Hamburger Sport-Verein e. V. known as Hamburger SV, Hamburg or HSV, is a German sport club based in Hamburg, its largest branch being its football department. Although the current HSV was founded in June 1919 from a merger of three earlier clubs, it traces its origin to 29 September 1887 when the first of the predecessors, SC Germania, was founded. HSV's football team had the distinction of being the only team that had played continuously in the top tier of the German football league system since the founding of the club at the end of World War I, it was the only team that played in every season of the Bundesliga since its foundation in 1963, until 2018 when the team were relegated for the first time in history. HSV has won the German national championship six times, the DFB-Pokal three times and the League Cup twice; the team's most successful period was from the mid-1970s until the mid-1980s when, in addition to several domestic honours, they won the 1976–77 European Cup Winners' Cup and the 1982–83 European Cup.
The outstanding players of this period were Horst Hrubesch, Manfred Kaltz, Felix Magath, all of whom were regulars in the German National Team. To date, HSV's last major trophy was the 1986–87 DFB-Pokal. HSV play their home games at the Volksparkstadion in a western district of Hamburg; the club colours are blue and black but the home kit of the team is white jerseys and red shorts. The team's most common nickname is "die Rothosen"; as it is one of Germany's oldest clubs, it is known as der Dinosaurier. HSV have rivalries with Werder Bremen, with whom they contest the Nordderby, Hamburg-based FC St. Pauli, whom they contest the Hamburg derby. HSV is notable in football as a grassroots organisation with youth development a strong theme; the club had a team in the Women's Bundesliga from 2003 to 2012 but it was demoted to Regionalliga level because of financial problems. Other club departments include badminton, basketball, boxing, darts, golf, gymnastics and cardiopulmonary rehabilitation exercises.
These departments represent about 10% of the club membership. HSV is one of the biggest sports clubs in Germany with over 84,000 members in all its departments and stated by Forbes to be among the 20-largest football clubs in the world. Hamburger Sport-Verein traces its origin to the merger of Der Hohenfelder Sportclub and Wandsbek-Marienthaler Sportclub on 29 September 1887 to form Sport-Club Germania Hamburg referred to as SC Germania; this was the first of three clubs. HSV in its club statute recognises the founding of SC Germania as its own date of origin; the other two clubs in the June 1919 merger were Hamburger FC founded in 1888 and FC Falke Eppendorf dating back to 1906. The merger came about because the three clubs had been weakened by the impact of the First World War on manpower and finance and they could not continue as separate entities. SC Germania was formed as an athletics club and did not begin to play football until 1891, when some Englishmen joined the club and introduced it.
SC Germania had its first success in 1896, winning the Hamburg-Altona championship for the first of five times. Germania player Hans Nobiling emigrated to Brazil at the end of the 19th century, where he became an important pioneer of the game, instrumental in the foundation of SC Internacional, the third oldest club of the country which became part of São Paulo FC, one of the major sports clubs of Brazil, in 1938 and SC Germânia of São Paulo, which became EC Pinheiros. Hamburger SC 1888 was founded by students on 1 June 1888, it had links with a youth team called FC Viktoria 95 and, during World War I, was temporarily known as Viktoria Hamburg 88. SC Germania and Hamburger SC 1888 were among 86 clubs who founded the Deutscher Fußball-Bund in Leipzig on 28 January 1900. FC Falke was founded by students in Eppendorf on 5 March 1906 but it was never a successful team and played in lower leagues; the newly formed Hamburger SV became competitive and contested the 1922 national final against 1. FC Nürnberg, who were playing for their third consecutive title.
The game was called off on account of darkness after three hours and ten minutes of play, drawn at 2–2. The re-match went into extra time, in an era that did not allow for substitutions, that game was called off at 2–2 when Nuremberg were reduced to just seven players and the referee ruled they could not continue. Considerable wrangling ensued over the decision; the DFB urged them to refuse the title in the name of good sportsmanship. The Viktoria trophy was not presented that year. HSV's first unqualified success was achieved in the 1923 German football championship when they won the national title against Union Oberschöneweide, they failed to defend the title in 1924, losing the final to Nuremberg, but lifted the Viktoria again in 1928 when they defeated Hertha BSC 5–2 at the Altonaer Stadion in the final. During the Third Reich, HSV enjoyed local success in the Gauliga Nordmark known as the Gauliga Hamburg, winning the league championship in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1941 and 1945. At national level the club was unsuccessful with semi-final losses in 1938 and 1939 their best performances in this period.
