Ernie's was a restaurant in San Francisco, California. It debuted as a modest family-style Italian trattoria around the turn of the 20th century, it was located near the notorious Barbary Coast area of the city. In the 1950s it became known as a luxurious restaurant serving traditional French cuisine; the interior had Victorian or fin-de-siècle bordello-like decor, featuring plush red wallpaper, heavy drapes, white linen, formal waiters in black tuxedos. Writing in 1979, gastronome Roy Andries de Groot called it "unquestionably the most elegant, famous and luxurious restaurant in San Francisco and is among the three or four greatest American restaurants in the country" that "can provide dinners of supreme elegance and luxury."When it closed in 1995, it was one of the few remaining restaurants of the kind that had once epitomized the celebrated San Francisco dining scene. All of them are now gone, only a few vestiges of the 19th century still remain in San Francisco: Tadich Grill, Sam's, John's Grill.
Ernie's first chef and owner was Ernie Carlesso. At the time it was called Ernie's Il Travatore. Located at 847 Montgomery Street near Jackson Square, it was on the edge of the Barbary Coast, a red light district, known throughout the world since the 1850s for its brothels, opium dens and dance halls, restaurants with discreet private dining rooms upstairs where additional services could be provided; the restaurant serving traditional American-Italian food was so successful that in 1935 Carlesso and one of his waiters, an immigrant named Ambrogio Gotti, bought the building. The building had been the site of one of the more notorious landmarks of the Barbary Coast, the'Frisco Dance Hall, some of its elements remained. Carlesso died in 1946, his partner Gotti retired in 1947, selling his share to his two sons and Victor, working as busboys. Only 21 and 25 years old when they became sole owners, the two brothers continued in that role for the next 48 years. Sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s, the brothers replaced the old red checkerboard tablecloth-type decor with a rebuilt interior.
Their goal, says De Groot, was to "make it the most beautiful restaurant in the world." The first thing they did was to clean up and move the famous long mahogany bar, with its intricate, stained-glass back, to the front of the restaurant. It was the last remaining relic of the'Frisco Dance Hall; the main dining rooms were decorated with magnificent Victorian crystal chandeliers, the walls covered with maroon Scalamandre silk brocade, the banquettes and chairs in red, the carpets in burgundy, the furniture, antique pieces from some of the great mansions of San Francisco. The ambiance was that loud, supremely elegant in which the wealthiest nabobs of a hundred years ago might have met the grandest ladies of the night. French chefs were hired, crêpes Suzette appeared on the menu along with Chicken in Champagne, by the early 1960s, Ernie's received the first of 32 consecutive annual five-star awards from the Mobil Travel Guide. In 1958 Alfred Hitchcock's classic thriller Vertigo featured three scenes set in Ernie's.
By the 1980s, tastes in food and decor had changed, Ernie's was forced to renovate. The menu was lightened, the red silk wallpaper was replaced by yellow silk, the old bar was moved, new chefs were hired; the transformation was not successful. By 1989 the Zagat Survey was giving Ernie's, "a fading North Beach flower reincarnated as a stylish, elegant French restaurant", only 21 points out of a possible 30 for its cuisine, 22 for its decor, 21 for its service, unimpressive scores for so expensive a restaurant, it noted, that "gone are the bordello-like setting and snooty service."In 1993, with new chef Craig Thomas in the kitchen, Zagat was giving it 22 for cuisine, 25 for both decor and service. Others were less kind. "Ernie's is a parody of a fine restaurant," said the San Francisco Chronicle in 1986, "perhaps because Ernie's serves so many tourists they feel they can play-act their way through a meal. In this tricky business climate when expensive formal restaurants are fading in popularity, the owners of Ernie's would do well to reevaluate their attitude toward their customers."
