Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein was an Austrian philosopher who worked in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of language. From 1929 to 1947, Wittgenstein taught at the University of Cambridge. During his lifetime he published just one slim book, the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, one article, one book review and a children's dictionary, his voluminous manuscripts were published posthumously. Philosophical Investigations appeared as a book in 1953, has since come to be recognised as one of the most important works of philosophy in the 20th century, his teacher, Bertrand Russell, described Wittgenstein as "the most perfect example I have known of genius as traditionally conceived. Born in Vienna into one of Europe's richest families, he inherited a fortune from his father in 1913, he made some donations to artists and writers, in a period of severe personal depression after the First World War, he gave away his entire fortune to his brothers and sisters.
Three of his brothers committed suicide, which Wittgenstein had contemplated. He left academia several times—serving as an officer on the front line during World War I, where he was decorated a number of times for his courage, he described philosophy as "the only work that gives me real satisfaction". His philosophy is divided into an early period, exemplified by the Tractatus, a period, articulated in the Philosophical Investigations; the early Wittgenstein was concerned with the logical relationship between propositions and the world and believed that by providing an account of the logic underlying this relationship, he had solved all philosophical problems. The Wittgenstein rejected many of the assumptions of the Tractatus, arguing that the meaning of words is best understood as their use within a given language-game. A survey among American university and college teachers ranked the Investigations as the most important book of 20th-century philosophy, standing out as "the one crossover masterpiece in twentieth-century philosophy, appealing across diverse specializations and philosophical orientations."
The Investigations ranked 54th on a list of most influential twentieth-century works in cognitive science prepared by the University of Minnesota's Center for Cognitive Sciences. However, in the words of his friend Georg Henrik von Wright, he believed "his ideas were misunderstood and distorted by those who professed to be his disciples, he doubted. He once said he felt as though he was writing for people who would think in a different way, breathe a different air of life, from that of present-day men." According to a family tree prepared in Jerusalem after World War II, Wittgenstein's paternal great-great-grandfather was Moses Meier, a Jewish land agent who lived with his wife, Brendel Simon, in Bad Laasphe in the Principality of Wittgenstein, Westphalia. In July 1808, Napoleon issued a decree that everyone, including Jews, must adopt an inheritable family surname, so Meier's son Moses, took the name of his employers, the Sayn-Wittgensteins, became Moses Meier Wittgenstein, his son, Hermann Christian Wittgenstein—who took the middle name "Christian" to distance himself from his Jewish background—married Fanny Figdor Jewish, who converted to Protestantism just before they married, the couple founded a successful business trading in wool in Leipzig.
Ludwig's grandmother Fanny was a first cousin of the famous violinist Joseph Joachim. They had 11 children—among them Wittgenstein's father. Karl Otto Clemens Wittgenstein became an industrial tycoon, by the late 1880s was one of the richest men in Europe, with an effective monopoly on Austria's steel cartel. Thanks to Karl, the Wittgensteins became the second wealthiest family in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, only behind the Rothschilds. Karl Wittgenstein was viewed as the Austrian equivalent of Andrew Carnegie, with whom he was friends, was one of the wealthiest men in the world by the 1890s; as a result of his decision in 1898 to invest in the Netherlands and in Switzerland as well as overseas in the US, the family was to an extent shielded from the hyperinflation that hit Austria in 1922. However, their wealth diminished due to post-1918 hyperinflation and subsequently during the Great Depression, although as late as 1938 they owned 13 mansions in Vienna alone. Wittgenstein's mother was Leopoldine Maria Josefa Kalmus, known among friends as Poldi.
Her father was a Bohemian Jew and her mother was Austrian-Slovene Catholic—she was Wittgenstein's only non-Jewish grandparent. She was an aunt of the Nobel Prize laureate Friedrich Hayek on her maternal side. Wittgenstein was born at 8:30 pm on 26 April 1889 in the so-called "Wittgenstein Palace" at Alleegasse 16, now the Argentinierstrasse, near the Karlskirche. Karl and Poldi had nine children in all—four girls: Hermine, Helene, a fourth daughter Dora who died as a baby; the children were baptized as Catholics, received formal Catholic instruction, were raised in an exceptionally intense environmen
Alister Edgar McGrath is a Northern Irish theologian, intellectual historian, Christian apologist, public intellectual. He holds the Andreas Idreos Professorship in Science and Religion in the Faculty of Theology and Religion at the University of Oxford, is Professor of Divinity at Gresham College, he was Professor of Theology and Education at King's College London and Head of the Centre for Theology and Culture, Professor of Historical Theology at the University of Oxford, was principal of Wycliffe Hall, until 2005. He is an Anglican priest. Aside from being a faculty member at Oxford, McGrath has taught at Cambridge University and is a Teaching Fellow at Regent College. McGrath holds three doctorates from the University of Oxford: a Doctor of Philosophy degree in molecular biophysics, a Doctor of Divinity degree in theology, a Doctor of Letters degree in intellectual history. McGrath is noted for his work in historical theology, systematic theology, the relationship between science and religion, as well as his writings on apologetics.
