Wheaton College (Illinois)
Wheaton College is a Christian, residential liberal arts college and graduate school in Wheaton, Illinois. The Protestant college was founded by evangelical abolitionists in 1860. Wheaton College was a stop on the Underground Railroad and graduated one of Illinois' first African-American college graduates. Wheaton is noted for its "twin traditions of quality academics and deep faith," according to Time magazine and is ranked 20th among all national liberal arts colleges in the number of alumni who go on to earn PhDs. Wheaton is included in Loren Pope's influential book Colleges, it has been described as one of America's foremost Christian institutions. Wheaton College was ranked 8th in "Best Undergraduate Teaching" by the U. S. News & World Report for national liberal arts colleges in 2016; the school was ranked 57th overall among national liberal arts colleges by U. S. News & World Report for 2016. Forbes lists Universities in its 2015 rankings. Wheaton College was founded in 1860, its predecessor, the Illinois Institute, had been founded in late 1853 by Wesleyan Methodists as a college and preparatory school.
Wheaton's first president, Jonathan Blanchard, was a former president of Knox College in Galesburg, Illinois and a staunch abolitionist with ties to Oberlin College. Mired in financial trouble and unable to sustain the institution, the Wesleyans looked to Blanchard for new leadership, he took on the role as president in 1860, having suggested several Congregationalist appointees to the board of trustees the previous year. The Wesleyans, similar in spirit and mission to the Congregationalists, were happy to relinquish control of the Illinois Institute. Blanchard separated the college from any denominational support and was responsible for its new name, given in honor of trustee and benefactor Warren L. Wheaton, who founded the town of Wheaton after moving to Illinois from New England. A dogged reformer, Blanchard began his public campaign for abolitionism with the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1836, at the age of twenty-five. In his life, after the Civil War, he began a sustained campaign against Freemasonry.
This culminated in a national presidential campaign on the American Anti-Masonic Party ticket in 1884. Under Blanchard's leadership, the college was a stop on the Underground Railroad; the confirmation came from the letters of Daniel Studebaker, one of Blanchard's relatives by marriage, who notes that the town and college's anti-slavery beliefs were so held "that he, along with hundreds of other Wheaton residents, had seen and spoken with many fugitive slaves". Blanchard lobbied for universal co-education and was a strong proponent of reform through strong public education open to all. At this time, Wheaton was the only school in Illinois with a college-level women's program. Wheaton saw its first graduate of color in 1866, when Edward Breathitte Sellers took his degree. Additionally, he is one of the first African-American college graduates in the state of Illinois. In 1882, Charles A. Blanchard succeeded his father as president of the college. In 1925, J. Oliver Buswell, an outspoken Presbyterian, delivered a series of lectures at Wheaton College.
Shortly thereafter, President Charles Blanchard died and Buswell was called to be the third president of Wheaton. Upon his installation in April 1926, he became the nation's youngest college president at age 31. Buswell's tenure was characterized by expanding enrollment, a building program, strong academic development, a boom in the institution's reputation, it was known for growing divisiveness over faculty scholarship and personality clashes. In 1940, this tension led to the firing of Buswell for being, as two historians of the college put it, "too argumentative in temperament and too intellectual in his approach to Christianity." By the late 1940s, Wheaton was emerging as a standard-bearer of Evangelicalism. By 1950, enrollment at the college surpassed 1,600, in the second half of the twentieth century, enrollment growth and more selective admissions accompanied athletic success and improved facilities, expanded programs. In 1951, Honey Rock, a camp in Three Lakes, was purchased by the college.
In 2010, the public phase of The Promise of Wheaton campaign came to a close with $250.7 million raised, an "unprecedented 5-1/2 year campaign figure for Wheaton College". In 2010, Wheaton College become the first American Associate University of the Tony Blair Faith Foundation's Faith and Globalization Initiative. Tony Blair noted that the partnership will "give emerging leaders in the United States and the United Kingdom the opportunity to explore in depth the critical issues of how faith impacts the modern world today through different faith and cultural lenses" and that Wheaton's participation will "greatly enrich the Initiative"; as of 2015 the college continued to retain its Christian "Statement of Faith and Educational Purpose" and expected public statements of its faculty members to conform to it. Wheaton College is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. According to The Princeton Review's "The Best 351 Colleges", "If the integration of faith and learning is what you want out of a college, Wheaton is arguably the best school in the nation with a Christ-based worldview."