Its main rival in the Gauliga in those years was Eimsbütteler TV. HSV's first post-war season was in the newly formed Stadtliga Hamburg and they won its championship in 1946; the club won the championship of the British occupation zone in 1947 and 1948, the only two seasons this com
FC Dinamo București
Fotbal Club Dinamo București known as Dinamo București, or as Dinamo within Romania, is a Romanian professional football club based in Bucharest. Founded in 1948, it has spent its entire history in Liga I, the top tier of the Romanian football league system. Domestically, Dinamo București is one of the two most successful teams in Romania, having won 18 Liga I titles, 13 Cupa României, two Supercupa României, one Cupa Ligii. In the 1983–84 season, they became the first Romanian club to reach the semi-finals of the European Cup. Dinamo's traditional home colours are white red, while the current crest is a modified version of the one adopted in the 1998. Dinamo is playing its home matches on Stadionul Dinamo and the important matches on the Arena Națională; the club holds a strong rivalry with neighboring FCSB, with matches between the two being referred to as "the Eternal Derby". Dinamo was founded on 14 May 1948, when "Unirea Tricolor MAI" – newly entered, in January 1948, under the umbrella of the Communist regime's Internal Affairs Ministry – merged with "Ciocanul București".
The sporting club represented the above-mentioned institution. The "Dinamo" name was used for the first time on 1 May 1948; the real debut of Dinamo was in the 1947-48 Divizia A edition. Some of the team's players were Ambru, Angelo Niculescu, Siclovan, Sârbu. In 1955, Dinamo won their first championship. With Angelo Niculescu as head coach, Dinamo impressed in the offensive, with an attack formed by Ene I, Neaga and Suru; the defense, with players like Băcuț I, Băcuț II, Szoko, Călinoiu, was the best in the championship – only 19 goals against. In the fall of 1956, the team made its debut in the European Champion Clubs' Cup. Dinamo was the first Romanian team to play in the European competitions; the debut game was played on 26 August 1956, in front of 32,000 spectators. Dinamo defeated Galatasaray, 3–1. In the second leg, Dinamo lost in Istanbul 1–2, moved forward. In following years, Dinamo met famous teams in Europe, such as Real Madrid, Inter Milan and Feyenoord: 0–3 and 0–2. In 1973, in the European Cup, Dinamo surpassed Northern Ireland's Crusaders Belfast.
The 11–0 home game against Northern Ireland's team is still the biggest margin of victory in the history of the European Cup. The autumn of 1983–84 was going to represent a valuable step into the international arena; the "European Champions Cup campaign" started with Kuusysi Lahti. The second round pushed Dinamo against the current champion, Hamburger SV – team of Stein and Magath. At Bucharest, Augustin and Orac scored for 3–0; the thrilling second leg finished 3–2. In order to accede to the semi-finals of CCE, Dinamo had to defeat another top team: Dinamo Minsk, with Aleinikov and Gurinovich; the first leg was 1–1, it was followed by a 1–0 victory at Bucharest. Dinamo was the first Romanian team to reach the European Champions Cup semi-finals, where it met Liverpool F. C.. Dinamo lost 1–0 at Anfield and 2–1 in Bucharest, as Liverpool progressed to the 1984 European Cup Final. In 1986 Dinamo won the Cup against Steaua, the team that only a few days before won the European Cup. In the summer of 1990, Dinamo – with Mircea Lucescu as coach – conquered a new national title, the 13th.
The team won the Cup final, against Steaua: 6–4. But the Romanian Revolution from 1989 opened the doors for the Romanian footballers to leave and play abroad and Dinamo lost its entire team, thus a downfall regarding the results came the following years. Dinamo managed to win the title in 1992, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2007, but failed to reach the final phases of the European competitions. In 2013, the team changed ownership. Businessman Ionuț Negoiță promised to revive the golden years. On May 6, 2016, player Patrick Ekeng was diagnosed with a heart attack, he was declared dead at the hospital 2 hours later. Since the beginning, Dinamo's colours were white; the current team's badge includes two red dogs, a nickname given to the club when the Nunweiller brothers played here and Ion, in the 1960s and 1970s. Dinamo plays its home games at Stadionul Dinamo; the arena was built in 1951, for the official inauguration Dinamo played a game against Locomotiva Timișoara. The stadium capacity was 16,000, but following the installation of seats, it decreased to 15,032 places.
