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RAF Bomber Command

RAF Bomber Command controlled the RAF's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968. Along with the United States Army Air Forces, it played the central role in the strategic bombing of Germany in World War II. From 1942 onward, the British bombing campaign against Germany became less restrictive and targeted industrial sites and the civilian manpower base essential for German war production. In total 364,514 operational sorties were flown, 1,030,500 tons of bombs were dropped and 8,325 aircraft lost in action. Bomber Command crews suffered a high casualty rate: 55,573 were killed out of a total of 125,000 aircrew, a 44.4% death rate. A further 8,403 men were wounded in action, 9,838 became prisoners of war. Bomber Command stood at the peak of its post-war military power in the 1960s, the V bombers holding the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent and a supplemental force of Canberra light bombers. In August 2006, a memorial was unveiled at Lincoln Cathedral. A memorial in Green Park in London was unveiled by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 June 2012 to highlight the price paid by the aircrews.

At the time of the formation of Bomber Command in 1936, Giulio Douhet's slogan "the bomber will always get through" was popular, figures like Stanley Baldwin cited it. Until advances in radar technology in the late 1930s, this statement was true. Attacking bombers could not be detected early enough to assemble fighters fast enough to prevent them reaching their targets; some damage might be done to the bombers by AA guns, by fighters as the bombers returned to base, but, not as effective as a proper defence. The early conception of Bomber Command was as an entity that threatened the enemy with utter destruction, thus prevented war. In 1936, Germany's increasing air power was feared by British government planners who overestimated its size and hitting power. Planners used estimates of up to 72 British deaths per tonne of bombs dropped, though this figure was grossly exaggerated; as well, the planners did not know that German bombing aircraft of the day did not have the range to reach the UK with a load of bombs and return to the mainland.

British air officers did nothing to correct these perceptions because they could see the usefulness of having a strong bombing arm. At the start of the Second World War in 1939, Bomber Command faced four problems; the first was lack of size. The second was rules of engagement; the third problem was the Command's lack of technology. The fourth problem was the limited accuracy of bombing from high level when the target could be seen by the bomb aimer; when the war began on 1 September 1939, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the neutral United States, issued an appeal to the major belligerents to confine their air raids to military targets; the French and British agreed to abide by the request, provided "that these same rules of warfare will be scrupulously observed by all of their opponents". British policy was to restrict bombing to military targets and infrastructure, such as ports and railways which were of military importance. While acknowledging that bombing Germany would cause civilian casualties, the British government renounced deliberate bombing of civilian property as a military tactic.

The British abandoned this policy at the end of the "Phoney War", or Sitzkrieg, on 15 May 1940, one day after the Rotterdam Blitz. The British government did not want to violate its agreement by attacking civilian targets outside combat zones and the French were more concerned lest Bomber Command operations provoke a German bombing attack on France. Since the Armée de l'Air had few modern fighters and no defence network comparable to the British Chain Home radar stations, this left France powerless before the threat of a German bombing attack; the final problem was lack of adequate aircraft. The Bomber Command workhorses at the start of the war, the Vickers Wellington, Armstrong Whitworth Whitley and Handley Page Hampden/Hereford, had been designed as tactical-support medium bombers and none of them had enough range or ordnance capacity for anything more than a limited strategic offensive. Bomber Command became smaller after the declaration of war. No. 1 Group, with its squadrons of Fairey Battles, left for France to form the Advanced Air Striking Force.

