In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
University of Puerto Rico
The University of Puerto Rico is the main public university system of Puerto Rico and a government-owned corporation of Puerto Rico. The Spanish-language institution consists of 11 campuses and has 58,000 students and 5,300 faculty members. UPR has the largest and most diverse academic offerings in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean, with 472 academic programs of which 32 lead to a doctorate. In 1900, at Fajardo, the Escuela Normal Industrial was established as the first higher education center in Puerto Rico, its initial enrollment was 5 professors. The following year it was moved to Río Piedras. On March 12, 1903, the legislature authorized founding of the University of Puerto Rico, that day the "Escuela Normal" was proclaimed as its first department. 1908 - The Morrill-Nelson Act is extended to Puerto Rico, making the University a "Land Grant College," which authorizes use of federal land to establish colleges of agriculture and engineering. 1910 - Establishment of the College of Liberal Arts. 1911 - Establishment of the College of Agriculture at Mayagüez.
A year the name was changed to College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 1913 - The Departments of Pharmacy and Law were established. 1913 - University High School is founded to provide clinical experience and supervised practice for teacher applicants, support staff and other teaching professionals. 1923 - The University Act of 1923- the University reorganized administratively it independent Insular Department of Education, provides the Board of Trustees as the governing board, make the position of Rector as the principal officer. In 1924 the governor appointed the first Rector; the enrollment is 1,500 students. 1924 - The administrative structure and identity of the University of Puerto Rico is independent of the Department of Public Instruction. 1925 - Act 50 gave the UPR educational autonomy. This led to the beginning of a period of rapid growth. 1926- The College of Business Administration and the School of Tropical Medicine were established. 1927 - Opening of the first graduate program: the Master of Arts in Hispanic Studies.
1928 - The San Felipe hurricane struck the island of Puerto Rico and caused serious damage in the Río Piedras campus. Staff and faculty began a reconstruction effort. 1935 - The U. S. Congress extended to Puerto Rico the benefits of Bankhead-Jones Act, which provided funding for research and the construction of more buildings. 1936 - 1939 - Major structures in Spanish Renaissance style are built in the quadrangle in Río Piedras, including buildings such as the Tower Theatre and the University. 1938 - Augusto Rodríguez composed the music and lyrics Arriví Francisco's Alma Mater, the University anthem. 1939 - The "chime" mechanism was installed in the tower to play bells at the Río Piedras Campus. 1942 - Act No. 135 of May 7, 1942, amendment to the University, created the Higher Education Council as the governing board of the institution and regulator of the higher education system in Puerto Rico. 1943 - The university adopted the general education core courses modality. 1946 - The University received accreditation from the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools.
1950 - Beginning of courses in the School of Medicine. 1966 - Act No. 1 of 1966, restructuring the university. The system becomes a three campuses-Río Piedras, Mayagüez and Medical Sciences, a regional school management to group those that may be created in the future, under the direction of a President. Create a College Board with representation from the regional campuses and colleges, renamed to the governing Council of Higher Education. 1967 - Creation of the regional colleges: Arecibo and Humacao. Five more were created in the following years: Ponce, Bayamón, Aguadilla and Utuado. 1979 - WRTU-FM began broadcasting from the Río Piedras campus. 1993 - Act No. 16 of June 6, 1993, divided the functions of the Council for Higher Education, assigning the functions of government at the University Board of Trustees to a newly created. 1998 - Act No. 186 of August 7, 1998, provides for the gradual autonomy of regional schools as provided by the Board of Trustees, to lead to eleven autonomous units.
In 2010 the Master Plan for the Río Piedras Campus was completed, to direct future growth for the largest campus in the system. It is expected to serve 27,000 students by 2020; the study reviewed existing facilities, identified attainable development scenarios, provided phasing and implementation strategies. Planned new development includes recreation center; the $700 million development plan is being implemented. The Master Plan for the Bayamón Campus addresses its pressing capital needs. Built as a campus of temporary structures to serve 2,500 students, today it serves more than 5,000 students, a figure expected to double by the year 2020. Much of the physical plant needs replacement. In July 2010, the Middle States Commission on Higher Education placed the accreditation of the University on probation citing concerns about shortfalls in the governance of the institution. By the end of 2011, all 11 campuses had regained full accreditation after demonstrating significant progress in this area; the board of trustees is the governing body of the University of Puerto Rico.
Its membership consists of private citizens who are supposed to represent the public interest, faculty members, student representatives, may or may not include an exofficio political officeholder. This inconsistency happens as the board's structure chang
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Gobernador Piñero, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Gobernador Piñero is one of the 18 barrios of the municipality of San Juan, Puerto Rico. With a population in 2000 of 47,779 living in a land area of 4.44 square miles, it is San Juan’s second most populated barrio after Santurce, the fourth largest in land area. It has a population density of 10,770.4 residents per square mile. Gobernador Piñero is bounded to the North by the San Juan Harbor and Hato Rey Norte Barrio, with the barrios of Hato Rey Sur and El Cinco to the East, by Monacillo Urbano to the South, by the municipality of Guaynabo to the West. Gobernador Piñero includes the areas of Puerto Nuevo, Villa Borinquen, Bosque Urbano de San Patricio, Caparra Terrace and Centro Médico; the Martínez Nadal Tren Urbano station is located in the neighbourhood of Gobernador Piñero bordering with the municipality of Guaynabo
Quebrada Arenas, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Quebrada Arenas is one of the 18 barrios of the municipality of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Located in the southwest corner of San Juan, it is the only rural barrio in the municipality. Quebrada Arenas is outside San Juan's municipal urban zone according to the last Census. In 2000 it had a total population of 2,753 inhabitants, a land area of 2.44 square miles, resulting in a population density of only 1,126.6 residents per square mile, the lowest for any barrio in San Juan. The barrio of Quebrada Arenas has boundaries with the municipalities of Aguas Buenas and Caguas to the south, with Guaynabo to the west, is bounded by the barrios of Caimito to the east and Tortugo to the north
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Universidad, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Universidad is one of the 18 barrios of the municipality of San Juan, Puerto Rico. It belonged to the municipality of Río Piedras; when Río Piedras was annexed to San Juan in 1951, Río Piedras's barrio Universidad became one of San Juan's barrios. Universidad is notable for being the location of the main campus of the University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras, from which it takes its name; the underground section of the Tren Urbano with the Universidad station is located below the Ponce de León avenue to the west of the neighborhood. Universidad has a total population of 2,501 inhabitants. Universidad is divided in four distinct locations. Amparo Auxilio Mutuo Institución Valencia