The stadium is part of a larger complex which contains another smaller stadium, Stadionul Florea Dumitrache, where the second team, Dinamo II, used to play its matches. It is used by CS Dinamo București rugby team. There is a sports hall and a swimming pool; the stadium is nicknamed "Groapa", because it was built by digging a hole, rather than by raising its stands. Dinamo's fans use the North stand, named Peluza Cătălin Hîldan, after a former Dinamo player who died in 2000 at the age of 24. Dinamo plays home and away matches against their biggest rivals, Steaua, as well as other major fixtures at Arena Națională. Dinamo has an estimated 11% support in Romania, making them the second most supported Romanian club, after Steaua; the largest concentration of fans is in Bucharest in the northeast and central areas of the city. The club has important fan bases inside and outside the country; the roots of the Dinamo ultras movement can be found in 1995 when groups like Dracula and Rams Pantelimon
FC Shakhtar Donetsk
Football Club Shakhtar Donetsk is a Ukrainian professional football club from the city of Donetsk. In 2014 the club moved to Lviv but has since early 2017 played in Kharkiv and has its headquarters in Kiev. Shakhtar has appeared in several European competitions and is a participant in the UEFA Champions League; the club became the first club in independent Ukraine to win the UEFA Cup in 2009, the last year before the competition was revamped as the Europa League. FC Shakhtar Donetsk is one of two Ukrainian clubs, the other being Dynamo Kyiv, who have won a major UEFA competition; the club played its home matches at the Donbass Arena, due to the conflict in Eastern Ukraine, the team relocated 600 miles to the west in Arena Lviv in the interim. Following the winter break of the 2016–17 season the club moved to the Metalist Stadium in Kharkiv early 2017. Shakhtar Donetsk is Ukraine's most popular football club, is favoured in the eastern Donbas region; the club draws its history from the start of the Soviet football league competitions and is one of the oldest clubs in Ukraine.
The club was a member of the Soviet Voluntary Sports Society of Shakhtyor, having connections with other Soviet teams from Karaganda, among others. In the late Soviet period, Shakhtar was considered a tough mid-table club of the Soviet Top League and a cup competition specialist after winning the Soviet Cup two years in a row in 1961 and 1962; the team has played under the following names: Stakhanovets, FC Shakhtar. The club Shakhtar was formed on a decision of the All-Union Council on physical culture and sports of 3 April 1936 and was named Stakhanovets, meaning "the participant of Stakhanovite movement", which derived from Aleksei Stakhanov, a coal-miner in the Donets basin and propaganda celebrity in 1935; the first team was based upon two other local teams, the participants of the All-Ukrainian Spartakiads: Dynamo Horlivka and Dynamo Stalino. The first game was against Dynamo Odessa as part of the 1936 Cup of the Ukrainian SSR and took place on 12 May 1936 at Balitsky Stadium in Horlivka.
The team that played as Stakhonovets Horlivka lost it 3–2 after scoring the first goal by Mykhailo Pashchenko, the second goal belonged to Boris Terentiev. Its first league game in Group V took place on 24 May 1936 against Dynamo Kazan was more disappointing, which miners lost 4–1. Stakhonovets that had on its roster 15 players left for Kazan by train on 20 May. Beside players, as part of delegation there were representative of regional council of physical culture Gololobov and republican referee I. Rozanov; the team returned to Stalino on 28 May and the same day Gololobov in interview to newspaper "Stalinskiy rabochiy" told that "... the game in Kazan with local "Dynamo" was witnessed by 3,000 spectators. With the first minutes, the field hosts offered a high pace. "Miners", a road weary, could not respond with the same and on 13th minute conceded the first goal and by the end of first half two more. In many respects the reason was poor performance of right halfback Kutsev and right outside forward Korotynsky.