He is known for his opposition to New Atheism and antireligionism and his advocacy of theological critical realism. Among his best-known books are The Twilight of Atheism, The Dawkins Delusion, Dawkins' God: Genes and the Meaning of Life, A Scientific Theology, he is the author of a number of popular textbooks on theology. McGrath was born on 23 January 1953 in Belfast, Northern Ireland, grew up in Downpatrick, County Down, where he attended Down High School. In September 1966 he became a pupil at the Methodist College Belfast, where his studies focused on mathematics and chemistry, he went up to Wadham College, Oxford, in 1971 and gained first-class honours in chemistry in 1975. He began research in molecular biophysics in the Oxford University Department of Biochemistry under the supervision of George Radda and was elected to an E. P. A. Cephalosporin Research Studentship at Linacre College, for the academic year 1975–1976, to a Domus Senior Scholarship at Merton College, for the period 1976–1978.
During these three years, he carried out scientific research while studying for the Oxford University Final Honour School of Theology. He was awarded an Oxford Doctor of Philosophy degree for his research in molecular biophysics, gained first-class honours in theology in June 1978. Reflecting on his time as an undergraduate at Wadham, McGrath has written, "I was discovering that Christianity was far more intellectually robust than I had imagined. I had some major rethinking to do, by the end of November, my decision was made: I turned my back on one faith and embraced another."McGrath left Oxford to work at the University of Cambridge, where he studied for ordination in the Church of England. In September 1980, he was ordained deacon and began ministry as a curate at St Leonard's Parish Church, Nottingham, in the English East Midlands, he was ordained priest at Southwell Minster in September 1981. In 1983, he was appointed lecturer in Christian doctrine and ethics at Wycliffe Hall, a member of the Oxford University Faculty of Theology.
He was awarded a BD by Oxford for research in historical theology. He spent the fall semester of 1990 as the Ezra Squire Tipple Visiting Professor of Historical Theology at the Divinity School of Drew University, New Jersey. McGrath was elected University Research Lecturer in Theology at Oxford University in 1993 and served as research professor of theology at Regent College, from 1993 to 1999. In 1995, he was elected Principal of Wycliffe Hall and in 1999 was awarded a personal chair in theology by Oxford University with the title "Professor of Historical Theology", he was awarded the Oxford degree of DD in 2001 for his research in historical and systematic theology, was a founding member of the International Society for Science and Religion. On 1 September 2008 McGrath took up the Chair of Theology and Education in the Department of Education and Professional Studies at King's College London. In 2010 McGrath was included in "The 20 Most Brilliant Christian Professors" list. In 2013 he was awarded his third doctorate from Oxford University, a DLitt, Division of Humanities, for research into science and religion, natural theology.
He is married to Joanna Collicutt McGrath and they have two adult children. In 2014 McGrath was appointed the 32nd Professor of Divinity at Gresham College, a position dating back to 1597. In this position he is to deliver a series of free public lectures on Science and God: The Big Questions, in which he hopes to present "a coherent exploration of how Christian Theology can engage with concerns and debates within modern culture, focussing on one of its leading elements – the natural sciences." A former atheist, McGrath accepts evolution. In 2004 McGrath suggested in The Twilight of Atheism, he has been critical of Richard Dawkins, calling him "embarrassingly ignorant of Christian theology". His book: The Dawkins Delusion? – a response to Dawkins's The God Delusion – was published by SPCK in February 2007, the two had public debate on the topic, "Does religious belief damage the health of a society, or is it necessary to provide the moral and ethical foundations of a healthy society?"McGrath has debated with Daniel Dennett, at the Greer-Heard Point-Counterpoint Forum in New Orleans, as well as Christopher Hitchens at Georgetown University.