Although the latter-day Ernie's launched the careers of celebrated local chefs such as Jacky Robert and Alain Rondelli, its efforts to adapt to a changing world were not enough: on September 30, 1995, Ernie's closed permanently. There are a number of minor discrepancies between the various sourced references about such details as the exact year the building was purchased, for instance, or when the interior was first redone. In Search of the Perfect Meal, by Roy Andries de Groot, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1986, ISBN 0-312-41131-6, "The Finest Regional Dish in America", pages 238–245. De Groot was a Dutch-born gourmet and bon vivant who wrote about food and drink for many years after World War II in a variety of magazines and newspapers as well as writing several books. In Search of the Perfect Meal is subtitled A Collection of the Best Food Writing of Roy Andries de Groot. Restaurants of San Francisco, by Patrica Unterman and Stan Stesser, Chronicle Books, San Francisco, 1986, ISBN 0-87701-378-0, a collection of reviews by the regular restaurant reviewers of the San Francisco Chronicle.
1989 Zagat San Francisco Bay Area Restaurant Survey, edited by Anthony Dias Blue
Istanbul's first electoral district is one of three divisions of the Istanbul electoral district for the purpose of elections to Grand National Assembly of Turkey. It elects thirty-five members of parliament to represent the district for a five-year term by the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system; the district covers the entire Anatolian side of the Istanbul Province, on the east of the Bosphorus. The first electoral district contains the following Istanbul administrative districts: Population reviews of each electoral district are conducted before each general election, which can lead to certain districts being granted a smaller or greater number of parliamentary seats. İstanbul gained 6 extra seats for the 2011 general election, thus electing 30 seats as opposed to 24 that it elected in 1999, 2002 and 2007
The Province of New Jersey was one of the Middle Colonies of Colonial America and became New Jersey, a state of the United States in 1783. The province had been settled by Europeans as part of New Netherland, but came under English rule after the surrender of Fort Amsterdam in 1664, becoming a proprietary colony; the English renamed the province after the Isle of Jersey in the English Channel. The Dutch Republic reasserted control for a brief period in 1673–1674. After that it consisted of two political divisions, East Jersey and West Jersey, until they were united as a royal colony in 1702; the original boundaries of the province were larger than the current state, extending into a part of the present state of New York, until the border was finalized in 1773. The Province of New Jersey was settled in the 1610s as part of the colony of New Netherland; the surrender of Fort Amsterdam in September 1664 gave control over the entire Mid-Atlantic region to the English as part the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
The English justified the seizure by claiming that John Cabot, an Italian under the sponsorship of the English King Henry VII, had been the first to discover the place, though it was to assert control over the profitable North Atlantic trade. Director-General of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant, relinquished control of the colony and was able in the articles of transfer to secure guarantees for property rights, laws of inheritance, freedom of religion. After the surrender Richard Nicolls took the position as deputy-governor of New Amsterdam and the rest of New Netherland, including those settlements on the west side of the North River known as Bergen, those along the Delaware River, New Sweden. See also: Lords Proprietor and Governors under the Proprietors In March 1664, King Charles II granted his brother, the Duke of York, a Royal colony that covered New Netherlands and present-day Maine; this charter included parts of present-day Massachusetts, which conflicted with that colony's charter.
The charter imposed few restrictions upon his powers. In general terms, the charter was equivalent to a conveyance of land conferring on him the right of possession and government, subject only to the limitation that the government must be consistent with the laws of England; the Duke of York exercised little direct control of it. He elected to administer his government through governors and other officers appointed by himself. No provision was made for an elected assembly. In 1664, the Duke of York gave the part of his new possessions between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to Sir George Carteret in exchange for settlement of a debt; the territory was named after the Island of Carteret's ancestral home. The other section of New Jersey was sold to Lord Berkeley of Stratton, a close friend of the Duke; as a result and Berkeley became the two English Lords Proprietors of New Jersey. The two proprietors of New Jersey attempted to attract more settlers to move to the province by granting sections of lands to settlers and by passing the Concession and Agreement, a 1665 document that granted religious freedom to all inhabitants of New Jersey.
In return for the land, the settlers were supposed to pay annual fees known as quit-rents. In 1665, Philip Carteret became the first Governor of New Jersey, appointed by the two proprietors, he selected Elizabeth as the capital of New Jersey. Carteret issued several additional grants of land to landowners. Towns were started and charters granted to Bergen Woodbridge, Shrewsbury and Newark; the idea of quitrents became difficult because many of the settlers refused to pay them. Most of them claimed that they owed nothing to the proprietors because they received land from Richard Nicolls, Governor of New York; this forced Berkeley to sell West Jersey to John Edward Byllynge, two English Quakers. Many more Quakers made their homes in New Jersey. Meanwhile, conflicts began rising in New Jersey. Edmund Andros, governor of New York, attempted to gain authority over East Jersey after the death of Proprietor George Carteret in 1680. However, he was unable to remove the position of governorship from Governor Phillip Carteret and subsequently moved to attack him and brought him to trial in New York.
