Lake Morat or Lake Murten is a lake located in the cantons of Fribourg and Vaud in the west of Switzerland. It is named after the small bilingual town of Murten/Morat on its southern shore, it is the smallest of the three lakes in the Seeland or Pays des trois lacs area of the Swiss plateau located at the foot of the first chain of the Jura mountains. The main tributary is the river Broye. Since the Jura water correction its water leaves the lake through the Broye Canal into nearby Lake Neuchâtel, connected to Lake Bienne/Lake Biel through the Thielle canal, thus all three lakes form a natural reservoir in order to retain overflow water from the river Aare that flows into Lake Bienne/Biel: in times of combined heavy rainfalls and glacier melting in the Alps, the peculiar situation arises that the water flows backwards through the Thielle and Broye canals, preventing an overflow of the Grand Marais. Media related to Lake Murten at Wikimedia Commons Lake Morat in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
Waterlevels of Lake Morat at Morat
Lake Neuchâtel is a lake in Romandy, in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. The lake lies in the canton of Neuchâtel, but is shared by the cantons of Vaud and Bern. With a surface of 218.3 km2, Lake Neuchâtel is the largest lake located in Switzerland and the 59th largest lake in Europe. It is 8.2 km at its widest. Its surface is 429 metres above sea level, the maximum depth is 152 metres; the total water volume is 14.0 km3. The lake's drainage area is 2,670 km2 and its culminating point is Le Chasseron at 1,607 metres; the lake is fed by the rivers L'Orbe, L'Arnon, L'Areuse, Le Seyon, La Menthue, as well as by the Canal de la Broye. The Thielle Canal drains the lake into Lake Biel and is part of regulation system for the lakes and the rivers of the Seeland region. Lake Neuchâtel was the home of the now extinct species of deepwater trout Salvelinus neocomensis. From Yverdon to La Tène: Yverdon-les-Bains Grandson Bonvillars Onnens Corcelles-près-Concise Concise Vaumarcus Sauges Saint-Aubin Gorgier, Chez-Le-Bart Bevaix Cortaillod Areuse Colombier Auvernier Serrières Neuchâtel Hauterive St-Blaise Marin-Epagnier From Yverdon to Gampelen: Cheseaux Yvonand Cheyres Châbles Font Estavayer-le-Lac Forel Chevroux Pré de Riva Portalban Chabrey Champmartin Cudrefin La Sauge Lindehof, Witzwil Tannenhof "Neuchâtel, Lake of".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. 1911. P. 424–425. Waterlevels at the Harbour of Neuchâtel from the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment
The German-speaking part of Switzerland comprises about 65 percent of Switzerland. The variety of the German language spoken in Switzerland is called Swiss German which refers to any of the Alemannic dialects and which are divided into Low and Highest Alemannic; the only exception within German-speaking Switzerland is the municipality of Samnaun where an Austro-Bavarian dialect is spoken. German is the sole official language in 17 Swiss cantons. French and German are co-official in 3 cantons. In the trilingual canton of Graubünden, more than half the population speaks German, while most of the rest speak one of the other official languages and Italian. While the French-speaking Swiss prefer to call themselves Romands and their part of the country la Romandie, the German-speaking Swiss used to refer to the French-speaking Swiss as "Welsche", to their area as Welschland, which has the same etymology as the English Welsh. In Germany Welsch and Welschland refer to Italy. By the Middle Ages, a marked difference had developed between the rural cantons of the German-speaking part of Switzerland and the city cantons, divided by views about trade and commerce.
After the Reformation, all cantons were either Catholic or Protestant, the denominational influences on culture added to the differences. Today, where all cantons are somewhat denominationally mixed, the different historical denominations can be seen in the mountain villages, where Roman Catholic Central Switzerland abounds with chapels and statues of saints, the farm houses in the similar landscape of the Protestant Bernese Oberland show Bible verses carved on the housefronts, instead. German-speaking Europe Languages of Switzerland Swiss German Swiss Standard German
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
The Sarine or Saane is a major river of Switzerland. It is 128 km long and has a drainage area of 1,892 km2, it is a tributary of the Aare. The Sarine rises in the Bernese Alps, near Sanetschhorn, in the Canton of Valais, it forms the Lac de Sénin reservoir at 2034 m, enters the Canton of Bern, traversing the Sanetsch falls between 1900 and 1400 m. It forms the westernmost valley of the Bernese Oberland, flowing past Gsteig and Saanen in the Obersimmental-Saanen district. Downstream of Saanen, at 982 m, it enters the Canton of Vaud, passing Rougemont, Château-d'Œx and Rossinière, forming the Lac du Vernex at 859 m. At 833, it traverses the Creux de l'Enfer and enters the Canton of Fribourg, forming Lac de Montbovon at 777 m. From this point, it more or less follows the linguistic boundary between French- and German-speaking Switzerland across the bilingual canton of Fribourg. Passing Villars-sous-Mont, Gruyères and Broc, it reaches Lac de la Gruyère at 677 m, it continues in serpentines towards Fribourg itself.
Downstream of Fribourg, it widens into the Schiffenensee reservoir at 532 m, is taken to Laupen in a channel, where it is joined by the Sense. Flowing north for another 6 km, it joins the Aar just downstream of Wohlensee, at 461 m, some 15 km west of Berne. Swisstopo: Map Saane/Sarine 1:100000, ISBN 3-302-00036-7 Sarine Waterlevels at Broc Sarine Waterlevels at Fribourg Saane Waterlevels at Laupen Saane Information at Gümmenen, Mühleberg Media related to Saane/Sarine at Wikimedia Commons