In March 2007, McGrath debated Peter Atkins at the University of Edinburgh on the topic'Darwin and Humanity: Should We Rid the Mind of God?' In November 2007 that year, he debated Susan Blackmore on the existence of God
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam 50 miles north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867 including 24,506 students. Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age; the first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not conferred until 1951. The world-renowned University of Cambridge was founded in 1209; the buildings of the university include King's College Chapel, Cavendish Laboratory, the Cambridge University Library, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world. The city's skyline is dominated by several college buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital and St John's College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University, which evolved from the Cambridge School of Art and the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology has its main campus in the city.
Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies born out of the university. More than 40% of the workforce have a higher education qualification, more than twice the national average; the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to house premises of AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital. The first game of association football took place at Parker's Piece; the Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fair are held on Midsummer Common, the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the A14 roads. Cambridge station is less than an hour from London King's Cross railway station. Settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times; the earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3,500-year-old farmstead discovered at the site of Fitzwilliam College.
Archaeological evidence of occupation through the Iron Age is a settlement on Castle Hill from the 1st century BC relating to wider cultural changes occurring in southeastern Britain linked to the arrival of the Belgae. The principal Roman site is a small fort Duroliponte on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village; the fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street. The eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettle's Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill, it was converted to civilian use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads and a village in the Cambridge district of Newnham. Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain around 410, the location may have been abandoned by the Britons, although the site is identified as Cair Grauth listed among the 28 cities of Britain by the History of the Britons.
Evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. Their settlement – on and around Castle Hill – became known as Grantebrycge. Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands. By the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a "little ruined city" containing the burial site of Etheldreda. Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement expanded on both sides of the river; the arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878 Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank. After the Viking period, the Saxons enjoyed a return to power, building churches such as St Bene't's Church, merchant houses and a mint, which produced coins with the town's name abbreviated to "Grant".
In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill. Like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies; the first town charter was granted by Henry I between 1120 and 1131. It recognised the borough court; the distinctive Round Church dates from this period. In 1209, Cambridge University was founded by students escaping from hostile townspeople in Oxford; the oldest existing college, was founded in 1284. In 1349 Cambridge was affected by the Black Death. Few records survive; the town north of the river was affected being wiped out. Following further depopulation after a second national epidemic in 1361, a letter from the Bishop of Ely suggested that two parishes in Cambridge be merged as there were not enough people to fill one church. With more than a third of English clergy dying in the Black Death, four new colleges were established at the university over the following years to train new clergymen, namely Gonville Hall, Trinity Hall, Corpus Christi and Clare.
In 1382 a revised town charter effects a "diminution of the liberties that the community had enjoyed", due to Cambridge's pa
Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy
The Knightbridge Professorship of Philosophy is the senior professorship in philosophy at the University of Cambridge. There have been the incumbent being Rae Langton. One of the oldest professorships in Cambridge, the chair was founded in 1683 by John Knightbridge, a clergyman and Fellow of Peterhouse. Knightbridge gave money for its foundation on his death in 1677; the terms of his will required the Professor to be a Bachelor of Divinity. If the Professor did not give the required five lectures without a good reason their maintenance could be withdrawn; the Will laid out that the Professor would be chosen by election by the Regius and the Lady Margaret's Professors of Divinity, the Master of Peterhouse and the Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge, with the latter having the casting vote. This has given rise to a story that in 1813 Francis Barnes was able to secure his own election to the Professorship, because he was Master of Peterhouse as well as Vice-Chancellor. However, the story is certainly apocryphal since Barnes was not Vice-Chancellor at the time.
The trustees of Knightbridge's Will were unable to find a suitable person to be elected to the Professorship according to these terms. They therefore appealed to the Court of Chancery to modify the original restrictions. A decree was obtained in 18 July 1682, allowing the Professor to be aged forty or older, to deliver four lectures in each term rather than five. In 1683 the first election to the chair took place, Thomas Smoult of St John's College was appointed, more than five years after Knightbridge's death. Smoult further endowed the Professorship with a bequest upon his death in 1707, leaving £300 to purchase land so that the rents could be used to maintain the Knightbridge Professor; this increased the stipend to around £70 per annum. The requirements for the Professor regarding their age and the number of lectures that they were required to deliver, were repealed in 1861. In 1882, the requirement that the post holder should be a Doctor or Bachelor of Divinity was repealed, it is unlikely that any of the holders of the Knightbridge Professorship gave the required lectures until the nineteenth century.
