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Røros

Røros is a municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It is part of the Gauldalen region; the administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Røros. Some of the villages in Røros include Brekken, Glåmos, Galåa, Hitterdalen; the mining town of Røros is sometimes called Bergstaden which means "mountain town" due to its historical notoriety for copper mining. It is one of two towns in Norway that were designated "mining towns", along with the "silver-town" of Kongsberg; the modern-day inhabitants of Røros still work and live in the characteristic 17th and 18th century buildings which have led to its designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. Røros has most of them standing around courtyards. Many retain their dark pitch-log facades; the 1,956-square-kilometre municipality is the 32nd largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Røros is the 185th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 5,663; the municipality's population density is 3.2 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population has increased by 0.8% over the last decade.

The parish of Røros was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. On 1 January 1875, an unpopulated area of the neighboring municipality of Ålen was transferred to Røros. On 1 January 1926, Røros was split into four municipalities: Røros landsogn, Brekken, Glåmos, the town of Røros. During the 1960s, there were many municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1964, the four municipalities of Glåmos, Brekken, Røros landsogn, the town of Røros were all reunited under the name Røros. On 21 April 1989, an unpopulated part of Røros was transferred to the neighboring Holtålen municipality. On 1 January 2018, the municipality switched from the old Sør-Trøndelag county to the new Trøndelag county; the municipality is named after the old Røros farm. The first element is the river name Røa and the last element is os meaning "mouth of a river"; the meaning of the river name Røa is unknown. There is no available interpretation of Plassje; the coat of arms was granted on 29 October 1992.

The arms show. The Church of Norway has four parishes within the municipality of Røros, it is part of the Gauldal prosti in the Diocese of Nidaros. Røros municipality has been used by the Southern Sami people for reindeer herding. Known for its copper mines, Røros is one of Norway's two nationally significant mining towns with activity starting in the 17th century. Røros was burned to the ground in 1679 by the Swedish Army during the Scanian War. In 1718, during the Great Northern War, the town was once again taken by the Swedish Army, led by General De la Barre, who made up the southern arm of the main Swedish Army under Carl Gustaf Armfeldt. De la Barre took the city and all their mined copper at gunpoint; when King Carl XII was killed near Fredriksten on 30 November 1718, De la Barre retreated north to join the bulk of the army. However, this ended in tragedy, when over 3,000 rather unprepared soldiers perished in the harsh weather conditions in the mountains northwest of Røros. Røros and its people were made famous to Norwegians at the turn of the 20th century by semi-fictional author Johan Falkberget, who told the story of the mining community from the perspective of the hard-tested miners at the bottom of the social ladder.

With its authentic wooden buildings, Røros was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Site list in 1980. In 1644, the general manager of the mine at Kongsberg gave permission to exploit one lode of copper in the mountains near Rauhaammaaren. Storvola and Gamle Storwartz became some of the company's most important mines. Nordgruve, another important mining area, was situated to the north east of Røros. In 1685, Røros discovered a considerable amount of associated silver mines; the mining activity lasted for about 40 years, a total of 1,350 tons of sterling silver was mined. This provided considerable revenue for the Danish-Norwegian treasury to support Frederick IV. Built in the palace of Solbjerg Starting in 1740 and onwards was a period of greatness for the Røros Copper Works with several mines yielding well. Due to the funding of the Oldenburg family royal family, the scale of the Leros silver mine and copper mining is expanding; as the mine is close to Trondheim and at a lower latitude, the ore output is much higher than ScandinaviaFalun.

Other copper mines in Navia, such as the Swedish mines at higher latitudes. The rich income of the mining area prompted the royal family to ask for more mining scale. Dynamite was utilized from 1870 and drilling machines; the electrical generating station built high-tension power lines to supply the mines starting in 1897. The Bessemer process was introduced at the end of the 1800s; the Rørosbanen railway line was completed in 1877. High prices for both copper and zinc gave good results, but the prices dropped and there were several years with large losses. After 333 years, mining activity in Røros ceased in 1977. During winter, a traditional market called "Rørosmartnan" is organized and that draws an average of 60,000–70,000 tourists to the town of Røros each year; the market begin

Pencil sharpener

A pencil sharpener is a tool for sharpening a pencil's writing point by shaving away its worn surface. Pencil sharpeners may be operated manually or by an electric motor, it is common for many sharpeners to have a casing around them, which can be removed for emptying the pencil shavings debris into a trash bin. Before the development of dedicated pencil sharpeners, a pencil was sharpened by whittling it with a knife. Pencil sharpener tools gave a more uniform result; the development of pencil sharpeners began in France. In a French book from 1822 was reported in detail about an invention of Mr. C. A. Boucher for construction of a pencil sharpener, he was working with pantographs and needed a device to sharpen the pencils. The device of Mr. Boucher was technically functional, his idea was internationally known and recognized, as shown by corresponding reports in German literature at this time. But Mr. Boucher has not applied a patent for his pencil sharpener. A commercial use of his inventions is unlikely.