Through their flank Dynamo players attacked. In the first half Stakhanovets forwards looked uncertain. In the second half the game equalized and on 55th minute Fedor Manov opened score to Donetsk team goals. Final score is 4:1 in favor of the hosts."Nonetheless, the selective job conducted constructively by the club's administration allowed the club to compete at the top level by the end of the 1930s. During the war championship of 1941, interrupted unexpectedly, the club defeated Soviet champions Dynamo Moscow and after about ten games were placed in fifth in the league. In the last game of that championship, played on 24 June, two days after the start of the Great Patriotic War, which they lost at home to Traktor Stalingrad. During the war many players went to frontlines and perished among which are Ivan Ustinov, Ivan Putyatov, Volodymyr Shkurov, Ivan Horobets, Mykhailo Vasin and others. From the pre-war squad in 1945 there were left only three players Georgiy Bikezin, Mykola Kuznetsov, Petro Yurchenko.
The All-Union coal mining society of Stakhanovite had changed its name in July 1946 to Shakhtyor and so did the Sports Society of Donbas Miners. In 1950, Viktor Fomin was named Ukrainian Footballer of the Year, despite the club finishing only 11th in the league; the first success for the team was in 1951. The most notable player of that achievement was the striker Aleksandr Ponomarev, who came to finish his football career in Donbass, the region he was born in, was named Ukrainian Footballer of the Year for 1951. Despite the latest achievement, Shakhtar was relegated at the end of the 1952 season and as part of the re-organization of the team, former player Aleksandr Ponomarev became the head coach of the club. In 1954, Shakhtar under Ponomarev won the Class B League. In 1958, the players of the club received less yellow and red cards than any other team in the championship, for what the Sovetsky Sport newspaper awarded the club with the "Fair Play Award." In the 1960s, under Oleg Oshenkov's coaching, were three-time USSR Cup finalists, winning it twice in 1961 and 1962.
Among the players playing for the club where defenders Viacheslav Aliabiev and Vladimir Salkov. The club was nicknamed "The Cup Team" due to Sha
Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team
The Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team represents Bosnia and Herzegovina in association football and is governed by the Football Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Until 1992, Bosnian footballers played for Yugoslavia. Bosnia and Herzegovina achieved their best result when they reached the 2014 FIFA World Cup as winners of their qualifying group, they were eliminated after group stage narrow losses to a win over Iran. The team has appeared in numerous other qualification play-offs, in 2010 FIFA World Cup play-offs loss to Portugal, as well as qualifying play-offs for UEFA Euro 2012 and UEFA Euro 2016, losing to Portugal and Republic of Ireland preventing the team from reaching their first UEFA European Championship. Its' two home stadiums are Bilino Polje; the team's highest FIFA World Ranking was 13th, achieved in August 2013. Bosnia and Herzegovina have seen a steady rise in their fortunes on the international football stage in recent times. Bosnia, a war torn and divided nation, has managed multiple playoff appearances and has qualified to one FIFA World Cup.
More than not, the team produces solid results in qualifiers and challenges for a top spot. From 1920 to 1992, the players lined out for Yugoslavia, but following the outbreak of the Bosnian war and subsequent independence, a new football nation arose from the ashes; the early period saw Bosnia and Herzegovina have to wait until the 1998 FIFA World Cup qualifiers to compete for a place in a major competition. Bosnia finished fourth in a group that included Greece, Denmark and Slovenia; this was subsequently followed by further disappointment with lackluster campaigns in the UEFA Euro 2000 qualifiers, as well as the 2002 FIFA World Cup. This early period was followed by Bosnia coming close to qualifying directly for their first major competition, UEFA Euro 2004, narrowly missing out by a single goal against Denmark. Bosnia failed to make the grade in the 2006 FIFA World Cup qualifiers, despite being unbeaten at home, the UEFA Euro 2008 qualifiers, which saw their poor home form cost them. Bosnia and Herzegovina experienced double heartbreak, bowing out twice in the playoffs to Portugal, first 2–0 on aggregate in the 2010 FIFA World Cup decider and 6–2 on aggregate in the UEFA Euro 2012 decider.
Bosnia and Herzegovina qualified for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, hosted by Brazil, in October 2013 by beating Lithuania breaking their curse and participating in a major tournament. They managed to finish third in a group which included Argentina, tasted their first victory thanks to a 3–1 win over Iran. Nigeria pipped Bosnia for second place in the group with a 1–0 win marred with controversy following an incorrectly disallowed goal scored by Edin Džeko in the first half. Bosnia finished third in the UEFA Euro 2016 qualifiers behind Wales. After making an unfortunate start to the qualifiers with a surprise 2–1 home defeat against Cyprus and managing just two points through four games, manager Safet Sušić was dismissed and replaced by Mehmed Baždarević. After the slow start, the Bosnian performance improved with five wins in their remaining six matches, including victories over Wales and Israel along with three clean sheets. However, they failed to qualify after a two legged playoff encounter with Ireland.