Carteret was acquitted. In addition, quarrels occurred between Eastern and Western New Jerseyans, between Native Americans and New Jerseyans and between different religious groups. In the largest of these squabbles, the New York-New Jersey Line War some 210,000 acres of land were at stake between New York and New Jersey; the conflict was settled by a royal commission in 1769. See also: Governors of East Jersey and Governors of West Jersey From 1674 to 1702, the Province of New Jersey was divided into East Jersey and West Jersey, each with its own governor; each had its own constitution: the East Jersey Constitution. The exact border between West and East Jersey was disputed; the border between the two sides reached the Atlantic Ocean to the north of present-day Atlantic City. The border line was created by George Keith and can still be seen in the county boundaries between Burlington and Ocean Counties, between Hunterdon and Somerset Counties; the Keith line runs NNW from the southern part of Little Egg Har
The near field and far field are regions of the electromagnetic field around an object, such as a transmitting antenna, or the result of radiation scattering off an object. Non-radiative'near-field' behaviors dominate close to the antenna or scattering object, while electromagnetic radiation'far-field' behaviors dominate at greater distances. Far-field E and B field strength decreases inversely with distance from the source, resulting in an inverse-square law for the radiated power intensity of electromagnetic radiation. By contrast, near-field E and B strength decrease more with distance: part decreases by the inverse-distance squared, the other part by an inverse cubed law, resulting in a diminished power in the parts of the electric field by an inverse fourth-power and sixth-power, respectively; the rapid drop in power contained in the near-field ensures that effects due to the near-field vanish a few wavelengths away from the radiating part of the antenna. The far field is the region. In this region, it is dominated by magnetic fields with electric dipole characteristics.
The near field is governed by multipole type fields, which can be considered as collections of dipoles with a fixed phase relationship. The boundary between the two regions is only vaguely defined, it depends on the dominant wavelength emitted by the source and the size of the radiating element. In the far-field region of an antenna, radiated power decreases as the square of distance, absorption of the radiation does not feed back to the transmitter. However, in the near-field region, absorption of radiation does affect the load on the transmitter. Magnetic induction as seen in a transformer can be seen as a simple example of this type of near-field electromagnetic interaction. In the far-field region, each part of the EM field is "produced by" a change in the other part, the ratio of electric and magnetic field intensities is the wave impedance. However, in the near-field region, the electric and magnetic fields can exist independently of each other, one type of field can dominate the other.
In a normally-operating antenna and negative charges have no way of leaving and are separated from each other by the excitation "signal". This generates an oscillating electrical dipole, which affects both the near field and the far field. In general, the purpose of antennas is to communicate wirelessly for long distances using far fields, this is their main region of operation. Known as the radiation-zone field, the far field carries a uniform wave pattern; the radiation zone is important because far fields in general fall off in amplitude by 1∕r. This means that the total energy per unit area at a distance r is proportional to 1∕r2; the area of the sphere is proportional to r2, so the total energy passing through the sphere is constant. This means that the far-field energy escapes to infinite distance. In contrast, the near field refers to regions such as near conductors and inside polarizable media where the propagation of electromagnetic waves is interfered with. One easy-to-observe example is the change of noise levels picked up by a set of rabbit ear antennas when one places a body part in close range.
The near-field has been of increasing interest in the development of capacitive sensing technologies such as those used in the touchscreens of smart phones and tablet computers. The interaction with the medium can cause energy to deflect back to the source, as occurs in the reactive near field. Or the interaction with the medium can fail to return energy back to the source, but cause a distortion in the electromagnetic wave that deviates from that found in free space, this indicates the radiative near-field region, somewhat further away. Another intermediate region, called the transition zone, is defined on a somewhat different basis, namely antenna geometry and excitation wavelength; the separation of the electric and magnetic fields into components is mathematical, rather than physical, is based on the relative rates at which the amplitude of parts of the electric and magnetic fields diminish as distance from the radiating element increases. The amplitudes of the far-field components fall off as 1 / r, the radiative near-field amplitudes fall off as 1 / r 2, the reactive near-field amplitudes fall off as 1 / r 3.
