occasion, though it had been used internally by RATP and SNCF for some time. A second phase, from the end of the 1970s, was carried out more slowly. SNCF gained the authorisation to operate its own routes, which became lines C, D and E. Extensive sections of suburban tracks were added to the network, but only four new stations were built. In this time period, the network was completed in the following stages: Line C was added in 1979, involving the construction of a link between Invalides and Musée d'Orsay. Line B was extended to Gare du Nord in 1981 with a new deep tunnel from Châtelet – Les Halles, it was subsequently extended further northward. Line D was completed in 1995 with the construction of a deep tunnel between Châtelet – Les Halles and Gare de Lyon. No new building work was necessary at Châtelet – Les Halles, as additional platforms for Line D had been built at the time of the station's construction 20 years earlier. Line E was added in 1999, connecting the north-east with Gare Saint-Lazare by means of a
The Kurşunlu Waterfall is located 19 km from Antalya, Turkey at the end of a 7 km road branching off to the north of the Antalya-Serik-Alanya highway at a point 12 km east of Antalya. It is reduced to a mere trickle in the summer months; the waterfall is on one of the tributaries of the Aksu River, where the tributary drops from Antalya's plateau to the coastal plain. It is situated in the midst of a pine forest of exceptional beauty, the environs provide a picnic and pleasure spot about twenty minutes by car from the centre of the city of Antalya; the waterfall and its surroundings covering an area of 586.5 ha was declared a nature park by the Ministry of Environment and Forest on May 21, 1991. Antalya and Waterfalls How to go to Kursunlu Waterfall Nature Park A set of pictures of the park
Petermann Fjord is a fjord in northwestern Greenland. Administratively it marks the boundary between the Avannaata municipality and the Northeast Greenland National Park; the fjord and its glacier are named after German cartographer August Heinrich Petermann. Knud Rasmussen described the fjord entrance in the following terms: This fjord looked quaint and foreign in its surroundings. Everywhere the mountains along the coast fall steeply down towards the ice, the dark-brownish tones showed gloomy and serious against the white inland-ice which appears everywhere as a bank of white fog behind the coastland. In several places along the fjord, tongues of the glacier shoot down between the mountains, but at no point here is the production of ice-mountains apparent. Petermann Fjord stretches from southeast to northwest for about 110 km, its mouth opens in the Kennedy Channel and Hall Basin area, between Cape Lucie Marie, located east of Cape Morton, Cape Tyson in the north, near Offley Island. It is a broad fjord lined with precipitous cliffs topped by glaciated plateaux.
The Petermann Glacier, the longest glacier in Greenland, discharges into the fjord from the Greenland Ice Sheet, located further 80 km inland. This fjord is located northeast of Daugaard-Jensen Land, between the Petermann Peninsula and Hall Land. H. P. Trettin, Geology of the Innuitian Orogen and Arctic Platform of Canada and Greenland. Geological Survey of Canada ISBN 978-0660131313 Ocean circulation and properties in Petermann Fjord, Greenland Multibeam bathymetry from the Petermann Fjord and adjacent Hall Basin, Northwest Greenland List of fjords of Greenland Media related to Petermann Fjord at Wikimedia Commons Icy Seas - Petermann Fjord Petermann Fjord: a Glacier & Climate History