This action had two aims: to give the British Expeditionary Force some air-striking power and to allow the Battles to operate against German targets, since they lacked the range to do so from British airfields. The Phoney War affected the army. Bomber Command flew many operational missions and lost aircraft but it did no damage to the Germans. Most sorties either were leaflet-dropping missions. In May 1940, some of the Advanced Air Striking Force was caught on the ground by German air attacks on their airfields at the opening of the invasion of France; the remainder of the Battles proved to be horrendously vulnerable to enemy fire. Many times, Battles would set out to attack and be wiped out in the process. Due to French paranoia about being attacked by Germ

Conrad Haas

Conrad Haas was an Austrian or Transylvanian Saxon military engineer from the Kingdom of Hungary, Transylvania. He is a pioneer of rocket propulsion, his designs include a manned rocket. Haas was born in Dornbach, he held the post of the Zeugwart of the Imperial Habsburg army under Ferdinand I. In 1551, Stephen Báthory, the grand prince of Transylvania invited Haas to Hermannstadt, Eastern Hungarian Kingdom, where he acted as weapons engineer and he started to teach at Klausenburg, he wrote a German-language treatise on rocket technology, involving the combination of fireworks and weapons technologies. This manuscript was discovered in the Sibiu public records, his work dealt with the theory of motion of multi-stage rockets, different fuel mixtures using liquid fuel, introduced delta-shape fins and bell-shaped nozzles. In the last paragraph of his chapter on the military use of rockets, he wrote: "But my advice is for more peace and no war, leaving the rifles calmly in storage, so the bullet is not fired, the gunpowder is not burned or wet, so the prince keeps his money, the arsenal master his life.

Johann Schmidlap, a German fireworks maker, is believed to have experimented with staging in 1590, using a design he called "step rockets." Before discovery of Haas' manuscript, the first description of the three-stage rocket was in Poland credited to the Polish artillery specialist Kazimierz Siemienowicz in his 1650 work, Artis Magnae Artilleriae Pars Prima. "Erstlich schöne Racketten mancherley Art" Conrad Haas: Raketenpionier in Siebenbürgen Conrad Haas in: Austrian Space and Rocket Pioneers Text by B. Besser and painting by G. Deutsch "The History of Manned Space Flight" - David Baker, Ph. D. - Crown Publishers, Inc, 1982 pgs. 8 - 13 "Conrad Haas oder Das Spiel mit dem Feuer" a film by Frieder Schuller 1984 Burrows, William E.. This New Ocean: The Story of the First Space Age. ISBN 0-679-44521-8. Doru Todericiu: Preistoria Rachetei Moderne. Manuscrisul de la Sibiu 1529 - 1569, Editura Academiei RSR, Bucuresti, 1969 Doru Todericiu: Preistoria Rachetei Moderne. Manuscrisul de la Sibiu 1529 - 1569, Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 2008 Doru Todericiu,'Raketentechnik im 16.

Jahrhundert', Technikgeschichte 34.2, 97–114

Shlomo Ganzfried

Shlomo Ganzfried was an Orthodox rabbi and posek best known as the author of the work of Halakha, the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, by which title he is known. Ganzfried was born in 1804 in the Ung County of the Kingdom of Hungary, his father Joseph died. Ganzfried was considered to be a child prodigy and Ungvar's chief rabbi and Rosh yeshiva, Rabbi Zvi Hirsh Heller assumed legal guardianship. Heller moved to the city of Bonyhád, Ganzfried fifteen, followed him, he remained in Heller's yeshiva for a decade until his ordination and marriage. After his marriage he worked as a wine merchant. In 1830, he accepted the position of Rabbi of Brezovica. In 1849, he returned to Ungvar as a judge in the religious court. At that time Ungvar's spiritual head, Rabbi Meir Ash, was active in the Orthodox camp, in opposition to the Neologs. Through serving with Ash, Ganzfried realised that in order to remain committed to Orthodoxy, "the average Jew required an underpinning of a knowledge of practical halakha", it was to this end.