French mathematician Bernard Lassimonne applied the world's first patent on a pencil sharpener in 1828. Pencil sharpener devices using his patent were produced and sold by Binant, a shop for painting accessories in Paris. In 1833 in England, Cooper & Eckstein patented the so-called Styloxynon, a simple device consisting of two sharp files set together at right angle in a small block of rosewood; this is the oldest pencil sharpener. In the 1830s and 1840s, some French people, all based in Paris, were engaged in construction of simple pencil sharpening tools, like François Joseph Lahausse; these devices were sold, but without supra-regional significance. In 1847 the French noblemen Thierry des Estivaux invented a simple hand-held pencil sharpener in its recognizable modern form; the first American pencil sharpener was patented by Walter Kittredge Foster of Bangor, Maine in 1855.. He founded a company - the first pencil sharpener company in the world - and produced such small hand-held pencil sharpeners in a large amount.

Only a few years the sharpeners were sold in Europe as "American pencil sharpeners". At the end of the 19th century in United States, pencil sharpeners with various mechanisms have been developed and put on the market; these devices were heavy and intended for use in offices. Examples are the Perfect Pencil Pointer, the GEM Pencil Sharpener, the Planetary Pencil Sharpener, all from USA or the Jupiter from Germany. At the beginning of the 20th century the company Automatic Pencil Sharpener Co. was founded and has brought out the US Automatic Pencil Sharpener after 1907, which dominated in this years. They sell machines with milling mechanism like models Climax, Dexter and Junior. APSCO became in the next few decades the largest pencil sharpening machine producer in the world and together with a few other US companies, it dominated the market. Electric pencil sharpeners for offices have been made since at least 1917. In May 2011, tourism officials in Logan, Ohio put on display, in its regional welcome center, hundreds of pencil sharpeners, collected by Rev. Paul Johnson, an Ohio minister who died in 2010.

Johnson, a World War II veteran, had kept his collection of more than 3,400 sharpeners in a small shed, outside his home in Carbon Hill in southeast Ohio. He had started collecting after his wife gave him a few pencil sharpeners as a gift in the late 1980s, kept them organized into categories, including cats and Disneyland. So-called "prism" sharpeners called "manual" or "pocket" sharpeners in the United States, have no separate moving parts and are the smallest and cheapest used pencil sharpener on the market; the simplest common variety is a small rectangular prism or block, only about 1 × 5/8 × 7/16 inch in size. The block-shaped sharpener consists of a combined point-shaping cone, aligned to the cylindrical pencil alignment guide hole, into which the pencil is inserted. A sharp blade is mounted; the pencil rotated while the sharpener is held motionless. The body of the sharpener is contoured, ridged or grooved to make the small block easier to grip, is made of aluminum alloy, magnesium alloy or hard plastic.

The blade inside the sharpener shaves the wood and graphite tip of the pencil, while the shavings emerge through a slot along the blade edge. It is important that the cylindrical alignment hole fit the diameter of the pencil, to keep the pencil from wobbling, which would cause stepped or lurching cut-depths and point breakage. Another important feature is a larger clearance hole at the end of the cone allowing sections of the pencil lead which break away to be removed with only minor inconvenience. Prism sharpeners can be bare or enclosed in a container to collect the shavings, while some enclosed sharpeners may be harder to clear in the event of a blockage. A few prism sharpeners are hand-cranked. Moderate care is needed to not break the tip of the pencil being sharpened, requiring the pencil to be sharpened again. However, because pencils may have different standard diameters in different nations, imported sharpeners may have non-standard-sized alignment guide-holes, making sharpening attempts difficult.

If the alignment hole is too small, the pencil cannot be inserted, while if it is too large, the tip of the pencil will break

Evan Weinstock

Evan Weinstock is an American Olympic bobsledder. Weinstock was raised in Las Vegas, Nevada, his father, Arnold Weinstock, is Jewish. His mother was not, he told Jewish Sports Review that he was raised without a faith, but he had no problem being identified as a Jewish athlete. He played high school football as a wide receiver/safety and was the Nevada 4A Football Player of the Year at Del Sol High School in Las Vegas, he became involved in bobsledding by virtue of his participation in the decathlon. His football career ended in high school with a torn labrum. At Brown University, where he majored in Biology, Weinstock set the university record in the decathlon, is second in university history in the pentathlon, was a four-time Ivy League champion. At the IBSF 2016 Bobsled World Championship Team Event with pilot Justin Olsen, he came in 10th in Igls, Austria. At the IBSF 2017 World Championship in Koenigssee, Germany, in the Two-Man with pilot Justin Olsen, he came in tied for 11th, in the Four-Man for pilot Justin Olsen, he came in 11th.

He competed for the United States in the two-man event at the 2018 Winter Olympics. He and his team came in ninth place in the four-man bobsled, in 3:17.28, came in 14th in the two-man bobsled