Students may choose in the sciences. Some of the most popular in recent years have been business, English, biblical studies, political science, international relations, psychology. In 2011 it was ranked No. 1 for best cafeteria food in the nation according to the Princeton review. In 2015, U. S. News & World Report ranked Wheaton College at 56 out of 265 Best National Liberal Arts Col
Charles McCallon Alexander
Charles McCallon Alexander a native of East Tennessee, was a popular nineteenth-century gospel singer who worked the evangelistic circuit for many years. Over the course of his ministry, he toured with John Wilbur Chapman, most notably. In 1904, Alexander married daughter of the Cadbury Chocolate Company president, she toured with him on the evangelistic circuit as a women's worker. Together they spread The Pocket Testament League around the world. Alexander's early Christian influence came from his mother, in the habit of reading Dwight L. Moody sermons to the family every night around the fireplace. At an 1880 revival, a thirteen-year-old Charlie Alexander committed to the Christian faith, he attended Moody Bible Institute from 1892 to 1894, after which time he toured with the M. B. Williams revival campaign. In 1902, he joined Dr. R. A. Torrey's Australian tour. In 1907, Alexander joined forces with evangelist John Wilbur Chapman to launch the "Chapman-Alexander Simultaneous Campaign." The duo took to the streets.
The first joint campaign was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from March 12 to April 19, 1908. They partitioned the city into 42 sections covered by 21 evangelist-musicians teams, they spent three weeks on each half of the city, resulting in 8000 conversions. It was at a similar Chapman-Alexander event eight years in North Carolina that the legendary King James Only proponent D O Fuller committed to the Christian faith. Chapman's biography reports, "The first Chapman-Alexander worldwide campaign left Vancouver, British Columbia, on March 26, 1909, returned November 26. Stops along the way included: Melbourne, Ipswich, Adelaide, Ballarat and Townsville in Australia; the final Chapman-Alexander revival tour was conducted January 6 to February 13, 1918. After the conclusion of that crusade, Alexander retired to England, where he lived out the remaining two years of his life, he died in 1920 in Birmingham and was interred in Lodge Hill Cemetery. Alexander was inducted into the Gospel Music Hall of Fame in 1991.
Charles Alexander biography Papers of John Wilbur Chapman
University of Erlangen–Nuremberg
Friedrich–Alexander University Erlangen–Nürnberg is a public research university in the cities of Erlangen and Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany. The name Friedrich–Alexander comes from the university's first founder Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, its benefactor Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. FAU is the second largest state university in the state of Bavaria, it has 5 faculties, 23 departments/schools, 30 clinical departments, 19 autonomous departments, 656 professors, 3,404 members of academic staff and 13,000 employees. In winter semester 2014/15 around 39,085 students enrolled in the university in 239 fields of study, with about 2/3 studying at the Erlangen campus and the remaining 1/3 at the Nuremberg campus; these statistics put FAU in the list of top 10 largest universities in Germany. In 2013, 5251 students graduated from the university and 663 doctorates and 50 post-doctoral theses were registered. Moreover, FAU received 171 million Euro external funding in the same year, making it one of the strongest third-party funded universities in Germany.
In 2006 and 2007, as part of the national excellence initiative, FAU was chosen by the German Research Foundation as one of the winners in the German Universities Excellence Initiative. FAU is a member of DFG and the Top Industrial Managers for Europe network. In Academic Ranking of World Universities for year 2014, FAU ranked second among German universities in Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences group for all four ranking parameters TOP, FUN, HiCi and PUB; the university was founded in 1742, in Bayreuth by Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, moved to Erlangen in 1743. Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach provided significant support to the early university. From the beginning, the university was a Protestant institution, but over time it secularized. During the Nazi era, the university was one of the first that had a majority of Nazi supporters in the student council. In 1961, the business college in Nuremberg was merged with the university in Erlangen, so now the combined institution has a physical presence in the two cities.
An engineering school was inaugurated in 1966. In 1972, the school of education in Nuremberg became part of the university. Below is a short timeline of FAU from its inception to its present form: 1700–1704: The Schloss of the Margraves at Erlangen is built. 1743: Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, issues an edict whereby the university founded in Bayreuth is transferred to Erlangen. It has the four faculties of Protestant Theology, Jurisprudence and Philosophy. 1769: The University at Erlangen is given the new name of Friedrich-Alexander-Universität in honour of Alexander, Margrave of Ansbach and Bayreuth. 1818: The library of the University of Altdorf, dissolved in 1809, is moved to Erlangen. 1824: The first hospital is built. 1825: The university moves into the Schloss. 1920: The WiSo Faculty is established. 1927: Science is taken out of the Faculty of Arts thus creating the new Faculty of Science. 1961: The FAU acquires a further faculty through merger with the Nuremberg College of Economics and Social Sciences.