This work became popular, was reprinted in Hebrew and in Yiddish. This work records more stringent positions. Rabbi Ganzfried remained in the office of Dayan until his death on July 30, 1886; the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, first published in 1864, is a summary of the Shulchan Aruch of Joseph Karo with reference to commentaries. This work was explicitly written as a popular text, in simple Hebrew, does not have the same level of detail as the Shulchan Aruch itself. Kesset HaSofer, a halachic primer for scribes published in 1835. Ganzfried composed this. Pnei Shlomo, an elucidation of portions of the Talmud. Torat Zevach, a halakhic handbook for practitioners of shechita, ritual slaughter. Sefer Apiryon, a commentary on the Bible, it contains a piece on every weekly Torah portion except for Parshat Massei, the week in which his yahrzeit falls. Lechem V'simlah on the laws of Niddah. Ohalei Sheim on the official spellings as pertaining to gittin. Sheim Yosef on various sugyos in Shas. Sefer Galuy A letter written at the time of the Congress of 1869.

Rabbi Ganzfried's two million Kitzurs, Jack E. Friedman Ganzfried, What is the Kitzur Shulkhan Arukh?, Works by or about Shlomo Ganzfried at Internet Archive Works by Shlomo Ganzfried at LibriVox

Ambrose Caliver

Ambrose Caliver was an American teacher and Dean who changed the face of black education on a national scale. Dr. Caliver devoted much of his professional life to adult literacy, although he took an active role in such matters as displaced persons, human rights, public affairs and professional development of adult educators. Born 1894 in Saltsville, Caliver graduated from Austin High School in 1911, he attended Knoxville College in Tennessee and graduated with a B. A. in 1915. He married Everly Rosalie Rucker a year in 1916. After college, Caliver began teaching at numerous high schools in Tennessee and gained experience as a High School principal. By 1917 he was hired to work for the black college in Nashville, Tennessee by the name of Fisk University, where he was in charge of their new vocational education program. Being the motivated man that he was, Caliver managed to earn his M. A. from the University of Wisconsin in 1921. In 1930, he earned his Ph. D. in Education from Columbia University’s Teacher’s College.

He was the FIRST black person in the city to earn a Ph. D. and the first to earn such degree in the field of education. While at Fisk, Caliver worked a variety of positions until he was invited to be the Dean of the University in 1927. Three years Caliver was appointed to the new position of Senior Specialist in the Education of Negroes in the U. S. Office of Education by President Herbert Hoover; when F. D. R was elected President two years he kept his post and became a member of F. D. R.’s “black cabinet”. During Caliver’s time in Cabinet, he was motivated by the inequity in the education of blacks and whites and set out to raise national awareness in the rural South, he traveled furiously to document the lack of funding for public schooling. During his tenure in the U. S. Office of Education, he published numerous articles and pamphlets on current topics relating to African American education and assembled conferences and committees on these matters. A few of his most famous articles titled, “The Education of Negro Teachers” and “Secondary Education for Negroes.”

In his quest to achieve higher education for African-Americans, Ambrose Caliver created a nine part radio series, broadcast on NBC, that highlighted the history and achievements of his fellow African-Americans. The series, “Freedom Peoples”, occurred from 1941 to 1942 and was the first substantial program in mass media that focuses on the lives and history of the African-American people; the series included Inventions, which highlighted contributions by African-American inventors, Steal Away which used slave spirituality to show the capacity of African-Americans to turn hardships and pain into beauty and art, W. C. Handy, which follows the story of the beginning of the blues movement, War Work, which shows the contributions of African-Americans to World War I and World War II. Ambrose Caliver performed many duties during his tenure in the U. S. Office of Education, but the most influential work that he did was the studies he had compiled on a national scale. During his time in office he notably headed the National Survey of Teacher Education, the National Secondary Education Survey, the National Survey of the Vocational and Educational Guidance of Negroes, the National Survey of the Higher Education of Negroes.