Bosnia failed to make back-to-back FIFA World Cups after failing to qualify to the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The following players were called up for Euro 2020 qualifying games against Armenia on 23 March and against Greece on 26 March 2019. Caps and goals correct as of 26 March 2019 after the game against Greece; the following players have been called up for the team within the last twelve months: Euro 1996 – Could not enter as the national team was not yet a member of UEFA. Table does not include results of minor tournaments managed by Husnija Arapović. Due to one match suspension of Mehmed Baždarević for unsportsmanlike behaviour, assistant manager Dragan Perić took charge of the team on 25 March 2017. Tables correct as of match played on 26 March 2019. Emir Spahić captained Bosnia at their first FIFA World Cup tournament; this is a list of Herzegovina captains for ten or more official and friendly matches. Note: Some of the other players to have captained the team include: Mehmed Baždarević 1996, Meho Kodro 1997 to 1998, Vlatko Glavaš 1997, Suvad Katana 1998, Elvir Bolić 1999 to 2000, Bruno Akrapović 1999 to 2003, Hasan Salihamidžić 2004, Zlatan Bajramović 2006, Džemal Berberović 2007, Asmir Begović 2014 to 2017, Haris Medunjanin 2016 to 2018, Vedad Ibišević 2017.
Table correct as of match played on 26 March 2019. FIFA-ranking yearly averages for Bosnia and Herzegovina, their average position since FIFA World Ranking creation is 58. The Bosnian national team has more begun to use Stadion Grbavica, located in Sarajevo, for its' home games, following a renovation in 2018; the second of the two main stadiums of the national football team of Bosnia and Herzegovina is Bilino Polje, located in the city of Zenica. The stadium was built and opened in 1972, is used to host matches of a more intimate atmosphere. On 10 August 2012, the Bosnian Association and the local government of City of Zenica financed the replacement of the old grass surface at the Bilino Polje Stadium. Another stadium Bosnia has used is City Stadium Koševo known as Olympic Stadium Koševo, for some of its' games. Its' training ground for domestic matches is the N/FSBIH Training Center in Zenica, opened in 2013 in conjunction with UEFA. A popular nickname of all Bosnian sport teams and/or sportsman is "Zmajevi", popularized by football TV commentator
Goalkeeper (association football)
The goalkeeper shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport; the goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball; the special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates. The back-pass rule prevents goalkeepers handling direct passes back to them from teammates. Goalkeepers perform goal kicks, give commands to their defense during corner kicks and indirect free kicks, marking. Goalkeepers play an important role in directing on field strategy as they have an unrestricted view of the entire pitch, giving them a unique perspective on play development.
The goalkeeper is the only required position of a team. If they are injured or sent off, a substitute goalkeeper has to take their place, otherwise an outfield player must take the ejected keeper's place in goal. In order to replace a goalkeeper, sent off, a team substitutes an outfield player for the backup keeper, they play the remainder of the match with nine outfield players. If a team does not have a substitute goalkeeper, or they have used all of their permitted substitutions for the match, an outfield player has to take the dismissed goalkeeper's place and wear the goalkeeper shirt; the squad number for a first choice goalkeeper is number 1, although they may wear any jersey number between 1 and 99. Association football, like many sports, has experienced many changes in tactics resulting in the generation and elimination of different positions. Goalkeeper is the only position, certain to have existed since the codification of the sport. In the early days of organised football, when systems were limited or non-existent and the main idea was for all players to attack and defend, teams had a designated member to play as the goalkeeper.
The earliest account of football teams with player positions comes from Richard Mulcaster in 1581 and does not specify goalkeepers. The earliest specific reference to keeping goal comes from Cornish Hurling in 1602. According to Carew: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foot asunder. One of these is appointed by lots, to the one side, the other to his adverse party. There is assigned for their guard, a couple of their best stopping Hurlers". Other references to scoring goals begin in English literature in the early 16th century. In a 1613 poem, Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe", it seems inevitable that wherever a game has evolved goals, some form of goalkeeping must be developed. David Wedderburn refers to what has been translated from Latin as to "keep goal" in 1633, though this does not imply a fixed goalkeeper position; the word "goal-keeper" is used in the novel Tom Brown's School Days. The author is here referring to an early form of rugby football: You will see in the first place, that the sixth-form boy, who has the charge of goal, has spread his force so as to occupy the whole space behind the goal-posts, at distances of about five yards apart.