The university's name is now Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg. 1966: The Faculty of Engineering is established. 1972: The Teacher Training College in Nuremberg is incorporated into the Faculty of Education. 1993: The FAU celebrates its 250th anniversary. 1994: The Free State of Bavaria purchases for the university 4.4 hectares of land in Erlangen owned by the US military. The area is now called Röthelheim Campus. 2000: The Bavaria-California Technology Centre opens its headquarters at the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg. 2000: Inauguration of the Research Centre in Clinical Molecular Biology in Erlangen. 2001: Opening of the Röthelheim Campus on the site of the old artillery barracks. 2004: Inauguration of the new building at the WiSo Faculty of Business Administration, Economics & Social Sciences in Nuremberg. FAU is the first German university to establish a branch campus in Busan in the Republic of Korea. In November 2009, its campus project received approval from the Korean Ministry of Education and Technology.
The FAU Busan Branch Campus offers a Graduate School with a master's degree program in Chemical and Bioengineering and a research center. In 2014, the university announced its intention of working toward making the Busan-Jinhae Free Economic Zone an educational hub. To this end, FAU Busan works internationally with various universities; the University Library Erlangen-Nürnberg is the library system of the Friedrich Alexander University and is a regional library for the region of Middle Franconia. As an academic universal library, it offers its users a wide range of specialist literature from all faculties and a variety of services. With 5.4 million volumes, it is Bavaria's largest library outside the state capital Munich. Large parts of the media stock are accessible in interregional lending; the University Library is a member of the Bibliotheksverbund Bayern. In February 2007, the senate of the university decided upon a restructuring into five faculties. Since October 2007, the FAU consists of: Faculty of Humanities, Social Sciences, Theology Faculty of Business and Law Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Sciences Faculty of
The Sword of the Lord
The Sword of the Lord is a Christian fundamentalist, Independent Baptist biweekly newspaper. The Sword of the Lord is published by Sword of the Lord Ministries, a non-profit organization based in Murfreesboro, which publishes religious books and tracts from a fundamentalist Christian perspective, as Sword of the Lord Publications. In 2012 the newspaper was a 24-page, biweekly tabloid with a circulation of "just over 100,000." The Sword of the Lord was first published on September 28, 1934, in Dallas, Texas by John R. Rice, who edited the publication until his death on December 29, 1980. At first it was the four-page paper of Fundamentalist Baptist Church of Dallas, where Rice was the pastor; the paper was handed out on the street, Rice's daughters and other Sunday school children delivered it door-to-door. The Sword of the Lord moved with the Rice family to Wheaton, Illinois in 1940, to its present location in 1963. Upon the Sword's move to Tennessee, Rice co-edited the paper with his brother Bill until Bill's death.
Curtis Hutson replaced Bill Rice as co-editor, he became the sole editor two years when John R. Rice died. Hutson died in 1995, editorship passed to Shelton Smith, former pastor of the Church of the Open Door/Carroll Christian Schools, Maryland; the name of the ministry and publication is taken from a phrase in Judges 7:20: "And they cried, The Sword of the LORD, of Gideon." The verse is featured in the banner, as is the newspaper's stated purpose: "An Independent Christian Publication, Standing for the Verbal Inspiration of the Bible, the Deity of Christ, His Blood Atonement, Salvation by Faith, New Testament Soul Winning and the Premillennial Return of Christ. As is true in many small businesses, family members of the editors assumed integral roles in the ministry of The Sword of the Lord. In 2009, the fifty employees of the Sword of the Lord Foundation included editor Shelton Smith; the Sword of the Lord emphasizes soul winning, the belief that Christians should seek to convert others to faith in Jesus Christ.
It promotes fulfilling the Great Commission by publishing books and materials on the topic as well as sponsoring annual "School of the Prophets" seminars. The Sword of the Lord believes "the Bible, the Scriptures of the Old Testament and the New Testament, preserved for us in the Masoretic Text, Textus Receptus, in the King James Bible, is verbally and plenarily inspired of God, it is the inspired, inerrant and altogether authentic and authoritative Word of God, therefore the supreme and final authority in all things.." For many years The Sword of the Lord has published sermons of contemporary Independent Baptist preachers who are part of its circle. It publishes sermons from a wider spectrum of evangelicals of past generations, including Hyman Appelman, Harry A. Ironside, Bob Jones, Sr. R. A. Torrey, Robert G. Lee, Dwight L. Moody, Billy Sunday, T. De Witt Talmage, George Truett; the Sword of the Lord is anti-Calvinist and as such does not publish sermons by Calvinist preachers, although an exception has been made for the noted nineteenth-century Calvinist Charles Spurgeon.