William Whewell, appointed to the Professorship in 1838, gave evidence to the University Commission stating that he was not aware that any predecessor to the post had lectured. Entitled the "Professorship of Moral Theology or Casuisticall Divinity", with the holder known as the "Professor of Casuistry", it was subsequently designated the Professorship of Moral Theology, Casuistical Divinity, Moral Philosophy. In 1896 it became the Professorship of Moral Philosophy; the scope of the professorship was broadened from moral to general philosophy under its present name in 1965. Thomas Smoult John Colbatch Richard Walker Edmund Law Robert Plumptre George Borlase Robert Towerson Cory Francis Barnes William Whewell John Grote Frederick Maurice Thomas Rawson Birks Henry Sidgwick W. R. Sorley C. D. Broad Richard Bevan Braithwaite Bernard Williams Timothy Smiley Edward Craig Quassim Cassam Tim Crane Rae Langton
G. E. Moore
George Edward Moore was an English philosopher. He was, with Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Gottlob Frege, one of the founders of the analytic tradition in philosophy. Along with Russell, he led the turn away from idealism in British philosophy, became well known for his advocacy of common sense concepts, his contributions to ethics and metaphysics, "his exceptional personality and moral character", he was Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge influential among the Bloomsbury Group, the editor of the influential journal Mind. He was elected a fellow of the British Academy in 1918, he was a member of the Cambridge Apostles, the intellectual secret society, from 1894 to 1901, the Cambridge University Moral Sciences Club. Moore was born in Upper Norwood, Greater London, on 4 November 1873, the middle child of seven of Dr Daniel Moore and Henrietta Sturge, his grandfather was the author Dr George Moore. His eldest brother was Thomas Sturge Moore, a poet and engraver, he was educated at Dulwich College and in 1892 went up to Trinity College, Cambridge to study classics and moral sciences.
He became a Fellow of Trinity in 1898, went on to hold the University of Cambridge chair of Mental Philosophy and Logic, from 1925 to 1939. Moore is best known today for his defence of ethical non-naturalism, his emphasis on common sense in philosophical method, the paradox that bears his name, he was admired by and influential among other philosophers, by the Bloomsbury Group, but is unknown today outside of academic philosophy. Moore's essays are known for their clear, circumspect writing style, for his methodical and patient approach to philosophical problems, he was critical of modern philosophy for its lack of progress, which he believed was in stark contrast to the dramatic advances in the natural sciences since the Renaissance. Among Moore's most famous works are his book Principia Ethica, his essays, "The Refutation of Idealism", "A Defence of Common Sense", "A Proof of the External World", he was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1918-19. Paul Levy wrote in Moore: G. E. Moore and the Cambridge Apostles that Moore was an important member of the secretive Cambridge Apostles.
G. E. Moore died on 24 October 1958. Together they had the poet Nicholas Moore and the composer Timothy Moore, his influential work Principia Ethica is one of the main inspirations of the movement against ethical naturalism and is responsible for the twentieth-century concern with meta-ethics. Moore asserted that philosophical arguments can suffer from a confusion between the use of a term in a particular argument and the definition of that term, he named this confusion the naturalistic fallacy. For example, an ethical argument may claim that if a thing has certain properties that thing is'good.' A hedonist may argue that ` pleasant' things. Other theorists may argue. Moore contends that if such arguments are correct, they do not provide definitions for the term'good.' The property of'goodness' cannot be defined. It can only be grasped. Any attempt to define it will shift the problem. Moore's argument for the indefinability of "good" is called the open-question argument; the argument hinges on the nature of statements such as "Anything, pleasant is good" and the possibility of asking questions such as "Is it good that x is pleasant?"
According to Moore, these questions are open and these statements are significant. Moore concludes from this. In other words, if value could be analysed such questions and statements would be trivial and obvious. Since they are anything but trivial and obvious, value must be indefinable. Critics of Moore's arguments sometimes claim that he is appealing to general puzzles concerning analysis, rather than revealing anything special about value; the argument depends on the assumption that if "good" were definable, it would be an analytic truth about "good," an assumption many contemporary moral realists like Richard Boyd and Peter Railton reject. Other responses appeal to the Fregean distinction between sense and reference, allowing that value concepts are special and sui generis, but insisting that value properties are nothing but natural properties. Moore contended. In Principia Ethica, he writes: It may be true that all things which are good are something else, just as it is true that all things which are yellow produce a certain kind of vibration in the light.