The word "goal-keeper" appeared in the Sheffield Rules of 1867, but the term did not refer to a designated player, but rather to "that player on the defending side who for the time being is nearest to his own goal". The goal-keeper, thus defined, did not enjoy any special handling privileges; the FA's first Laws of the Game of 1863 did not make any special provision for a goalkeeper, with any player being allowed to catch or knock-on the ball. Handling the ball was forbidden in 1870; the next year, 1871, the laws were amended to introduce the goalkeeper and specify that the keeper was allowed to handle the ball "for the protection of his goal". The restrictions on the ability of the goalkeeper to handle the ball were changed several times in subsequent revisions of the laws: 1871: the keeper may handle the ball only "for the protection of his goal". 1873: the keeper may not "carry" the ball. 1883: the keeper may not carry the ball for more than two steps. 1887: the keeper may not handle the ball in the opposition's half.
1901: the keeper may handle the ball for any purpose. 1912: the keeper may handle the ball only in the penalty area. 1931: the keeper may take up to four steps while carrying the ball. 1992: the keeper may not handle the ball after it has been deliberately kicked to him/her by a team-mate. 1997: the keeper may not handle the ball for more than six seconds. Goalkeepers played between the goalposts and had limited mobility, except when trying to save opposition shots. Throughout the years, the role of the goalkeeper has evolved, due to the changes in systems of play, to become more active; the goalkeeper is the only player in association football allowed to use their han
2005–06 Divizia A
The 2005–06 Divizia A was the eighty-eighth season of Divizia A, the top-level football league of Romania. Season began in August 2005 and ended in June 2006. Steaua Bucureşti became champions on 7 June 2006; the teams that were relegated to the Divizia B at the end of the previous season: Apulum Alba Iulia Braşov Universitatea Craiova The teams that were promoted from the Divizia B at the beginning of the season: Vaslui Pandurii Târgu Jiu Jiul Petroșani 2005–06 in Romanian football
Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border. Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459, it became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical, communist era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris". Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were damaged or destroyed by war and above all Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived and have been renovated. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an cultural boom. In 2016, the historical city centre was listed as "endangered" by the World Monuments Watch. According to the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits, a decrease from the 2002 census.
Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people. According to Eurostat, Bucharest has a functional urban area of 2,412,530 residents. Bucharest is the sixth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits, after London, Madrid and Paris. Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of Eastern and Central Europe; the city has big convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional "shopping arcades", recreational areas. The city proper is administratively known as the "Municipality of Bucharest", has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor; the Romanian name București has an unverified origin. Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of Bucur, a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd or a hunter, according to different legends.
In Romanian, the word stem bucurie means "joy", it is believed to be of Dacian origin, hence the city Bucharest means "city of joy". Other etymologies are given by early scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveller, Evliya Çelebi, who said that Bucharest was named after a certain "Abu-Kariș", from the tribe of "Bani-Kureiș". In 1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to bucurie, bucuros, or a se bucura, while an early 19th-century book published in Vienna assumed its name has been derived from "Bukovie", a beech forest. In English, the city's name was rendered as Bukarest. A native or resident of Bucharest is called a "Bucharester". Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the national capital of Romania late in the 19th century. First mentioned as the "Citadel of București" in 1459, it became the residence of the famous Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler; the Ottomans appointed Greek administrators to run the town from the 18th century.
A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest. The Old Princely Court was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court. During the years to come, it competed with Târgoviște on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire. Bucharest became the permanent location of the Wallachian court after 1698. Destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, hit by Caragea's plague in 1813–14, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy and Imperial Russia, it was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution. An Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure.
On 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings. In 1862, after Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital city. In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under King Carol I. During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased and a new period of urban development began. During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams, limited electrification were introduced; the Dâmbovița River was massively channelled in 1883, thus putting a stop to endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of Bucharest. The Fortifications of Bucharest were built; the extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris" of the east, with Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées. Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the official capital temporarily moved to Iași, in