Spurgeon's sermons have been edited to remove Calvinist-leaning passages. The paper includes "Editor's Notes," a column by Smith commenting on his recent travels and upcoming events; the Sword of the Lord
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline in universities and seminaries. Theology is the study of deities or their scriptures in order to discover what they have revealed about themselves, it occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but especially with epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship. Theology is derived from the Greek theologia, which derived from Τheos, meaning "God", -logia, meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" which had passed into Latin as theologia and into French as théologie.
The English equivalent "theology" had evolved by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; the term can, however, be used for a variety of fields of study. Theology begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical, mental, or social realities, that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others; the study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives.
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, test, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics. As in philosophy of ethics and case law, arguments assume the existence of resolved questions, develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations; the study of theology may help a theologian more understand their own religious tradition, another religious tradition, or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology may be used to propagate, reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare, challenge, or oppose a religious tradition or world-view. Theology might help a theologian address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world. Greek theologia was used with the meaning "discourse on god" in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch. 18. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike and theologike, with the last corresponding to metaphysics, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.
Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical and civil. Theologos related to theologia, appears once in some biblical manuscripts, in the heading to the Book of Revelation: apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy, "the revelation of John the theologos". There, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a different sense of the root logos, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, logoi toy theoy; some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine, followed Varro's threefold usage, though Augustine used the term more to mean'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity'In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, teaching about, the essential nature of God. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality.
Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin usage. In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition. In the Renaissance with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority, it is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching
Garrettsville is a village in Portage County, United States. It was formed from portions of Hiram and Freedom townships in the Connecticut Western Reserve; the population was 2,325 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Akron Metropolitan Statistical Area. Garrettsville is located at 41°17′2″N 81°5′43″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.53 square miles, of which 2.51 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,325 people, 964 households, 629 families residing in the village; the population density was 926.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,054 housing units at an average density of 419.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.8% White, 0.5% African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population. There were 964 households of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.8% were non-families.
28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the village was 41 years. 23.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 48.3% male and 51.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,262 people, 930 households, 619 families residing in the village; the population density was 893.8 people per square mile. There were 976 housing units at an average density of 385.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.41% White, 0.27% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 1.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.40% of the population. There were 930 households out of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.4% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.04. In the village, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. The median income for a household in the village was $47,256, the median income for a family was $54,297. Males had a median income of $39,469 versus $28,080 for females; the per capita income for the village was $20,198. About 2.5% of families and 4.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 2.4% of those age 65 or over. The James A. Garfield Local School District operates one elementary school, one middle school, James A. Garfield High School. Garrettsville has a branch of the Portage County District Library. Colonel John Garrett III purchased 300 acres of land in Nelson Township, Portage County, Ohio in 1803, the year Ohio became a state.
The land was purchased about $4.40 per acre. In July of the following year, he settled on this land with his family and two slave girls, 6 and 10 years old; these settlers constructed a grist mill, to open in January 1806. In this month, Garrett died. In 1806, the Cleveland-Pittsburgh Road was constructed near Garrett's mill; this improved commerce to the area, nearby pioneers would mill their grain at the mill building roads and trails to meet with the Cleveland-Pittsburgh Road. By 1864, residents in the area around the mill had built up a settlement which they hoped to incorporate; this was done, on September 1, 1864, Garrettsville was incorporated as a village. In November, 1935, Alvin Karpis robbed a train in Garrettsville. Karpis was a member of Ma Barker's gang, was assisted in the robbery by gang member Harry Campbell and at least one other accomplice. Karpis and his gang stole $30,000, obtained a private airplane to escape to Hot Springs, Arkansas. Karpis was convicted of his crimes, was imprisoned at Alcatraz longer than any other inmate.
On March 22, 2014, a large fire broke out downtown, burning one city block and 13 businesses to the ground. The local fire department was assisted by 34 fire departments from surrounding communities. Despite the size of the fire nobody was injured. Rick Patrick is the current mayor of Garrettsville; the Garrettsville-Hiram Chamber of Commerce reports that at the beginning of the 20th century, Garrettsville was the largest center in the world for the processing of maple syrup. This was due to the efforts of Arthur Crane, who canned this maple tree product at a cannery on Windham Street. Crane's son, Clarence Arthur Crane, grew up in Garrettsville; the younger Crane married Grace Edna Hart in the village on June 1, 1898. In 1899, Grace gave birth to Harold Hart Crane, who became renowned as a poet. Clarence Crane and his family left Garrettsville in the 1900s. Clarence continued to work in the maple sugar and candies industry, having started out in the industry working for his father. In 191