And it is a fact, that Ethics aims at discovering what are those other properties belonging to all things which are good. But far too many philosophers have thought that when they named those other properties they were defining good. Therefore, we cannot define "good" by explaining it in other words. We can only point to an ac
Contemporary philosophy is the present period in the history of Western philosophy beginning at the early 20th century with the increasing professionalization of the discipline and the rise of analytic and continental philosophy. The phrase "contemporary philosophy" is a piece of technical terminology in philosophy that refers to a specific period in the history of Western philosophy. However, the phrase is confused with modern philosophy, postmodern philosophy, with a non-technical use of the phrase referring to any recent philosophic work. Professionalization is the social process by which any trade or occupation establishes the group norms of conduct, acceptable qualifications for membership of the profession, a professional body or association to oversee the conduct of members of the profession, some degree of demarcation of the qualified from unqualified amateurs; the transformation into a profession brings about many subtle changes to a field of inquiry, but one more identifiable component of professionalization is the increasing irrelevance of "the book" to the field: "research communiqués will begin to change in ways whose modern end products are obvious to all and oppressive to many.
No longer will researches be embodied in books addressed to anyone who might be interested in the subject matter of the field. Instead they will appear as brief articles addressed only to professional colleagues, the men whose knowledge of a shared paradigm can be assumed and who prove to be the only one able to read the papers addressed to them." Philosophy underwent this process toward the end of the 19th century, it is one of the key distinguishing features of the contemporary philosophy era in Western philosophy. Germany was the first country to professionalize philosophy. At the end of 1817, Hegel was the first philosopher to be appointed professor by the State, namely by the Prussian Minister of Education, as an effect of Napoleonic reform in Prussia. In the United States, the professionalisation grew out of reforms to the American higher-education system based on the German model. James Campbell describes the professionalisation of philosophy in America as follows: The list of specific changes is brief, but the resultant shift is total.
No longer could the professor function as a defender of the faith or an expounder of Truth. The new philosopher had to be a publicizer of results; this shift was made obvious when certified philosophy Ph. D.'s replaced theology graduates and ministers in the philosophy classroom. The period between the time when no one had a Ph. D. to when everyone did was brief. The doctorate, was more than a license to teach: it was a certificate that the prospective philosophy instructor was well, if narrowly and ready to undertake independent work in the now specializing and restricted field of academic philosophy; these new philosophers functioned in independent departments of philosophy They were making real gains in their research, creating a body of philosophic work that remains central to our study now. These new philosophers set their own standards for success, publishing in the recognized organs of philosophy that were being founded at the time: The Monist, The International Journal of Ethics, The Philosophical Review, The Journal of Philosophy and Scientific Methods.
And, of course, these philosophers were banding together into societies – the American Psychological Association, the Western Philosophical Association, the American Philosophical Association – to consolidate their academic positions and advance their philosophic work. Professionalization in England was tied to developments in higher-education. In his work on T. H. Green, Denys Leighton discusses these changes in British philosophy and Green's claim to the title of Britain's first professional academic philosopher: Henry Sidgwick, in a generous gesture, identified Green as Britain's first professional academic philosopher. Sidgwick's opinion can be questioned: William Hamilton, J. F. Ferrier and Sidgwick himself are among the contenders for that honour, yet there can be no doubt that between the death of Mill and the publication of G. E. Moore's Principia Ethica, the British philosophical profession was transformed, that Green was responsible for the transformation. Bentham, the Mills, Coleridge, Spencer, as well as many other serious philosophical thinkers of the nineteenth century were men of letters, active politicians, clergy with livings, but not academics.
Green helped separate the study of philosophical from that of historical texts. When Green began his academic career much of the serious writing on philosophical topic was published in journals of opinion devoted to a broad range of, he helped professionalize philosophical writing by encouraging specialized periodicals, such as'Academy' and'Mind', which were to serve as venues for the results of scholarly research. The end result of professionalization for philosophy has meant that work being done in the field is now exclusively done by university professors holding a doctorate in the field publishing in technical, peer-reviewed journals. While