Definitions of the regions attempt to characterize locations where the activity of the associated field components are the strongest. Mathematically, the distinction between field components is clear, but the demarcation of the spatial field regions is subjective. All of the fields overlap everywhere, so for example, there are always substantial far-field and near-field radiative components in the closest-in near-field reactive region; the regions defined below categorize field behaviors that are variable within the region of interest. Thus, the boundaries for these regions are approximate rules of thumb, as there are no precise cutoffs between them: All behavioral changes with distance are smooth changes; when precise boundaries can be defined in some cases, based on antenna type and antenna size, experts may differ in their use of nomenclature to describe the regions. Because of these nuances, special care must be taken when
Peregrine Francis Adelbert Cust, 6th Baron Brownlow known as Perry Brownlow, was a British peer and courtier. He was the son of Adelbert Salusbury Cockayne Cust, 5th Baron Brownlow, his wife Maud Buckle, he was educated at Eton, the Royal Military College, Sandhurst being commissioned into the Grenadier Guards. He fought in the First World War and left the Army in 1926 with the rank of lieutenant. In 1927 he succeeded his elder brother as 6th Baron Brownlow and to Belton House near Grantham, Lincolnshire, he was Mayor of Grantham from 1934-35. Brownlow served as Lord Lieutenant of Lincolnshire from 1936 to 1950. During the 1930s Brownlow was a close friend and equerry to the Prince of Wales, Lord-in-waiting when he became King Edward VIII; the Prince spent many weekends at Brownlow's country house, Belton House, but it is not known whether or not his future wife Mrs Wallis Simpson spent time at Belton. Upon the prince's accession to the throne, Lord Brownlow became involved in the abdication crisis which followed the new King's intention to marry Mrs Simpson.
Brownlow accompanied Mrs Simpson on her flight to France to escape the media attention, encouraged Mrs Simpson to renounce the idea of marriage to the King. Returning to England, Brownlow attempted to enlist the support of the King's mother Queen Mary, but she refused to receive him. Following the abdication, Lord Brownlow attempted to extricate himself from the former King's circle, refusing to attend the Duke of Windsor's marriage ceremony in 1937. For this Edward and his wife, now the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, regarded Brownlow as disloyal; the Duchess in particular never forgave the man who had once championed her. In 1939 he was commissioned into the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve Administrative and Special Duties Branch, he was involved in national politics when he served as Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Minister of Aircraft Production Lord Beaverbrook from 1940 to 1941. He was promoted to Flying Officer in 1941 and Flight Lieutenant in 1943 and resigned his commission in March 1944 as Acting Squadron Leader.
Lacking the Duchess of Windsor's forgiveness following the abdication of Edward VIII was one thing. Telephoning Buckingham Palace for an explanation, he was given the curt information that his resignation had been accepted – but he had never tendered it, it was made clear to him that the new King and his consort, Queen Elizabeth, had ordered that Brownlow's name was never to appear in the "Court Circular" again. Lord Brownlow married three times, he married firstly Katherine, daughter of Brigadier General Sir David Alexander Kinloch, 11th Baronet, in 1927. They had three children. After his first wife's death in 1952 he married secondly Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Sarsfield Kent Power, in 1954, she died in 1966 and Brownlow married thirdly Leila Joan, Lady Manton, widow of George Miles Watson, 2nd Baron Manton and daughter of Major Philip Guy Reynolds, in 1969. He died in July 1978, aged 79, was succeeded in his titles by his second but eldest surviving son Edward John Peregrine Cust, 7th Baron Brownlow.
The National Trust are now the owners of Belton House, his seat. William Denis Kendall mid-20th century MP for Grantham and subject of MI5 surveillance. Belton House; the National Trust. 2006. ISBN 1-84359-218-5. Thornton, Michael. Royal Feud. London: Michael Joseph Ltd. ISBN 0-330-29505-5. Photograph in the National Portrait Gallery, taken with the Duchess of Windsor