He compiled the National Statistics of the Education of Negroes from 1933-1934 and again from 1935-1936. These works changed the face of black education on a national scale, bringing to light the common fact that there was an overwhelming lack of secondary education for African-Americans. Ambrose served as an adviser for a number of national and international projects, including the U. S. Displaced Persons Commission, he worked as the president of the Adult Education Association whose primary focus was in advancing and promoting adults to seek higher education, was the organizer of the NACEN in which he dies during his term in 1962. During the eighth conference of the Prairie view educational Conference in 1937 aimed to “do for Texas what Caliver had done for the country” The conference was the most important discussion on black higher education in Texas and cited Caliver’s 1932 study of black secondary education, along with Caliver’s study of black rural education in 1935. In 1930, Ambrose was appointed Senior Specialist in the education of Negroes in the U.

S Office of Education by President Hoover. Years he is named director of the Project for Literacy Education in. Dr. Caliver Ambrose died in 1962 in Washington, D. C, while serving out his term for the National Advisory on the Education of Negroes. "Ambrose Caliver | BlackUSA." BlackUSA. N.p. n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <>. "Caliver, Ambrose Ambrose Caliver was born in… | bigdog4542002 on Xanga." Bigdog4542002 on Xanga. N.p. n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <>. "Caliver, Ambrose | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed." | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. N.p. n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <>. "Radio Fights Jim Crow." American RadioWorks from American Public Media. N.p. n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <>. "Robert Booker: City boasts long roll of black achievers: Knoxville News Sentinel."

Knoxville News Sentinel: Local Knoxville, Tennessee News Delivered Throughout the Day.. N.p. n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <


Lodomeria is a derivative name of Vladimir, a name of the Ruthenian duchy, Volhyn a western Kievan Rus' principality founded by the Rurik dynasty in 987 centered in the region of Volhynia, straddling the borders of modern-day Poland and Belarus. The duchy of Vladimir arose in the course of the 12th century along with the duchy of Halitch; this refers to the capital. Upon the first partition of Poland in 1772, the name Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria was granted to the Polish territories that were passed to the Habsburg Monarchy, while most of Volhynia with the city of Vladimir stayed with Poland until being acquired by the Russian Empire, though the Habsburgs did receive the large city of Belz. Lodomeria together with Galicia formed one of the many titles of the Emperor of Austria, "the ruler of Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria". However, Lodomeria had no territory and could not be found on any map; the American Notes and Queries published in 1889 stated that Lodomeria was an ancient district of Poland situated in eastern portion of the country.

In 938 the Ruthenian Grand Prince Vladimir named it after himself. In 1198 the nominal title of a ruler of Lodomeria was created by one of his descendants. In 1340 King Casimir annexed Lodomeria to Poland; the name "Volhynia" is first mentioned in Ruthenian chronicles as a region inhabited by a tribe called the Volhynians, conquered by the Grand Prince of Kiev Vladimir the Great. Volhynia changed hands several times throughout the following centuries. Circa CE 1199 it was merged with the Principality of Halych, to form the Duchy of Galicia and Volhynia under Prince Roman the Great. After the death of Roman the Great in 1205, Andrew II of Hungary adopted the title of "King of Lodomeria", in reference to Volhynia. Although the Hungarians were driven out from Halych-Volhynia by 1221, Hungarian kings continued to add Galicia et Lodomeria to their official titles. In 1527, the Habsburgs inherited those titles, together with the Hungarian crown. In 1772, Empress Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, decided to use those historical claims to justify her participation in the first partition of Poland.

In fact, the territories acquired by Austria did not correspond to those of former Halych-Volhynia. Volhynia, including the city of Volodymyr-Volynskyi was taken by the Russian Empire, not Austria. On the other hand, much of Lesser Poland did become part of Austrian Galicia. Moreover, despite the fact that the claim derived from the historical Hungarian crown and Lodomeria was not assigned to Hungary, after the Ausgleich of 1867, it found itself in Cisleithania, or the Austrian-administered part of Austria-Hungary; the full official name of the new Austrian province was "Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator". After the incorporation of the Free City of Kraków in 1846, it was extended to "Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, the Grand Duchy of Kraków with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator". Therefore, from 1772 to 1918 "Lodomeria" was claimed by the Austrian monarchs, whereas Volhynia, the region the word had referred to, was part of the Russian Empire

