Guzmán Abajo is a barrio in the municipality of Río Grande, Puerto Rico. Its population in 2010 was 7,367; when after the Treaty of Paris, the U. S. conducted its first census of Puerto Rico, the population of Guzmán Abajo was 1,378
Naguabo, Puerto Rico
Naguabo is a municipality in Puerto Rico located in the east coast of the island, north of Humacao. Naguabo is spread over Naguabo Pueblo, it is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area. Naguabo is said to be the birthplace of the pastelillo de chapín, a popular food in Puerto Rico, it is trunkfish wrapped inside a flour dough, deep fried. Pastelillo de chapín can be found in any seaside establishment on the island. Naguabo is located in the southeast region of Puerto Rico; the northern part is within the Luquillo Mountain Range, which contain the Picos of the Este and the Oeste, at 3,448 and 3,346 feet of altitude above sea level, respectively. Like all municipalities of Puerto Rico, Naguabo is subdivided into barrios. Algodones Key El Yunque National Forest Naguabo Beach Punta Lima Beach Ramón Rivero "Diplo" Monument Tropical Beach Yudelmi Center Pedro Flores Monument Hucares Waterfront City Square Maratón Cervecero En Naguabo -January http://www.miagendapr.com/event/maraton-cervecero-en-naguabo-2018/ Chapín Festival - February Pedro Flores Week - March Diplo Festival - June Virgen del Carmen Fiesta - July 16 Patron Saint Festival - October 7 There is public transportation in Naguabo.
It operates from 6:00 a.m. using the "Pisicorre" bus. There are 52 bridges in Naguabo. Historia de Naguabo by Carmelo Rosario Natal List of Puerto Ricans History of Puerto Rico Did you know-Puerto Rico? Puerto Rico Government Directory - Naguabo
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
Luquillo, Puerto Rico
Luquillo is a municipality of Puerto Rico located in the northeast coast, northwest of Fajardo. Luquillo is spread over Luquillo Pueblo, it is part of the Fajardo Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city of Luquillo is 26 square miles and it sits on 12 miles of Atlantic coastline, it is nestled between the blue waters of the Atlantic and the El Yunque National Forest, a rainforest, giving it a diverse and unique ecology. Luquillo marks the beginning of the Northeast Ecological Corridor Nature Reserve which runs down the coast from Luquillo's town square all the way down to the Seven Seas Beach in Fajardo. During certain times of the year, it is not unusual to encounter rare or endangered species of fauna while visiting in Luquillo. Luquillo was founded in 1797 and is known as "La Capital del Sol", "La Riviera de Puerto Rico", "Los Come Cocos"; the town was named after the Indian cacique Loquillo, who died a few years after the last Indian rebellion in 1513. Luquillo is located on the northeast coast.
Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017 triggered numerous landslides in Luquillo with the significant amount of rain that fell. Like all municipalities of Puerto Rico, Luquillo is subdivided into barrios. If you stay on the coastal highway going east from San Juan, you'll soon reach Luquillo Beach; this huge plantation of majestic coconut palms shades more than a mile of shimmering sand. It is one of the most nicest public beaches in the San Juan area, it offers cafeterias, public bathrooms with showers, access for disabled people, an ample parking lot. Monserrate Beach is one of the public beaches most frequented by the locals. In 2006 El Balneario de Luquillo was pronounced the most popular one in Puerto Rico. La Pared Beach is very popular for its surf worthy waves. La Selva, is a small cove on the east coast, it is arguably one of the best surf spots on the east coast. The only way to get to it is about a 2-mile walk through a cow farm, but it's worth the trip if you can talk someone into telling you how to get there.
Chief Loquillo Monument La Fortuna Hacienda La Bandera Beach La Monserrate Beach known as Luquillo Beach La Pared Beach Las Pailas Beach Mameyes Beach Ocean View Boulevard Fortuna Beach The Recreational Park The Kiosks The Brass Cactus Restaurant Lolita's Restaurant La Selva Reef Break The Three Kings' Day Celebration at the Luquillo Square - January Leatherback Turtle Festival - April Patron Saint Festivities - May Coconut Festival - September Typical Dish Festival - December Like all municipalities in Puerto Rico, Luquillo is administered by a mayor. The current mayor is Jesús Márquez Rodríguez, elected at the 2012 general election; the city belongs to the Puerto Rico Senatorial district VIII, represented by two Senators. In 2012, Pedro A. Rodríguez and Luis Daniel Rivera were elected as District Senators. There are 20 bridges in Luquillo. PR-3 is the main road through Luquillo. Other municipality roads include PR-983, PR-988, PR-991 and PR-940, it consists of three horizontal stripes, the blue top and green bottom are double of width of the yellow central stripe.
Blue makes reference to the sea. In the center stripe resides the Coat Of Arms of the town superimposed and surrounded by two palm tree leaves crossed at the bottom. In a gold background a centered mountain range with three green mountains is accompanied at the bottom by a bay with blue and silver waves. Above the shield resides a three tower gold crown. Surrounding the shield by its flanks are two palms trees leaves crossed at the bottom. List of Puerto Ricans History of Puerto Rico Did you know-Puerto Rico? Puerto Rico Government Directory - Luquillo
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Puerto Rico Highway 66
Puerto Rico Highway 66 is a main tollway which parallels Puerto Rico Highway 3 going from the city of Carolina, Puerto Rico via a 3 loops cloverleaf interchange with PR-26 and PR-3, a major exit in the form of a Trumpet interchange in Canóvanas, Puerto Rico and ending in the municipality of Río Grande, Puerto Rico with an intersection of PR-3. It is only 12.42 miles long and has few exits, which work to minimize traffic in the congested Carolina area of PR-3. The highway is called the Roberto Sánchez Vilella Expressway, the name given to the much larger PR-2 freeway segment from Hormigueros to Ponce; the second phase of PR-66 from Canóvanas to Rio Grande was opened on October 1, 2012. PR-66 is, in an extension of older expressway PR-26, as both expressways are attached. PR-66 was assigned that number after U. S. Route 66 in the United States. PR-66 is close to the El Yunque National Forest and at the beginning caused problems between developers and environmental activists. Several actions of disobedience took place, including beams installed being removed.
The expressway was planned to be extended to Fajardo but due to the close presence of the forest reserve, it was accorded to be extended to Río Grande and connect to PR-3 which has several exits between that municipality and Fajardo, it might be possible that PR-3 is converted into a complete freeway in that segment as it approaches PR-53. The short expressway is expensive in terms of toll fees and many people still go through PR-3 as a consequence. There are no plans to turn the booth tolls down or lower the current fee of $1.50 and $1.00 respectively. This makes this small freeway the second most expensive tollway in the US, after the Dulles Greenway in Virginia in terms of its small length, about 30 cents per mile; this results beneficial in the effect that PR-66 has low traffic all the time, including rush hours. As of December 2011, the toll must be paid by pre-paid AutoExpreso. Puerto Rico Highway 26, called the Román Baldorioty de Castro Expressway, is the main highway to the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport and is connected to PR-66.
It was converted to a freeway to minimize the traffic in PR-3 and PR-17, to grant better access to the Airport. Several exits exist to provide access to PR-187, PR-37 and PR-22; the combined routes of PR-26 and PR-66 is about 21.74 miles long. Hawaii Highways – Puerto Rico Interstate Photographs