A Wet Dream on Elm Street

A Wet Dream on Elm Street is a 2011 pornographic horror film written and directed by Lee Roy Myers and starring Sophie Dee, Gracie Glam, Giselle Leon, Tommy Pistol, Jennifer White, Chris Johnson, Charley Chase, Anthony Rosano. It is a parody of the 1984 horror film classic A Nightmare on Elm Street. After having sex with her boyfriend, a woman is shocked when he transforms into Freddy Krueger, who she mistakes for Edward James Olmos. Freddy seduces the woman with his glove, which has vibrators affixed to the fingers. At the second annual Elm Street High School reunion, three women discuss how all their classmates have mysteriously died; the sex ed professor appears and corrects them, explaining that their classmates fell into orgasm-induced "pleasure comas" while they slept. The professor theorizes it is the work of Freddy, a sex toy salesman who sold overpriced and shoddy merchandise. Angered by Freddy's defective products, the townspeople set him on fire, with the professor throwing the first match.

Freddy burnt from the waist up, as he died he swore he would get his revenge on his killers through their children. The professor is dumbfounded by the girls failing to remember this and warns them not to fall asleep. At home, Betty tries to keep herself awake by watching the porno Dead Man Fucking, but the video turns into one showing Freddy having sex with a female guard in a prison cell; when Freddy finishes with the guard he attacks Betty. At the school, Betty tells the others about her nightmare, the professor admits he once had a dream about Freddy where he saw Freddy's glove long enough to allow him to create a replica of it. Thinking the copy can help them find Freddy's weakness, the professor gives the glove to Kami. Kami masturbates into unconsciousness with the glove, is rendered comatose by Freddy. While the professor takes Kami to a hospital and Betty goes home, Denise stays behind. Hearing noises coming from her old textbook, Denise flips through the pages, sees herself and the professor having sex in them.

Denise is transported into the book, when she and the professor finish fornicating, the professor turns into Freddy, he puts Denise into a coma. Fed up with living in fear, Betty goes to sleep, confronts Freddy in her dream; the two have sex, when Freddy tries to put her into a coma afterward, Betty reveals she stole his glove's batteries. With Freddy robbed of his power, Betty wakes up, wonders if it was all just a dream, discovers her underwear is soaked through. Jennifer White as Adam's Girlfriend Chris Johnson as Adam Giselle Leon as Prison Guard Anthony Rosano as Freddy Krueger Gracie Glam as Kami Charley Chase as Denise Tommy Pistol as Professor Sophie Dee as Betty Lee Roy Myers as Sex Toy Customer Seth's Beard as Sex Toy Customer Freddy Fingers as Sex Toy Customer The film was set to be released on October 31, but was moved ahead to September 28; the cast and effects were commended by Video Junkie Strikes Back from Beyond the Grave, which wrote it "might just be the best horror porn parody to date".

Similar sentiments were expressed by the websites Scarred Stiff Reviews, The Movies Made Me Do It, Blue Screw Reviews, Nerd Reactor and Coolest Porn Reviews. Video Tramp had a lukewarm reaction to the film, beginning its review with "I found myself underwhelmed by the whole thing; this is but another in Canadian-born director Lee Roy Meyers' long resume of cheaply-made, creatively-blasé efforts." The cast was criticized by All Things Horror, which stated "If you are looking for something sexy, this movie is lacking. If you are looking for funny porn, there are a few key moments in here that I'm glad to have seen, but other parodies have done better"; the film was nominated for Best Director - Parody, Best Makeup, Best Solo Scene at the 2012 AVN Awards. A Wet Dream on Elm Street at the Adult Film Database A Wet Dream on Elm Street on IMDb Wet Dream on Elm Street at the Internet Adult Film Database